Gestalt Principles of Design -

Gestalt Principles of Design -

Gestalt Principles of Design Gestalt is a German term which means "unified whole or the sum is greater than the parts." It refers to theories of visual perception developed by German psychologists in the beginning of the twentieth century. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. Similarity The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together. Similarity is often used in You can emphasize advertising,

and can work things using the in videosofas well as printWhat are the similarities in this picture? How principle ads. many different pieces form the whole? How similarity by making an object dissimilar, this is called an anomaly. does this unity occur? What is emphasized in this image? Why? Continuity The principle of continuity predicts the preference for continuous

figures. Continuity is affected by similarity and proximity. Continuation occurs in the example to the right, because our eyes naturally follow a line or curve. The smooth flowing crossbar of the "H" leads the eye directly to the maple leaf. Even without the added gray lines in the image to the left, our eyes would naturally create the continuation of the lines the dots create. Using lines like this creates a sort of movement in the visual.

Proximity The principle of proximity states that things which are closer together will be seen as belonging together. How does this image use the Gestalt principle The squares on the left are seen as separate entities, of proximity? yet the ones on the right are seen as a unified whole because of their proximity to one another. Closure The principle of pictures closure encompasses

objects that are of incomplete How do these three use the Gestalt principle closure?or that have a space that is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole by filling in the missing information. When the viewers perception of an image completes the shape, closure occurs.

Figure-Ground The principle of figure-ground is the theory that the eye differentiates an object from its surrounding area. A form, silhouette, or shape is naturally perceived as figure (object), while the surrounding area is perceived as ground (background). Balancing figure and ground can make the perceived image more clear. Using unusual figure/ground relationships can add interest and subtlety to an image. How do the figure and ground in this image change with your perceptions of the image to the right? What other principles are at work in these two images?

Symmetry The principle of symmetry captures the idea that when we perceive objects we tend to perceive them as symmetrical shapes that form around their center, even if they are not close to each other. Most objects can be divided in two more or less symmetrical halves and when for example we see two unconnected elements that are symmetrical, we unconsciously integrate them into one coherent object. The more alike objects are, they more they tend to be grouped. When we see shapes, our minds recognize them, even if they are not in the natural shape we expect them to be in. Symmetry Balance, unity, simplicity, beauty, boredom and harmony are also often used when defining or

describing the experience of symmetry. A clear, intelligible path through the visual design (or conceptual structure of information). Document Design Uses for Gestalt resumes posters essays theses web pages manuals

text books magazine covers photographs instruction sets Gestalt Theo ry Documents These principles can be used in any medium. They are not only used as a tool for visual designers, but for many different documents.

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