By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY 1. A Two-Party Stalemate Two-Party Balance
2. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political 3. Well-Defined Voting
Blocs Democratic Republican Bloc White southerners (preservation of
white supremacy) Catholics Recent immigrants (esp. Jews) Urban working Bloc
Northern whites (pro-business) African Americans Northern Protestants Old WASPs (support
for antiimmigrant laws) 4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. From 1870-1900 Govt. did very
little domestically. Main duties of the federal govt.: Deliver the mail. Maintain a national military. Collect taxes & tariffs. Conduct a foreign policy. Exception administer the 5. The Presidency as a
Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled. Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. The President just
Senator Roscoe Conkling doled out federal jobs. 1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt. 1890 166,000
1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Sen. James G. Blaine Conkling compromise (Maine) James A. Garfield
(VP) Stalwarts Sen. Roscoe (New York) Chester A. Arthur 1880 Presidential
Election: Democrats Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop 1880 Presidential Election
1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now! Chester A. Arthur:
The Fox in the Chicken Coop? Pendleton Act (1883) Civil Service Act. The Magna Carta of civil service reform. 1883 14,000 out of
117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
Republican Reformers who wouldnt reMugwumps nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves.
Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society. The Mugwu
mps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever. Will support Cleveland in
the 1884 election. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Blaine
James A Dirty Campaign Ma, Mawheres my pa? Hes going to the White House, ha ha ha!
Little Lost Mugwump Blaine in 1884 Rum, Romanism & Rebellion! Led a delegation of ministers to Blaine
in NYC. Reference to the Democratic Party. Dr. Samuel Burchard Blaine was slow to
repudiate the remark. Narrow victory for Cleveland [he wins 1884 Presidential Election
Clevelands First Term from New The Veto Governor York. First Democratic elected since 1856. A public office is a public trust! His laissez-faire presidency: Opposed bills to assist the poor
as well as the rich. Vetoed over 200 special pension bills Bravo, Seor Clevelando! The Tariff Issue
After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! Mugwumps opposed it WHY???
President Clevelands view on tariffs???? Filing the Rough Edges Tariff of 1888 1888 Presidential
Election Grover Cleveland Harrison Benjamin Coming Out for Harrison
The Smallest Specimen Yet 1888 Presidential Election Disposing the
Surplus Changing Public Americans wanted the federal govt. to Opinion deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb
the power of the trusts: Interstate Commerce Act 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 McKinley Tariff 1890 Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism. Increased already high rates another 4%!
1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Harrison Benjamin 1892
Presidential Election Cleveland Loses The Support only President Fast! to serve two nonconsecutive terms.
Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard. Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Refused to sign the WilsonGorman Tariff of 1894.
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