GILDED Covered thinly with gold leaf or gold paint an elegant gilded birdcage The Nature of Politics 1870-1895 American politics
was poor in purpose and barren in results Henry Adams Although, 80-90% of eligible voters cast ballots! Politics was also main focus of entertainment!!!
More than baseball, vaudeville and circuses Party Allegiances Politics was personal/community activity! Loyalties to politicians and parties!
No major faction or party gained control (1877-1897) Repub. (3 terms) Dems. (2 terms) Presidency Only 6 years was there unilateral control of Congress and the Executive! The "Politics of Equilibrium" 1. A Two-Party
Stalemate Two-Party Balance 2. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political
3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Republican Bloc White southerners (preservation of white supremacy) Catholics
Protestants (support for antiimmigrant laws) Most of the middle class 4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. From 1870-1900 Govt. did very little domestically. Main duties of the federal govt.: Deliver the mail.
Maintain a national military. Collect taxes & tariffs. Conduct a foreign policy. Exception administer the annual Civil War veterans pension. 5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office Party bosses ruled. Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their
own party. The President just Senator Roscoe Conkling doled out federal jobs. 1865 53,000 people worked for the federal govt. 1890 166,000
1880 Presidential Election: Republicans Half Breeds Sen. James G. Blaine
Conkling compromise (Maine) James A. Garfield (VP) Stalwarts Sen. Roscoe (New York) Chester A. Arthur
More specifically factional feuds and personal rivalries took priority over national concerns HALF-BREEDS Were corrupt and wanted to please their party supporters, but disguised their aims
by courting support from Independents STALWARTS Party influence and government jobs for his supporters 1880 Presidential
Election 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now! Civil Service Reform
Attacking the Jackson era spoils system The practice of awarding government jobs to party workers, regardless of their qualifications. (and this was in wide practice after the civil war) What are your thoughts on how the spoils system impacted this time period? Pendleton Act (1883)
Civil Service Act. The Magna Carta of civil service reform. 1883 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. 1900 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs.
Mugwumps Native American term meaning Undisciplined Chiefs Republican Reformers
who wouldnt reMugwumps nominate Chester A. Arthur. Reform to them create a disinterested, impartial govt. run by an educated elite like themselves. Social Darwinists. Laissez faire government to them: Favoritism & the spoils system seen as govt. intervention in society.
Their target was political The Mugwu mps Men may come and men may go, but the work of reform shall go on forever.
Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Blaine James
1884 Presidential Election Clevelands First Term The Veto Governor from New York. First Democratic elected since 1856. A public office is a public trust! His laissez-faire presidency:
Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich. Vetoed over 200 special pension bills Bravo, Seor Clevelando! The Tariff Issue After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to protect new US industries.
Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! Mugwumps opposed it Tariffs became a major issue in the 1888 presidential election. Happy day Wednesday
Please have your eBook open and logged in! We will be on page 88
You will also need your yellow FIB packet. Agenda 1- John Green review of the Industrial Revolution.
2- finish Fill in the Blanks Gilded Age and Populism 3- John Green review of Gilded Age Tariff Policy Congress increase tariffs on imports
Purpose-help protect U.S. goods Criticism- special interests benefit from these tariffs Repubs. Supported tariffs Dems.- tariffs made prices artificially high? Why Wool manufactures were (protected) Small Farmers (Not protected)
Filing the Rough Edges Tariff of 1888 1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Harrison
Benjamin John Green standouts
Presidents/back in forth McKinley assassinated Electricity Populists (affordable railroad rates)Peoples Party Farmers Mark Twain-Gilded Age
Progressive movement Unions/Labor support 1888 Presidential Election Disposing the Surplus Changing Public
Opinion Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with growing soc. & eco. problems & to curb the power of the trusts: Interstate Commerce Act 1887 Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 McKinley Tariff 1890 Based on the theory that prosperity flowed directly from protectionism.
Increased already high rates another 4%! Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890 1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Harrison Benjamin
1892 Presidential Election Cleveland Loses The Support only President Fast! to serve two nonconsecutive terms. Blamed for the 1893 Panic. Defended the gold standard.
Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. Refused to sign the WilsonGorman Tariff of 1894. Repealed the Sherman Silver eBook ushistorykhhs
khhs2014 Page 88 Qs 1. How does the cartoonist illustrate the corruption of the time?
Large companies (like Carnegie steel and Rockefeller oil) had a lot of influence on the government. Qs
What do the men towering over the senators represent? The large and powerful companies. Political Challenges Corruption plagues Government
Political cartoon (next slide) Graft (bribery) Tariffs, Civil Service and Monetary Policy Pendleton Act- required to take and exam to work in government Given a job based on performance, rather than who they know! THE RISE OF POPULISM How ya gonna to keep Em down on the farm?
Populism--- here is a trick I use. Some farmers grow corn Corn can be turned into Popcorn
Populism=farmers needs during the Gilded Age Reason for Populism
Increased industrialization Railroads, Manufacturing, and banking belonged to large companies Farmers used more machines Production increased Machines cost $ Prices begin to drop (supply and demand) Reasons for Populism
1867 211M bushels of Wheat @ $2 per bushel 1868 - 246 M bushels of Wheat @ $1.46 per bushel
1869 $0.91 per bushel Other crops that declined in price - Cotton - Corn (1889 $0.10 per bushel) Farmers begin to burn corn for fuel Who was the cause of the problem?
RailroadsFarmers needed railroads The railroads were a monopoly High charges Large shippers got rebates No help to the small farmer Who was the cause of the problem?
BanksForeclosed on farms The Gold Standard limited the amount of $ in circulation (caused high interest) Property taxes on farmers Farmers Response
THE GRANGE MOVEMENT Refers to an association of farmers founded in the US 1867. 1875- 20,000 local branches 1 million members Worked to pass pro-farmer legislation and instituted the movement to allow farmers to pool money, machinery, supplies, and
insurance. THE GRANGE MOVEMENT PurposeIt was only a social organization at its beginnings Help ease loneliness of farm life Later- turns into economic and political action THE GRANGE MOVEMENT
Political and Economic Goalsform local cooperatives Help buy equipment and supplies Sales cooperatives (pool products and divide the profits) Attracted attention of politicians Pressed for laws to regulate transportation and storage rates
Populist Party Platform founded in St. Louis, Missouri in 1892 Increase money supply (supported silver
coinage) Graduated income tax Federal loan program for farmers Election of U.S. Senators by popular vote 8 hour work day Restrict immigration Government ownership of railroads Crash Course break
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