Introduction to Spatial Information Technologies in the Earth Sciences OR What is GIS/RS and what can it do for me? OR Why is Miles on the faculty in this College? Miles Logsdon [email protected] http://faculty.washington.edu/~mlog Or http://sal.ocean.washington.edu/people Our agenda today What are spatial information technologies? What is the difference between GIS, Spatial Analysis, and Spatial Data Analysis? What is the difference between a Spatial model and a Spatial Explicit Model What is a theoretical basis for the application

of GIS and spatial data analysis in Ecological Studies? What research methods or tools directly apply between the two fields? My agenda Show you pretty pictures Talk about myself Justify our time together Stop talking - Sooner or later Spatial Information Technologies

GIS - GPS Remote Sensing Spatial Information Technologies Geographic Information Systems GIS Global Positioning System GPS Remote Sensing and Image Processing - RS Technologies to help answer: What is here? give a position What is next to this? given some description Where are all of the ??? detecting or finding What is the spatial pattern of ???

When X occurs here, does Y also occur? GIS Geographic Information System GIS - A system of hardware, software, data, people, organizations and institutional arrangements for collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating information about areas of the earth. (Dueker and Kjerne 1989, pp. 7-8) GIS - The organized activity by which people Measure aspects of geographic phenomena and processes; Represent these measurements, usually in a computer database; Operate upon these representations; and Transform these representations. (Adapted from Chrisman, 1997) A KEY POINT: Geo-referenced Data Suggested Reading Chrisman, Nicholas, 1997, Exploring Geographic Information Systems,

John Wiley & Sons, Burrough, P. A., 1986, Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment, Monographs on Soil and Resources Servey #12, Oxford Science Publications Miller, Roberta Balstad, 1996, "Information Technology for Public Policy", in GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues, editors, Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, GIS World Books. Goodchild, Michael F., "The Spatial Data Infrastructure of Environmental Modeling", in GIS and Environmental Modeling: (see above).

Faber, G. Brenda, William W. Wallace, Raymond M. P. Miller, "Collaborative Modeling for Environmental Decision Making", proceedings of the GIS'96 Tenth Annual Symposium on Geographic Information Systems, Vancouver, B.C., March 1996. The larger context (Chrisman, 1997) POINT 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

AREA Concept of Spatial Objects Raster Data Encoding LINE POINTS LINES AREA 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 Vector Data Encoding 5 5 3 1 3 3 1 1 2 Vector - Topology Data Relationships are invariant to translation and rotation Vector Topology Descriptive Spatial Object

VAR1 VAR2 1 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 x1,y1 x2,y2 x3,y3 Fnode Tnode x1y1, x2y2 1

2 xxyy, xxyy 2 3 xxyy,xxyy 1 2 3 VAR1 VAR2 1 2 2 1 VAR1 VAR2 2

3 1 124 15 10 5 11 1 2 10, 11, 12, 15 10, . 1 2

Map Algebra Raster topology In a raster GIS, cartographic modeling is also named Map Algebra. Mathematical combinations of raster layers several types of functions: Local functions do not consult the 8 neighbors Focal functions function on the kernel of neighboring cells Zonal functions function on cells that test true in a different layer Global functions based upon the distribution of all cells Focal Function: Examples Focal Sum (sum all values in a neighborhood) 2

0 1 1 (3x3) 2 3 0 4 = 2

1 1 2 2 3 3 2 16 13 17 19 Focal Mean (moving average all values in a neighborhood) 2

0 1 1 2 3 0 4 4 2 2

3 1 1 3 2 (3x3) = 1.8 1.3 1.5 1.5 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.5 Spatial Data Analysis

The accurate description of data related to a process operating in space, the exploration of patterns and relationships in such data, and the search for explanation of such patterns and relationships Spatial Analysis vs. Spatial Data Analysis Spatial Analysis = what is here, and where are all the Xs ??? Spatial Data Analysis = observation data for a process operating in space and methods are used to describe or explain the behavior, and/or relationship with other phenomena. GPS Finding The precise location is distance by determined by the intersection of 4 spheres of time measuring time GPS SV

u A B X 4:00 p.m. >> Receiver: Satellite: << 7/100 of a second after 4:00 GJKETYUOWVWTDHK G J K E T Y U O W ... Satellite Remote Sensing June 27, 2001

SeaWifs, April 24, 1999 A zonal function between 3 raster layers Thanks to Seelye Martion PATTERN: (Landscape Ecology) Structure = the spatial relationships among the distinctive ecosystems or elements Function = the interactions among the spatial elements Change = the alteration in the structure and function of the ecological mosaic over time Landscape Structure Physiognomy / Pattern Composition = The presence and amount of

each element type without spatially explicit measures. Proportion, richness, evenness, diversity Configuration = The physical distribution in space and spatial character of elements. Isolation, placement, adjacency ** some metrics do both ** Types of Metrics Area Metrics

Patch Density, Size and Variability Edge Metrics Shape Metrics Core Area Metrics Nearest-Neighbor Metrics Diversity Metrics Contagion and Interspersion Metrics Structured Process in Geostatistics Represent the Data Explore the Data Fit a Model Perform Diagnostics Compare the Models D

Introduction to Geostatistics Z(s) D is the spatial domain or area of interest s contains the spatial coordinates Z is a value located at the spatial coordinates {Z(s): s D} Geostatistics: Z random; D fixed, infinite, continuous Lattice Models: Z random; D fixed, finite, (ir)regular grid Point Patterns: Z 1; D random, finite

Merge Bathymetry & Topography Thanks to David Finlayson Puget Sound DEM: Resolving Coast Geomorphology June, 1981 Classified land surface response Dec. 1998 Ocean Remote Sensing: SeaWifs, 1999, 1km monthly mean chlorophyll-a estimates Apr

Jul May Aug Our collection Pacific Northeast, Apr Sep, 1999 - 2002 Jun Sep Flyin g