GOOD TO GREAT BY JIM COLLINS CHAPTER 1 TEAM 2 CAITLIN CLARK STEPHEN MASSIMI WILL MAYRATH MATT VATANKHAH KATIE TREVINO G OOD IS THE ENEMY OF THE GREA Overview While presenting his first book, Bill Meehan, the managing director of the San Francisco
office of McKinsey & Company, told Jim Collins, You know, Jim, we love Built to Last around here. You and your coauthor did a very fine job on the research and writing. Unfortunately, its useless. This was the spark of curiosity that began five years of research and resulted in Good to Great. Overview, continued The five-year research effort yielded many insights, but one conclusion stands out above the others Most any organization can substantially improve its stature and performance, perhaps even become great, if it
conscientiously applies the framework of ideas weve uncovered Phase 1: The Search First task was to find companies that showed the good-to-great pattern (Table 1) Launched a six-month death march of financial analysis, looking for companies that showed the following basic pattern: Fifteen-year cumulative stock returns at or below the general stock market, punctuated by a transition point, then cumulative returns at least three times the market over the next fifteen years Phase 1: The Search, continued Company Results from Transition
Point to 15 Years beyond Transition Point* T Year to T Year + 15 Abbot 3.98 times the market 1974 1989 Circuit City 18.50 times the market 1982 1997 Fannie Mae 7.56 times the market
1984 - 1999 Gillette 7.39 times the market 1980 - 1995 Kimberly-Clark 3.42 times the market 1972 1987 Kroger 4.17 times the market 1973 1988 Nucor
5.16 times the market 1975 1990 Philip Morris 7.06 times the market 1964 1979 Pitney Bowes 7.16 times the market 1973 1988 Walgreens 7.34 times the market 1975 1990
Wells Fargo 3.99 times the market 1983 1998 *Ratio of cumulative stock returns relative to the general stock market Phase 1: The Search, continued Criteria for Selection as a Good-to-Great Company Company shows a pattern of good performance punctuated by a transition point, after which it shifts to great performance Good-to-great shift must be a company shift, not an industry event At the transition point, the company must have been an established, ongoing company, not a start-up
Phase 1: The Search, continued Criteria for Selection as a Good-to-Great Company, continued The transition point had to occur before 1985 so that there would be enough data to assess the sustainability of the transition Whatever the year of transition, the company still had to be a significant, ongoing, stand-alone company at the time of selection At the time of selection, the company should still show an upward trend Phase 1: The Search, continued The Good-to-Great Screening and Selection Process Cut 1: From the Universe of Companies to 1,435
Companies Selected from the Fortune 500, 1965 1995 Cut 2: From 1,435 Companies to 126 Companies Selected into full CRSP data pattern analysis Cut 3: From 126 Companies to 19 Companies Selected into Industry Analysis Cut 4: From 19 Companies to 11 Good-to-Great Companies Selected into Good-to-Great Set Phase 2: Compared to What? Two types of comparison companies Direct comparisons Companies that were in the same industry as the good-to-great opportunities and similar resources at the time of transition, but showed no leap from good
to great Unsustained comparisons Companies that made a short-term shift from good to great but failed to maintain the trajectory Intended to address the question of sustainability Comparisons are displayed in Appendix 1.C, page 234 Phase 2: Compared to What, continued Direct Comparisons Purpose of direct comparison analysis is to create as close to a historical controlled experiment as possible Helped in identifying distinguishing variables that account for the transition from good to great Performed a systematic and methodical
collection and scoring of all obvious comparison candidates for each good-to-great company Phase 2: Compared to What?, continued Direct Comparison Criteria Business Fit At the time of transition, the comparison candidate had similar products and services as the good-togreat company Size Fit At the time of transition, the comparison candidate was the same basic size as the good-to-great company Age Fit The comparison candidate was founded in the same era as the good-to-great company Phase 2: Compared to What?,
continued Direct Comparison Criteria, continued Stock Chart Fit The cumulative stock returns to market chart of the comparison candidate roughly tracks the pattern of the goodto-great company until the point of transition Conservative Test At the time of transition, the comparison candidate was more successful than the good-to-great company Face Validity Takes into account two factors Comparison candidate is in a similar line of business at the time of selection Comparison candidate is less successful than the good-to-great company at the time of selection Phase 2: Compared to What?, continued
Direct Comparison Scoring Scored each comparison candidate on each of the six criteria on a scale of 1 to 4: 4 = comparison candidate fits the criteria extremely wellthere are no issues or qualifiers 3 = comparison candidate fits the criteria reasonably wellthere are minor issues or qualifiers 2 = comparison candidate fits the criteria poorly there are major issues and concerns 1 = comparison candidate fails the criteria Phase 2: Compared to What?, continued The Entire Study Set Good-to-Great Companies
Comparison Companies Abbot Upjohn Circuit City Silo Fannie Mae Great Western Gillette Warner-Lambert Kimberly-Clark Scott Paper
Bank of America Unsustained Companies Burroughs Chrysler Harris Hasbro Rubbermaid Teledyne Phase 3: Inside the Black Box Research Phase Systematically coded all materials into categories, conducted interviews, and initiated a wide range of analyses
Project began with the goal of building a theory from the ground up Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued In the study, what they didnt find turned out to be some of the best clues to the inner workings of good to great Good Results Whats Inside the BLACK BOX? Great Results
Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Company Coding Documents Collected All major articles published on the company over its entire history Materials obtained directly from companies Books written about the industry, company, and/or its leaders Business school case studies and industry analyses Business and industry reference materials Annual reports, proxy statements, analyst reports, and any other materials available on the company, especially during the transition era Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Coding System Categories
Category 1: Organizing Arrangements Category 2: Social Factors Category 3: Business Strategy, Strategic Processes Category 4: Markets, Competitors, and Environment Category 5: Leadership Category 6: Products and Services Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Coding System Categories, continued Category 7: Physical Setting and Location Category 8: Use of Technology Category 9: Vision: Core Values, Purpose, and BHAGs Category 10 A: Change/Transition Activities during Transition Era
of Corresponding Good-to-Great Company (Direct Comparisons Only) B: Attempted Transition Era (Unsustained Comparisons Only) Category 11: Posttransition Decline (Unsustained Comparisons Only) Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Other Research Elements Financial Spreadsheet Analysis Examined all financial variables for 980 combined years of data (35 years on average per company) Comprised gathering raw income and balance sheet data and examining variables in both the preand posttransition decades Executive Interviews Conducted interviews of senior management and
board members, focusing on those in office during the transition era Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Special Analysis Units Acquisitions and Divestitures Sought to understand the role of acquisitions and divestments in the transition from good to great Industry Performance Analysis Looked at the performance of the companies versus the performance of the industries Executive Churn Analysis Looked at the extent to which the executive teams changed during the crucial points in companies histories CEO Analysis Performed a qualitative examination of each set of CEOs during the transition eras in all three sets of companies
Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Special Analysis Units, continued Executive Compensation Examined across the twenty-eight companies studied, from ten years before the transition point to 1998 Role of Layoffs Sought to examine all companies for evidence of layoffs as a conscious tactic to improve company performance Corporate Ownership Analysis Aimed to determine if there were any significant differences between companies Media Hype Analysis Looked at the degree of media hype surrounding the companies Technology Analysis Examined the role of technology, drawing largely upon executive
interviews and written source materials Phase 3: Inside the Black Box, continued Comparative Analysis Frameworks Performed throughout the research effort While less detailed than the other portions of the research effort, all were derived directly from research evidence Included topics such as The use of bold corporate moves Executive class versus egalitarianism Three-circle analysis and fit with core values and purpose Phase 4: Chaos to Concept
Every primary concept in the final framework showed up as a change variable in 100 percent of the good-togreat companies and in less than 30 percent of the comparison companies during the pivotal years The Flywheel captures the gestalt of the entire process of going from good to great Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued BUILDUP BR O R
H T ! K H EA UG LEVEL 5 FIRST WHO.. CONFRONT HEDGEHO LEADERSHI THEN WHAT THE BRUTAL G P DISCIPLINED FACTS DISCIPLINED CONCEPT PEOPLE THOUGHT FLYWHEEL
CULTURE TECHNOLOGY OF ACCELERATOR DISCIPLINE DISCIPLINED S ACTION Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued The FlywheelDisciplined People Level 5 Leadership Good-to-great leaders are self-effacing, reserved, even shya paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will First WhoThen What Good-to-great leaders first got the right people on the bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right
people in the right seats Then they figured out where to drive it People are not your most important asset. The right people are. Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued The FlywheelDisciplined Thought Confront the Brutal Facts (Yet Never Lose Faith) Every good-to-great company embraced what came to be called the Stockdale Paradox Must maintain unwavering faith that you can and will prevail in the end, regardless of the difficulties, AND at the same time have the discipline to confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be The Hedgehog Concept (Simplicity within the Three
Circles) To go from good to great requires transcending the curse of competence If you cannot be the best in the world at your core business, then your core business absolutely cannot form the basis of a great company It must be replaced with a simple concept that reflects deep understanding of three intersecting circles Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued The FlywheelDisciplined Action A Culture of Discipline When you have disciplined people, you dont need hierarchy When you have disciplined thought, you dont need bureaucracy When you have disciplined action, you dont
need excessive controls When you combine a culture of discipline with an ethic of entrepreneurship, you get the alchemy of great performance Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued The FlywheelDisciplined Action, Continued Technology Accelerators Good-to-great companies think differently about the role of technology They never use technology as the primary means of igniting a transformation Paradoxically, they are pioneers in the application of carefully selected technologies
Technology by itself is never a primary, root cause of either greatness or decline Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued The Flywheel and the Doom Loop Those who launch revolutions, dramatic change programs, and wrenching restructurings will almost certainly fail to make the leap from good to great Good-to-great transformations never happened in one fell swoop Rather, the process resembled relentlessly pushing a giant heavy flywheel in one direction, building momentum until a point of breakthrough
Phase 4: Chaos to Concept, continued From Good to Great to Built to Last Built to Last is about how you take a company with great results and turn it into an enduring great company of iconic stature To make that shift requires core values and a purpose beyond just making money combined with the key dynamic of preserve the core / stimulate progress Good to Great Concepts Sustained Great Results
Built to Last Concepts Enduring Great Company The Timeless Physics of Good to Great This book is ultimately about one thing: The timeless principles of good to great Its about how you take a good organization of any type and turn it into one that produces sustained great results, using whatever definition of results best applies to your organization
That good is the enemy of great is not just a business problemit is a human problem If we have cracked the code on the question of good to great, we should have something of value to any type of organization
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