Governments of India, China, and Japan

Governments of India, China, and Japan

Governments of India, China, and Japan Chart time in the Rose Classroom India is a federal republic and uses a parliamentary system. The central government has more power over states. The government has free main branches. The executive branch consists of the president who is the chief of state, the prime minister who is the head of the government, and the Council of Ministers who make up the cabinet. The legislative branch is a bicameral parliament, so it has two law-making groups: Rajya Sabha or Council of States, and the Lok Sabha, or House of the People. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court which has a chief justice along with 25 other judges. The prime minister advises the president regarding which judges to appoint. The presidents duties are mostly ceremonial, but the president appoints the prime minister who has been determined by the parliamentary majority in the House of the People. The Council of

Ministers must answer to the House of the People. India has many political parties. The biggest ones are Bharatiya Janata Party, the Indian National Congress, and the Janata Del (United party). Indians 18 and older can vote. People join political parties based on their religion, caste, and language. Most of the population lives in villages, so some states are trying to bring back traditional village councils called panchayats, to encourage more people to participate in Indias democracy. Chinas Communist party leads the nation. Under Chinas constitution, the highest organ of state power is the National Peoples Congress (NPC). China has three branches of government. The executive branch includes a president (head of state), vice president, State Council, and premier (head of government). The legislative branch is unicameral, consisting of the National Peoples Congress (NPC). The judicial branch includes the Supreme Peoples Court. The NPC meets for two weeks every year. The State Council presents new policies, laws, budgets, and personnel changes to the NPC. The NPC can debate anything that is presented to them. These meetings are not open to the public. The BPC can make

changes to what the State Council has recommended. The Standing Committee carries out state power when the NPC is not meeting for its two week session. The largest political party is the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) with as many as 70 million members. Eight minor political parties operate under Communist supervision. The CCP is highly authoritarian, meaning it completely controls the Chinese government. The CCP sets policies that the government must enforce. However, the CCP has some checks on its control. China is a large country with a massive population that the government must get to agree with their policies. This poses problems for the CCP. The population is also diverse with many ethnic minorities. The CCP must work throughout all levels of society, including the government, in the economy, and in cultural institutions to make sure that non-Communist organizations do not challenge Communist rule. Communist rule is strongest in urban areas, but most of the people live in rural areas, where Communist control is less dominant. Men and women 18 and older can vote. Throughout history, the Chinese people have united to overthrow corrupt governments. Starting in the spring of 1989, college students, intellectuals, and others in Chinas major cities started demonstrating in the state capital for more freedom to be guaranteed in their constitution. They also called for an end to government corruption.

Japan has a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. The government has three branches. The executive branch includes a cabinet made up of the prime minister (head of government) and ministers of state who are all civilians. A civilian is a person who is not a member of the military of a country. Ministers are appointed or removed by the prime minister. The prime minister is chosen by his colleagues in the Diet, the countrys parliament. The legislative branch is the bicameral Diet, which includes the House of Representatives and House of Councilors. The judicial branch is a civil law system based on the model of Roman law. It is independent from the other two branches. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority. In Japan, people can vote at age 20 and above. Secret ballots are used to elect people to office. The Japanese people are in control of their nations sovereignty, but Japan still has an emperor, who is the symbol of the state. He is basically a figurehead without much official power. Japan has 47 prefectures, or government districts. Political

leaders of prefectures are elected by popular vote for four year terms. Most prefectures get support from Japans central government. They are not sovereign states in the way that states in the United States are. Literacy Rates and Development Indias literacy rate is approximately 65%; Chinas literacy rate is 91%; and Japans literacy rate is 99%. The countries listed here with the highest literacy rates Japan and China are more developed than the countries with lower literacy rates. Places with higher literacy rates advance quicker in the sciences. This helps a nation become more successful. Countries with higher literacy rates also have lower rates of unemployment.

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