Grammar Notes and Mini-Lessons

Grammar Notes and Mini-Lessons

Grammar Notes and MiniLessons Mr. Beckett Warm-up Complete Exercise A, #1-5 on page 264. Just write down words that need to be capitalized. Common Nouns vs. PROPER NOUNS Common Nouns: any one of a

group of persons, places, things, or ideas. Proper Nouns: a particular person, place, thing, or idea. Capitalization: Common vs. Proper Nouns Common Nouns: DO NOT Capitalize Proper Nouns:

CAPITALIZE river president street school college/ university state Allegheny River President Obama Division Street

Woodland Hills High School University of Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Snoopy You DO NOT need to capitalize the following: Short prepositions of less than five letters in, on, with, to

Coordinating conjunctions and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet Articles a, an, the Capitalization: Initials and Abbreviations Capitalize initials in names and abbreviations that come before OR after names. Examples:

J.D. Rockefeller Dr. Suzi Cohen Louis J. Halle Sr. Garcia Practice Complete #1-10 on Exercise 1, pages 268-269. Write down words that need to be capitalized or need to be made lower case. Three sentences are correct.

Day Two Practice Warm up: Complete Ex. A, #6-10, pgs. 264-265. Practice: Complete Ex. 1, #6-10, pg. 269. (Two sentences are correct) North, South, East, West? DO NOT capitalize direction

I am going to head south at the river. Its just north of Pittsburgh. As soon as you see the gas station, go east on Route 10. CAPITALIZE Specific

Regions Im from the South People from the North scare me. The East Coast beaches are better than the West Coast beaches. We get a lot of oil

from the Middle East. Special Events, Holidays, and Calendar Items Capitalize the following: Special Events: the Boston Marathon the All-Star Game the Iowa State Fair Holidays: Valentines Day Earth Day

Calendar Items: Friday March Do not capitalize seasons. Practice Exercise 2, page 272, #1-10. One sentence is correct. Apostrophes

The possessive case of a noun shows ownership, or possession. To form the possessive case of most singular nouns, add an apostrophe and an s. Examples: the mayors desk the evenings paper the buss wheel Steves problem

Apostrophes (cont.) For a singular common noun ending in s, add both an apostrophe and an s if the added s is pronounced as a separate syllable. Examples: The actresss costumes The classs teacher The dresss sleeves The platypuss tail

Apostrophes (cont.) To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s, add only an apostrophe: Examples: Two birds feathers The Garzas patio All three cousins vacation The Girl Scouts uniforms Apostrophes (cont.) For a name or noun ending in s,

add only an apostrophe if the name has two or more syllables and does not sound awkward. Examples: Mrs. Rawlings car Texas governor the species characteristics Practice: Day One Complete Review A, pgs. 359-360.

#1-10. Write down the words that need apostrophes with the apostrophe in the right place. Warm up Practice Review B, pg. 360-61, do #s 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10. Also, one sentence is correct Possessive Pronouns You DO NOT need an

apostrophe with the following possessive pronouns: Singular Plural my, mine our, ours your, yours your, yours his, her, hers, its their, theirs

Practice Complete Exercise 3, pgs. 362-363, #1-10. Contractions The apostrophes in contractions show letters, words, or numerals Contractions have beenCommon

left out: Who is..whos she will.shell There istheres I amIm Could have..couldve 1999..99 Of the clockoclock

you are..youre we had..wed she has.shes Let us..lets Lisa isLisas I wouldId Is not.isnt Cannotcant

will not..wont Practice Review C, pg. 363, #1-10. Review C, pg. 363 #11-20 Plurals Use an apostrophe and an s to form the plurals of numerals, symbols, all lowercase letters, some uppercase letters, and some words referred to as

words. Examples: Most cursive us and Us look similar. I used too many sos in my paper. Practice Review D, pg. 364, #1- 10.

CHOMP CHOMP Grammar Practice In Google, type in Chomp Chomp Grammar Click on the link to the site Scroll down to and click on Exercises Scroll down to Apostrophes, and click on Interactive Exercise One Complete the exercise.

Titles: Quotations or Underline? Place quotations around shorter works (): Examples: Articles Essays Short Stories Poems Songs Episodes of TV Series

Chapters and Other Parts of Books or Periodicals Titles (cont.) Underline or italicize longer works Examples: Books/Novels Periodicals (Magazines, Newspapers, etc.) Long Poems Plays Films/Movies Television Series

Long Musical Works and Recordings Works of Art Ships/Boats Trains Aircraft and Spacecraft Practice with Titles: Write down the titles and either underline them or place quotes around them. 1. Have you ever read Money Hungry, the novel by Sharon Flake? 2. The fifth episode in the TV series

The African Americans is titled The Harlem Renaissance. 3. The Idea of Ancestry is a great poem from Etheridge Knights poetry collection Poems from Prison. Practice with Titles: Write down the titles and either underline them or place quotes around them. 1. Have you ever read Money Hungry, the novel by Sharon Flake? 2. The fifth episode in the TV series

The African Americans is titled The Harlem Renaissance. 3. The Idea of Ancestry is a great poem from Etheridge Knights poetry collection Poems from Prison. Practice with Titles: Write down the titles and either underline them or place quotes around them. 4. My father always swore by Newsweek, but my mother always preferred U.S. News & World Report.

5. The space shuttle The Challenger exploded 73 seconds after its launch, and it was replaced by the space shuttle Endeavour in 1992. 6. I read an article about the movies The Incredible Hulk and Spiderman Practice with Titles: Write down the titles and either underline them or place quotes around them. 4. My father always swore by the magazine Newsweek, but my

mother always preferred U.S. News & World Report. 5. The space shuttle The Challenger exploded 73 seconds after its launch, and it was replaced by the space shuttle Endeavour in 1992. 6. I read an article about the movies titles and either underline them or plac quotes around them. 7. My all-time favorite poems by Robert Frost are The Road Not Taken and Nothing Gold Can Stay, the last of which

is featured in the movie based on S.E. Hintons novel The Outsiders. 8. One of my favorite TV shows, Disaster Chronicles, ran an episode called Volcanoes in Italy 9. We went to see Andy Warhols famous work of art, Skulls, then we went to see the play Our Town. titles and either underline them or plac quotes around them. 7. My all-time favorite poems by Robert Frost are The Road Not Taken and

Nothing Gold Can Stay, the last of which is featured in the movie based on S.E. Hintons novel The Outsiders. 8. One of my favorite TV shows, Disaster Chronicles, ran an episode called Volcanoes in Italy. 9. We went to see Andy Warhols famous work of art, Skulls, then we went to see the play Our Town. Titles review In this months Entertainment

magazine, I read the article Summer Box Office: 10 Winners and 10 Losers, which discusses the summer films Iron Man 3, Fast & Furious 6, Smurfs 2, and White House Down. Entertainment, Summer Box Office: 10 Winners and 10 More Titles Practice 1. This year, well probably read To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.

2. The article from the Pittsburgh Post Gazette was entitled One Dies in Wilkinsburg House Fire. 3. The Ballad of the Landlord and Cross are two very good poems by Langston Hughes. 4. Homer the Father is a great episode of the series The More Titles Practice 1. This year, well probably read To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee.

2. The article from the Pittsburgh Post Gazette was entitled One Dies in Wilkinsburg House Fire. 3. The Ballad of the Landlord and Cross are two very good poems by Langston Hughes. 4. Homer the Father is a great episode of the series The More Titles Practice 5. One of the most famous ships in

history is the Titanic, but many dont realize that the Lusitania is also very famous. 6. The best songs off of Ice Cubes famous album The Predator are Wicked, Check Yo Self, and It Was a Good Day. 7. In history class, we watched the documentary movie on Charles Lindbergh called Lucky: The Story of More Titles Practice

5. One of the most famous ships in history is the Titanic, but many dont realize that the Lusitania is also very famous. 6. The best songs off of Ice Cubes famous album The Predator are Wicked, Check Yo Self, and It Was a Good Day. 7. In history class, we watched the documentary movie on Charles Lindbergh called Lucky: The Story of

More Titles Practice 8. Some of the most famous paintings ever created were Mona Lisa, The Starry Night, and the Scream, but unfortunately none of these are displayed in Pittsburgh at the Andy Warhol Museum or the Carnegie Museum of Art. 9. Steve Craftons famous essay, Shakespeares Finest, discusses William Shakespeares three famous plays Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and

Othello. More Titles Practice 8. Some of the most famous paintings ever created were Mona Lisa, The Starry Night, and the Scream, but unfortunately none of these are displayed in Pittsburgh at the Andy Warhol Museum or the Carnegie Museum of Art. 9. Steve Craftons famous essay, Shakespeares Finest, discusses

William Shakespeares three famous plays Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and Othello. Test Review: Capitalization 1. I wouldnt mind moving to washington d.c., but I really want to move somewhere very far south of pittsburgh, pa. 2. Again, georgetown university is tempting, but i might be more happy in the south with a

warmer climate. 3. Ideally, I would like to move to a university that is close to the Test Review: Capitalization 1. Washington D.C., Pittsburgh, PA 2. Georgetown University, I, South 3. Atlantic Ocean, University of Miami, Florida University

Test Review: Capitalization (cont.) 4. No matter what I decide for a school for this fall, I better at least get out of allegheny county and head north, south, east, or west. 5. Regardless of where I go, my parents want me to get a degree that would give me the title of an m.d. like dr. smith, our family friend.

Test Review: Capitalization (cont.) 4. Allegheny County 5. M.D., Dr. Smith 6. Valentines Day, Easter, Memorial Day Test Review: Apostrophes 1. The armys supplies were cut off at dawn. All the soldiers faces

showed despair at hearing the news. 2. The soldiers just completed five days worth of fighting. General Smiths pride in them could not be any stronger. 3. The leaders pride, though, nor Test Review: Apostrophes 1. armys, soldiers 2. days ,Smiths 3. Leaders, Clarks,

soldiers Test Review: Apostrophes (cont.) 4. Dont take your time getting to class, for goodness sake! Hurry, because you cant miss any material if you want to get As and not Bs or Cs! 5. Whose turn is it? I know its not mine and I know youve already taken your turn.

6. The actresses dressing room was so full that they had to take some of their clothes to the towns thrift Test Review: Apostrophes (cont.) 4. Dont, goodness, cant, As,Bs, Cs 5. its, youve 6. actresses , towns, stores, childrens

Test Review: Titles 1. Oswald Rivers novel Fire and Rain and Tim OBriens short story Ambush are about the Vietnam War. 2. Out of their list of 500 greatest songs, Rolling Stone picks Otis Reddings song Respect and Bob Dylans song Like a Rolling Stone in

Test Review: Titles 1.Fire and Rain, Ambush 2.Rolling Stone,Respect, Like a Rolling Stone 3.The Walking Dead , Infected Test Review: Titles (cont.) 4. We went to the New York

Museum of Art to see the famous paintings Guernica by Picasso and Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. 5. They have made a movie about the Apollo 13 space shuttle trip. It starred Tom Test Review: Titles (cont.) 4. Guernica, Mona Lisa 5. Apollo 13, Captain Frank

Subject/Verb Agreement Common Problems with Sentences He think we should spend more time on grammar. They goes to whatever school they wants to. The coach in charge of the players look angry. Each of the players want to

go to college. Singular vs. Plural Singular: a word that refers to one person, place, thing, or idea. Plural: a word that refers to child I thief herself Singul video

more than one ar Plural videos children we thieves themselv

es Practice Exercise 1, pg. 110, #s 1-20. Write s if it is singular and p if it is plural Subjects and verbs Singular subjects take singular verbs.

s v Jake attends college. s v That boy delivers newspapers. Plural subjects take plural verbs. s v

They attend college. s v Helping verbs The first helping verb agrees in number with the subject. Jake is attending college. They are attending college. A boy in my class has been delivering newspapers.

Two boys in my class have been delivering newspapers. Practice Exercise 2, pg. 111, #1-19. Write down the correct verb you would use. Subject Verb Agreement (cont.) The number of a subject usually IS

NOT determined by a word in a phrase or clause that follows the subject. s clause v A book of poems is on the shelf. s clause v The dinosaurs from the Jurassic Period include the Seismosaurus. Practice

Exercise 3, pg. 112, #1-10. Write down the subject and the correct verb (see the example). Write down the subject and verb 1. Each of the girls (brings/bring) 2. 3. 4.

5. her own music. Neither of the workmen (takes/take) safety precautions. Both of the sisters (takes/take) Karate classes. Few of the animals willingly (leaves/leave) their natural habitat. One of the parakeets always Write down the subject and

verb 1. Each of the girls (brings/bring) 2. 3. 4. 5. her own music. Neither of the workmen (takes/take) safety precautions. Both of the sisters (takes/take) Karate classes.

Few of the animals willingly (leaves/leave) their natural habitat. One of the parakeets always Write down the subject and verb. 6. Many of the players (stretches/stretch) before practice. 7. Several of the girls (walks/walk) home after school.

8. All of the water (has/have) melted; it (is/are) pooling in the valley. 9. Most of her cooking (tastes/taste) good. In fact, it (is/ Write down the subject and verb. 6. Many of the players (stretches/stretch) before practice. 7. Several of the girls (walks/walk)

home after school. 8. All of the water (has/have) melted; it (is/are) pooling in the valley. 9. Most of her cooking (tastes/taste) good. Write down the subjects and verbs. USE THE CHART 1. Several of the men (was, were) tired after only two minutes of running.

2. One of the assistants (has, have) to handle all the calls for Dr. Smith. 3. Either of the assistants (runs, run) errands while the other (handles, handle) the calls. Write down the subject and verb. USE THE CHART for help. 5. Nobody who comes into the office (waits, wait) very long to see Dr. Smith.

6. Many of the patients (sees, see) Dr. Smith before waiting five minutes. 7. None of the patients (is, are) unhappy with the assistants work. New Problem with Subject/Verb Agreement The cars and the trucks (go/goes) quickly on the parkway. Steve and Stacy (is/are) going to

the movies. Neither Steve nor Stacy (is/are) going to the movies. The coach or the players (is/are) responsible for the loss. The students or the teacher (is/are) the first to class. Compound Subjects Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb. s

s v Her brother and her uncle are teachers. s s v Both the scout and the Compound Subjects (cont.) Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb.

s s v Marcelo or Donna knows the address. s s v Neither our phone nor our doorbell was working. Compound Subjects (cont.)

Plural subjects joined by or or nor take plural verbs. s s v The Wilsons or the Campbells live there. s s v Neither cardinals nor finches come to the birdfeeder.

Compound Subjects (cont.) When a singular subject and plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject closer to the verb. s s v Either Harry or his aunts are planning the party.

s Practice Exercise #1-10 SKIP #8 6, pg. 119, Review: Subject/Verb Agreement General Subject/Verb

Agreement: 1. The members of the team (is/ are) in the living room. 2. The man who lives behind my neighbors (takes/take) mail from us. 3. The team of players (is/are) Review: Subject/Verb Agreement General Subject/Verb

Agreement: 1. The members of the team (is/ are) in the living room. 2. The man who lives behind my neighbors (takes/take) mail from us. 3. The team of players (is/are) Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Compound Subjects:

4. Gabriel and Octavia (has/have) won prizes for singing. 5. My parents and the coach (thinks/think) I have potential to go pro. 6. Sean or Mark (is/are) going to win the competition. Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Compound Subjects:

4. Gabriel and Octavia (has/have) won prizes for singing. 5. My parents and the coach (thinks/think) I have potential to go pro. 6. Sean or Mark (is/are) going to win the competition. Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Compound Subjects:

(continued) 7. The parents or the coaches (drives/drive) the players to the game. 8. Adrienne or my cousins (gets/ get) to ride the roller coaster with me. 9. The appetizers or the dessert Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Compound Subjects:

(continued) 7. The parents or the coaches (drives/drive) the players to the game. 8. Adrienne or my cousins (gets/ get) to ride the roller coaster with me. 9. The appetizers or the dessert Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Subject Indicators (use

chart): 10.Each of the players (feels/feel) tired after running for an hour straight. 11.Nobody from the newspapers (gets/get) access to the players after the game. 12.Several of the players Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Subject Indicators (use

chart): 10.Each of the players (feels/feel) tired after running for an hour straight. 11.Nobody from the newspapers (gets/get) access to the players after the game. 12.Several of the players Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Subject Indicators (use

chart): 13.Many of the cities (loses/lose) power quickly when a storm comes. 14.None of the tar (is/are) stuck to his new Air Jordans. 15.All of the church members (donates/donate) money Review: Subject/Verb Agreement Subject Indicators (use

chart): 13.Many of the cities (loses/lose) power quickly when a storm comes. 14.None of the tar (is/are) stuck to his new Air Jordans. 15.All of the church members (donates/donate) money Final Review: Subject Verb Agreement 1. The pieces of pizza (is/are) way

too small for me. 2. A bowl of Doritos (goes/go) pretty quickly in my house. 3. The coach of the players (is/are) angry with his team. 4. The members of the church (is/are) hosting a bake sale. Final Review Part Two: Use Chart 5. Somebody on the bus 6.

7. 8. 9. (was/were) whistling. Neither of the books (has/have) an index. Few of these jobs (sound/sounds) challenging. Both of her parents (has/have) offered us a ride. Most of the candy (is/are)

Final Review: Part Three 11.Drew or Steve (is, are) going out for a pass. 12.Neither the quarterback nor wide receiver (hears, hear) the referees whistle. 13.The principal and band director (was, were) proud of the performance. 14.The tight end or the running backs (is/are) most responsible

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