Graphics & Animation Can provide humor Gets attention Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point PRESENTED BY AND DESIGNED Presentation Point check out link below for more presentations (www.presentationpoint.yolasite.com) IDEA BY: FUTURE IT (www.futureit.yolasite.com)
SUPPORTED BY: www.exploretomorrow.blogspot.com Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Graphics & Animation Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point What is Animation? 50 years ago Walt Disney created animated objects such as Mickey Mouse.
Today the process used to create animated objects has had to change. In fact, it continues to change. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Animation The word animation is a form of animate, which means to bring to life. Thus when a multimedia developer wants to bring an
image to life, animation is used. For example, a spinning globe is it better to film the motion on video, or is animation a better solution. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point The Power of Motion Visual effects such as wipes, fades, zooms, and dissolves are available in most authoring packages. But animation is more than wipes, fades, zooms, and dissolves.
Until Quick Time and AVI motion video became more common place animations were the primary source of dynamic action in multimedia. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Animation Add visual impacts to your multimedia projects and
Web pages. Many multimedia applications provide animation tools. You just have to look at it & enjoy it! Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
Principles of Animation Animation is possible because of a a biological phenomenon known as persistence of vision And The psychological phenomenon called phi . An object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eyes retina for a brief time after viewing. Combined with the human minds need to conceptually complete a perceived action. This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly, one after the other, seem like continuous motion . Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation
Point Animation Animation adds visual impact. Persistence of vision allows a series of separate images to blend together into a visual illusion of
movement. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Animation and Frame Rates TV video builds 30 entire frames or pictures every second. Movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per second, but using projections tricks the flicker is increased to 48. On some projectors each frame is shown 3 times before the next frame, for a total of 72 flickers per second which helps eliminate the flicker effect. Cel Animation plays at 24 frames per second.
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Computer Animation Typically employees the same logic and procedural concepts as cell animation. You can usually set your own frame rate . At 15 frames a second the animation may appear jerky and slow. 2-D animation can be an acceptable alternative to the expense of creating video Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
3-D Animation 3-D Animation involves three steps: modeling, animation, and rendering Modeling the process of
creating objects and scenes Animation the process of defining the objects motion Rendering the final step in creating 3-D animation. Morphing is the process of blending two images into a series of images Warping allows you to distort a single image Virtual reality (VR) creates an environment that surrounds the user so that they become part of the experience.
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Animation File Formats Software File Format Director .dir & .dcr Animator Pro .fli Studio Max
.max SuperCard and Director .pics Windows Audio Video Interleaved .avi Macintosh .qt & .mov Motion Video .mpeg CompuServe .gif Flash .swf
Shockwave .dcr Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Graphics Images created with the help of computers. 2-D and 3-D (displayed on a 2-D screen but in such a way that they give an illusion of depth). Used for scientific research, artistic expression, or for industrial applications. Graphics have made the computer interfaces more intuitive by
removing the need to memorize commands. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Displaying Images Most all computer displays consist of a grid of tiny pixels arranged in a regular grid of rows and columns. Images are displayed by assigning different colors to the pixels located in the desired portion of the computer display. Lets discuss the pixel a bit more
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Pixel The smallest image forming element on a computer display. The computer display is made up of a regular grid of these pixels. The computer has the capability of assigning any color to any of the individual pixels on the display. Lets now see how the computer displays a square.
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Dithering In this scheme, pixels of alternating colors are used to simulate a color that is not present in the platelet. For example, red and green pixels can be alternated to give the impression of bright yellow.
The quality of the displayed image is poorer. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Aliasing The computer screen consists of square-ish pixels arranged in a fixed grid. At times, when a diagonal line is drawn on this grid, it looks more like a staircase, instead of a straight line. This effect called aliasing can be managed by
reducing the size of pixels. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Anti-Aliasing Anti-aliasing is another technique used for managing the staircase effect. Lets say that we need to draw a white straight-line such that it overlaps 60% with one pixel, and 40% with another initially, and near the end, 58%, 41%, and 1%, respectively, with three pixels.
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Graphics File Formats The choice of the format generally depends upon the nature of the image. For example: An image of natural scenery contains many irregular, nongemetric shapes, therefore is stored in bit-map format. A CAD drawing consists of many geometric shapes like straight lines, arcs, etc. and therefore is stored in a vector format. A third situation arises when dealing with graphics that contain both regular and irregular shapes.
Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Vector or Object-Oriented Graphics Treats everything that is drawn as an object Objects retain their identity after they are drawn These objects can later be easily moved, stretched, duplicated, deleted, etc Are resolution independent Relatively small file size Examples: swf, svg, wmf, ps Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
Image Processing A branch of computer science concerned with manipulating and enhancing computer graphics Examples: Converting 2-D satellite imagery into a 3-D model of a terrain Restoring old, faded photographs into something closer to the original Determining the amount of silting in Tarbela lake from a satellite image Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
3-D Graphics Flat images enhanced to impart the illusion of depth. We perceive the world and the objects in it in 3-D - breadth, width, depth - although the images formed on the retinas of our eyes are 2-D. The secret of 3-D perception: stereo vision. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
3-D Graphics The two eyes are spaced a few cm apart. Result: The images formed on the two retinas are slightly different. The brain combines these two into a single 3-D image, enabling us to perceive depth. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point 3-D Graphics: Applications
Games Medical images 3-D CAD Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point 3-D Rendering The process of converting information about 3-D objects into a bit-map that can be displayed on a 2-D computer display Computationally, very expensive! Steps:
Draw the wire-frame (skeleton, made with thin lines) Fill with colors, textures, patterns Add lighting effects (reflections, shadows) Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point 1 2
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16 Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point Computer Animation: Examples Games Cartoons, movies Visualization of processes, e.g the IM process Displaying the results of scientific experiments, e.g. nuclear fusion. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation
Point Tweening Creating a reasonable illusion of motion requires the drawing of 14-30 images per second of animation very tedious! In practice, only 4-5 images (called key images) instead of 14-30 are drawn, and then the computer is asked to create the remaining in-between images. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
Tweening This process of creating these in-between images from key images is called in-betweening (or tweening for short). The simplest algorithm for tweening calculates the position of a particular segment of an image by calculating the average of the positions of that same image segment belonging to adjacent key images. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
Future of Graphics & Animation New graphic-file storage formats will appear with better compression efficiencies. 3-D animation will become more popular as computers become faster and algorithms become smarter. More realistic games; better realism in movies may, one day, make the human actors extinct. Copyright (c) 2011 Presentation Point
Modern Model/Wave ModelShrodinger—Electron Cloud Model. Uses mathematical model to describe the certainty of finding an electron at a certain location on the electron cloud. The electron cloud is a visual model of the most likely locations for the electrons. Where...
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