Greenhouse Effect: Earths Blanket What is a greenhouse? Wikipedia | GNU Smithsonia n Greenhouse Effect Process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions What gets in and what is blocked? 2011 The Pennsylvania State University
Albedo Reflecting power of a surface Ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it No units 0.3 is the global average albedo Why are urban areas warmer than rural areas? Surface Albedo
Fresh Asphalt 0.04 Worn Asphalt 0.12 Conifer forest (Summer) 0.08 - 0.15 Deciduous trees 0.15 - 0.18 Bare soil
0.17 Green grass 0.25 Desert sand 0.4 New concrete 0.55 Ocean ice 0.5 - 0.7 Fresh snow
0.80 - 0.90 Earths Energy Budget NOAA|NWS Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range GHGs in Earths atmosphere in order of abundance Water Vapor (H2O) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Ozone (O3) NASA GHG Concentration Depends on rates of emission and rates of removal If emissions increase with time, atmospheric concentration will increase with time, regardless of the atmospheric lifespan of the gas Water Vapor - H2O Natural Source Evaporation of water Sublimation of ice Plant and animal respiration
Anthropogeni Evaporation and transpiration losses from c source watering lawns Lifespan 9 days in the atmosphere Location Troposphere Does it do us any good? Supports life Triggers convection currents Leads to cloud formation Carbon Dioxide - CO2
Natural Source Animal and plant respiration Ocean-atmosphere exchange Photosynthesis (sink) Anthropogeni c source Fossil fuel combustion Deforestation (lack of sink) Lifespan More than half is removed within a century A small fraction (20%) can remain in the atmosphere for many millenia Location
Troposphere Does it do us any good? Photosynthesis Methane - CH4 Natural Source Wetlands Termites Anthropoge Raising ruminant animals (cattle) nic source Energy production from coal and natural gas Rice agriculture Biomass burning
Lifespan 12 years Removed by chemical processes in the atmosphere Location Troposphere Stratosphere Does it do us any good? Helps regulate temperature Nitrous Oxide - N2O Natural Source
Oceans Chemical oxidation of ammonia in the atmosphere Soils Anthropogen Transformation of fertilizer nitrogen into N2O and ic source its subsequent emission from agricultural soils Biomass burning Raising cattle Lifespan 110 years Destroyed in the stratosphere by solar radiation Location Troposphere Stratosphere
Does it do us any good? Helps regulate temperature Ozone - O3 Natural Source Formed when O2 molecule photodissociates after absorbing an IR photon Free O molecule bonds with O2 to form O3 Anthropogenic source Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) contain molecules which can destroy ozone in the stratosphere Tropospheric ozone formed from reactions with carbon
monixide, methane, and other volitile organic compounds Tropospheric ozone is found in smog Lifespan Tropospheric ozone (a few days) Stratosphere long lived due to the oxygen-ozone cycle Location Stratosphere (Ozone Layer) Troposphere (harmful) Mesosphere Does it do us any good? Stratospheric ozone protects us from 97-99% of the suns UV radiation
Some GHG Concentration Trends NOAA | accessed via Wikipedia What if there were no GHGs? Would Earth be very hot or very cold? WHY? VS. Would the air be very dry or very wet? Goldilocks Principle Venus Too Hot Extremely dense
atmosphere High concentration of CO2 High surface temperature of 464C NASA | Image processing by R. Nunes Mars .. Too Cold Almost no atmosphere Low concentration of CO2 Wide temperature
range of -135C to 30C NASA | accessed via Wikipedia Earth Just Right Perfect atmosphere to sustain life Correct concentration of GHGs Temperature range of 10C to 20C NASA | accessed via Wikipedia
Click icon to add picture NASA | accessed via Wikipedia Global Warming? Why do we use the term Global Warming? 20002009 was the warmest decade on record worldwide
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