Liver & Gallbladder Liver The liver is the largest gland in the body and has a wide variety of functions Weight: 1/50 of body weight in adult & 1/20 of body weight in infant It is exocrine(bile) & endocrine organ(Albumen , prothrombin &

fibrinogen) Function of the liver

Secretion of bile & bile salt Metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein Formation of heparin & anticoagulant substances Detoxication Storage of glycogen and vitamins Activation of vita .D Location

Occupies right hypochondrium + epigastrium &extends to left hypochondrium Surface anatomy of the liver -The greater part of the liver is situated under cover of the right costal

margin - Diaphragm separates it from the pleura, lungs, pericardium, and heart. Ant. View of the liver Right lobe Cut edge of the Falciform ligament

left lobe Diverging cut edges of the superior part of the coronary ligament Fundus of the gall bladder Surfaces of the liver, their relations & impressions Postero - inferior

surface= visceral surface Superior surface = Diaphragmatic surface Anterior surface Posterior surface Right surface Postero- infero surface= visceral surface

Relations I.V.C the esophagus the stomach the duodenum the right colic flexure the right kidney Rt. Suprarenal gland the gallbladder. Porta hepatic( bile duct,H.a.H.V) Fissure for lig. Venoosum & lesser omentum

Tubular omentum Lig.teres Postero-inferior surface of the liver Sup. Surface of the liver

Right & left lobes Cut edge of the Falciform ligament The cut edges of the superior

and inferior parts of the coronary ligament The left triangular ligament The right triangular ligament Bare area of the liver (where there is no peritoneum covering the liver Groove for the inferior vena cava and the hepatic veins Caudate lobe of the liver more or less wrapping around

the groove of the inferior vena cava Fundus of gall bladder Lig.teres Relations of Sup . surface of liver Diaphragm Pleura & lung Pericardium & heart

Relations of the liver Anteriorly Diaphragm Rt & Lt pleura and lung Costal cartilage

Xiphoid process Ant. abdominal wall Posterior relation of the liver

Diaphragm Rt. Kidney Supra renal gland T.colon(hepatic flexure Duodenum Gall bladder I.V.C

Esophagus Fundus of stomach Lobes of the liver Rt. Lobe Lt .lobe

Quadrate lobe Caudate lobe Separation of the four lobes of the liver: Right sagittal fossa groove for inferior vena cava and gall bladder left sagittal fissure contains the Ligamentum Venoosum and round ligament of liver

Transverse fissure (also porta hepatis) bile ducts, portal vein, hepatic arteries Rt. Lobe -Largest lobe - Occupies the right hypochondrium - Divided into anterior and posterior sections by the right hepatic vein

- Reidels Lobe extend as far caudally as the iliac crest Left Lobe Varied in size Lies in the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions Divided into lateral and medial segments by the left hepatic vein

Lobes of the liver..cont Rt. & Lt lobe separated by Falciform ligament Ligamentum Venoosum Ligamentum teres Caudate Lobe -present in the posterior surface from the Rt. Lobe Two processes

1- c- process 2- papillary process Relations of caudate lobe - Inf. the porta hepatis - The right the fossa for the inferior vena cava - The left the fossa for the lig.venosum. Quadrate lobe Present on the inferior surface from

the Rt. Lobe Relation - Ant. anterior margin of the liver - Sup. porta hepatis - Rt. fossa for the gallbladder - Lt by the fossa for lig.teres Porta hepatis -It is the hilum of the liver -It is found on the

posteroinferior surface - lies between the caudate and quadrate lobes -Lesser omentum attach to its margin Contents - Gallbladder ant. - Hepatic. Art + nerve+ lymphatic node middle. - Portal vein post.

Peritoneum of the liver The liver is covered by peritoneum (intraperitoneal organ)except at bare

area(it is origin from septum transversum) Inferior surface covered with peritoneum of greater sac except porta hepatis, G.B & Lig.teres fissure Rt. Lateral surface covered by peritoneum, related to diaphragm which separate it from

Rt. Pleura , lung and the Rt Ribs (6-11) 1. The ligaments of the liver 1- The Falciform ligament of liver 2- The Ligamentum teres hepatis 3- The coronary ligament 4- The right triangular ligament 5- The left triangular ligament 6- The Hepatogastric ligament 7- The hepatoduonedenal ligament

8- The Ligamentum Venoosum Falciform ligament of liver Consists of double peritoneal layer Sickle shape Extends from anterior abdominal wall (umbilicus) to liver Free border of the

ligament contains Ligamentum teres (obliterated umbilical vein) Coronary ligament the area between upper and lower layer of the coronary ligament is the bare area of liver which contract with the diaphragm;

Left and right triangular ligaments formed by left and right extremity of coronary ligament Hepatogastric ligament Hepatoduodenal ligament The Ligamentum

Venoosum -Fibrous band that is the remains of the ductus venosus - Is attached to the left branch of the portal vein and ascends in a fissure on the visceral surface of the liver to be attached above to the inferior vena cava

LIVER Histology lobules >> roughly hexagonal structures consisting of hepatocytes. Radiate outward from a central vein. At each of the six corners of a lobule is a portal triad

( p.arteriole,p.venule & bile duct) Between the hepatocytes are the liver sinusoids. Where do the two blood supplies mix? Liver surrounded by a thin capsule at portahepatic(it is thick)Glissons capsule invests the liver and send septa

into liver subset subdivide the parenchyma into lobules Segmental anatomy of the liver

Rt .& Lt. lobes anatomically no morphological significance. Separation by ligaments (Falciform, lig. Venoosum & Lig.teres) True morphological and physiological division by a line extend from fossa of GD to fossa of I.V.C each has its own arterial blood supply, venous drainage

and biliary drainage No anastomosis between divisions 3 major hepatic veins Rt, Lt & central 8 segments based on hepatic and portal venous segments Segmental anatomy of the liver Liver segments are based on the portal and hepatic venous segments

Blood supply of the liver Blood supply of the liver Proper hepatic artery The right and left hepatic arteries enter the porta

hepatis. The right hepatic artery usually gives off the cystic artery, which runs to the neck of the gallbladder. Blood Circulation through the Liver

The blood vessels conveying blood to the liver are the hepatic artery (30%) and portal vein (70%). The hepatic artery brings oxygenated blood to the liver, and the portal vein brings venous blood rich in the products of digestion, which have been absorbed from the

gastrointestinal tract. The arterial and venous blood is conducted to the central vein of each liver lobule by the liver sinusoids. The central veins drain into the right and left hepatic veins, and these leave the posterior surface of the liver and open directly into the inferior vena cava.

Vein drainage of the liver The portal vein divides into right and left terminal branches that enter the porta hepatis behind the arteries. The hepatic veins (three or more) emerge from the posterior surface of the liver and drain into the inferior vena cava.

Lymphatic drainage of the liver Liver produce large amount of lymph~ one third one half of total body lymph Lymph leave the liver and enters several lymph nod in porta hepatis efferent vessels pass to celiac nods A few vessels pass from the bare area of the liver through the diaphragm to the posterior Mediastinal lymph nodes.

Nerve supply Sympathetic hepatic plexus>>> celiac plexuses thoracic ganglion chain T1T12 Parasympathetic vagous nerve( anterior part)

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves form the celiac plexus. The anterior vagal trunk gives rise to a large hepatic branch, which passes directly to the liver Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) It is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain

problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems. Through the endoscope, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject dyes into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be seen on X-rays. ERCP is used primarily to diagnose and treat conditions of the bile ducts, including gallstones, inflammatory strictures (scars), leaks (from trauma and surgery), and cancer. ERCP

Liver cirrhosis GALLBLADDER Anatomical position of GB - Epigastric - Right hypochondrium region - At the tip of the 9th RT . C.C - Green muscular organ

- Pear-shaped, hollow structure - On inferior surface of liver - Between quadrate and right lobes -Has a short mesentery -Capacity 40- 60 cc - Body and neck Directed toward porta hepatis Structure of GB Fundus

-Ant:ant.abdominal wall - Post.inf: transverscolon Body sup: liver post.inf: Tr.colon. End of 1st part of doudenum , begins of 2nd part of doudenum Neck - Form the cystic duct, 4cm Hartmanns Pouch 1.

2. 3. 4. Lies between body and neck of gallbladder A normal variation May obscure cystic duct If very large, may see cystic duct arising from pouch Cystic duct

- It joins common hepatic duct Arterial Supply to the Gallbladder Cystic artery Right hepatic artery Proper hepatic artery Common hepatic artery Blood supply of GB:

- Cystic artery branch of Rt. Hepatic artery - Cystic vein end in portal vein - Small branches ( arteries and veins run between liver and gall bladder Proper Hepatic Artery

Common Hepatic Artery Gastroduodenal Artery Lymphatic drainage of GB 1. Terminate @ celiac nodes 2. Cystic node at neck of GB a. Actually a hepatic node b. Lies at junction of cystic & common hepatic ducts

3. Other lymph vessels also drain into hepatic nodes Nerve supply Sympathetic and parasympathetic from celiac plexus Parasympathetic ---- vagous nerve Hormone cholecystokini duodenum Common bile duct

Extra hepatic biliary system Rt. hepatic duct + Lt hepatic duct Common hepatic duct + Cystic duct Common bile duct

- 4cm - Descend in free edge of lesser omentum - Supra duodenal part Retro duodenal part Retro pancreatic part Bile duct. parts and relations -3 inc long

-1st part -Located in right free margin of lesser omentum - in front of the opening into the lesser sac (Epiploic opening) -Rt to hepatic artery and portal vein - 2nd part -Behind the 1st part of the duodenum -Rt to the gastroduodenal artery -3 rd part -Posterior surface of the head of the pancreas

-Contact with main pancreatic duct -Related with IVC, gastroduodenal artery, portal vein -End in the half second part of duodenum at ampulla of Vater Ampulla of Vater with CBD and Pancreatic Duct Ampulla of Vater Hepaticopancreatic ampulla (Ampulla of Vater)

Blood supply of CBD Small arteries supplying CBD a. Arise from cystic artery b. Posterior branch of superior pancreaticoduodenal artery What is bile? Bile composed of water, ions, bile acids, organic molecules (including cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin)

Gallstones are mostly cholesterol Acids and salts emulsify fats for absorption across wall of small intestines into lacteal lymph capillaries (review) Contains waste products from RBC breakdown and other metabolic processing (color of feces from bilirubin in bile)(review) Ions buffer chyme from stomach (review) Liver Physiology, Larry Frolich, Yavapai College, March 10,

2006 Cholelithiasis GB shows likely sites of stone formation/deposition Gangrene of gallbladder is rare Stone in C.B.D obstruct jaundice & pancreatitis

Gallbladder Diseases 1- Cholelithiasis & Cholecystitis Cholecystitis = inflammation of GB Cholelithisi = Stone(s) in GB 2- Obstructive jaundice: liver patterns 3- Gangrene of gall bladder rare 4- Congenital defects PANCREAS

Anatomical position - Epigastric - left upper hypochondrium region Right lobe of liver Falciform ligament Gallbladder Pancreas Duodenum

L-3 Common relation Anterior -Transverse colon -Transvers mesocolon -Lesser sac -Stomach -Posterior --Bile duct

-Portalvein -Splenic vein -IVC -Aorta - origin of Sup.mesentric.a -Lt.Psoas muscle -Lt.Suuprarenal gland -Left kidney -Hilum of the spleen

PANCREAS Posterior view of duodenum/pancreas Histology of pancreas Exocrine partPancreatic juice Endocrine part Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin

Parts of the pancreas Parts Head Neck body Tail The head

-It is disc shaped - lies within the concavity of the duodenum - A part of the head extends to the left behind the superior mesenteric vessels and is called the Uncinate process.

The neck - It is the constricted portion of the pancreas - connects the head to the body. - It lies in front of the beginning of the portal vein the origin of the

The body -Runs upward and to the left across the midline - It is somewhat triangular in cross section. Body of pancreascont -

Three surfaces: anterior, posterior, and inferior. Three borders: ant ,post & inf The anterior surface 1- Covered by peritoneum of post. Wall of lesser sac 2- Tuber omental : where the ant. surface of pancreas join the neck

Body of pancreascont The posterior surface - devoid of peritoneum - in contact with 1- the aorta 2- the splenic vein 3- the left kidney and its vessels 4- the left suprarenal gland 5- the origin of the

superior mesenteric artery 6- and the crura of the diaphragm. Body of pancreascont The inferior surface - Narrow on the right but broader on the left - Covered by peritoneum of greater omentum - lies upon the duodenojejunal flexure

- Some coils of the jejunum - its left extremity rests on the left colic flexure The superior border - Blunt and flat to the right; - Narrow and sharp to the left near the tail It commences on the right in the omental tuberosity In relation with 1- The celiac artery 2- Hepatic artery

3- The splenic artery runs toward the left in a groove along this border. Body of pancreascont The anterior border separates the anterior surface from the inferior surface along this border the two layers of the transverse mesocolon diverge from one another; one passing upward over the anterior surface, the other backward over the

inferior surface. Body of pancreas The inferior border separates the posterior from the inferior surface the superior mesenteric vessels emerge under its right extremity. The Tail Passes forward in the splenicorenal

ligament and comes in contact with the hilum of the spleen - Pancreatic ducts -

The main duct Begins in the tail and runs the length of the gland Receiving numerous tributaries on the way . It opens into the second part of the duodenum at about its middle with the bile duct on the major duodenal papilla Accessory duct

- When present, drains the upper part of the head - Then opens into the duodenum a short distance above the main duct on the minor duodenal papilla . The accessory duct frequently communicates with the main duct Blood Supply of pancreas Arteries

The splenic.a The superior pancreaticoduodenal .a Inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries.a Veins

The corresponding veins drain into the portal system. pancreaticoduod enal artery and its branches Lymphatic drainage of pancreas

Lymph nodes are situated along the arteries that supply the gland. The efferent vessels ultimately drain into the celiac and superior mesenteric lymph nodes.

Nerve supply Sympathetic and parasympathetic chain Parasympathetic = vagus nerve Congenital defects of pancreas Annular Pancreas (pancreas encircles duodenum) (rare) Ectopic Pancreas (very common)= Outside the gastrointestinal tract

Clinical notes Cancer head of pancreas Obstruction jaundices Cancer body of pancreas pressure I.V.C & portal vein Acute pancreatitis= inflammation of pancreas Spleen Spleen Location and Description

it is reddish & oval shaped the largest single mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. and has a notched anterior border. location: - Lt hypochondrium

It lies just beneath the left half of the diaphragm under the 9th, 10th, and 11th ribs. Its long axis parallel to the 10th rib Medial end is 4 cm away from mid line post Lat.end is in left mid axillary line Spleen Peritoneum The spleen is completely covered

with peritoneum intraperitoneal organ Two ligaments 1- the gastrosplenic omentum (ligament) between the spleen & the greater curvature of the stomach (carrying the short gastric and left gastroepiploic vessels) 2- splenicorenal ligament between spleen & kidney (carrying the splenic vessels and the tail of the pancreas).

Spleen......cont Size 1 inch thick 3 inch broad 5 inch long Weight 7 ounce Shape variable 2 ends 2 borders

2 surfaces Notched - Due to lobulation in embryo Surfaces of spleen 2 surfaces - Diaphragmatic surface - Visceral surface 1- Diaphragmatic surface

Has Post- lat.relation - Convex - Smooth -Diaphragm separates it from - Pleura & lung - Ribs 9,10 ,11 - Spleen..cont 2- Visceral surface Has Ant- med. Relations

It is divided by a ridge into 1- An anterior or gastric 2- A posterior or renal portion. Lower extremity has Colic surface Pancreatic surface Spleencont Gastric surface - Extends

forward, upward, and medialward - Broad and concave - Related to stomach Renal surface - Directed medialward and downward. -It is somewhat flattened - Related to Lt.kidney

Spleen..cont The lower extremity or colic surface - It is flat - Triangular in shape - Rests upon the left flexure of the colon and the phrenicocolic ligament, and is generally in contact with the tail of the pancreas(pancreatic surface) Spleen.cont

Hilum of spleen - Splenic . A ant - Splenic . v post - Tail of pancreas Spleen..cont Borders of spleen 1- sup. Border - It is free

Sharp Thin Often notched(sup.notch) , especially below - It separates the diaphragmatic surface from the gastric surface Spleencont 2- inferior border -

More rounded and blunter Separates the renal from the diaphragmatic surface; - It corresponds to the lower border of the eleventh rib - lies between the diaphragm and left kidney. The Spleen.cont Intermediate margin is

the ridge which separates the renal and gastric surfaces. Internal border separates the diaphragmatic from the colic surface. Spleencont 2 Ends Med.end sup &

back 4cm away from mid line post Lat.end in left mid axillary line Blood supply The large splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac artery. It has a tortuous course It runs along the upper border of the

pancreas The splenic artery then divides into about six branches, which enter the spleen at the hilum Blood supply of spleen Veins - The splenic vein leaves the hilum and runs behind the tail and the body of the pancreas. - Behind the neck of the pancreas, the splenic vein joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein.

Lymphatic Drainage of spleen The lymph vessels emerge from the hilum and pass through a few lymph nodes along the course of the splenic artery and then drain into the celiac nodes. Nerve Supply of spleen The nerves accompany the splenic artery and are derived from the celiac plexus.

Thank you

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