Group Eight Rhetorical Masters Samuel Kelland Aaron Hayes ASYNDETON The absence of conjunctions between
coordinate phrases, clauses or words. Asyndeton Examples The car crashed, exploded, burned, melted. In the cave there was a bear, a puppy, a tiger, a moose. She tells me of a child, an unhappy 12-year-old, the granddaughter of a friend of hers, who rides in the car with her sometimes when she is doing errands in Manhattan.
(Jonathan Kozol, Amazing Grace) He put his hammer down, took off his hat, brushed his hand across his forehead, wiped it on his pants, sat on the stoop, and put his elbows back, stretching his legs out in front of him.(Esmeralda Santiago, When I Was Puerto Rican) ANAPHORA Repetition of a word or
phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines. Anaphora Examples I warned you not to enter that cave, I warned you not to attack that moose, and I warned you that that moose was hungry. I cried as the car crashed, I cried as the car burned,
and I cried as the car melted. I am going home from the hospital today I am starting kindergarten next week. I am going to wear my dress which has flowers on it and is black (Jonathan Kozol, Amazing Grace) I was who I was because I was Dr. Sudhir Lal Mukherjees daughter, because I was a Hindu Brahmin, because I was Bengali-speaking (Mother Jones, American Dreamer) ANTANAGOGE
Putting a positive spin on something that is acknowledged to be negative or difficult. Antanagoge Examples This diamond isnt real, but at least its shiny! When life gives you lemons, make lemonade. Perhaps the children of the children who are growing up
today in the South Bronx will someday live in attractive houses on the same nice streets as middle-class and working-class homeowners of all races. (Jonathan Kozol, Amazing Grace) And we will smile wisely and emit a streamer of drool because we will be very old and unable to hear them. And that will be a good thing, because there are many things about 2006 that we will not want to remember. (Dave Barry, The Blasted Year)
EPIZEUXIS Repetition of words in immediate succession. Epizeuxis Examples Bass, bass, bass! This song needs more bass! Oh you need fluff, fluff, fluff To make a fluffer nutter,
Marshmallow fluff and lots of peanut butter. First you spread, spread, spread Your bread with peanut butter, Add marshmallow fluff and have a fluffernutter. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal, Water, water; we die of thirst! (Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery: An Autobiography) Grandma, grandma, sick in bed, called the doctor and the doctor said: get the rhythm in the hands! Get the rhythm in the head! (song in Jonathan Kozolz Amazing Grace)
EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor continuing through a series of sentences. Extended Metaphor Examples We are rain drops falling into a puddle. We become progressively uncharacteristic as we form into one.
In the Truman Show, the television producer is recognized as God. This metaphor is extended throughout the movie. The poets voice need not nearly be the record of man, it can be one of the props, the pillars to help him endure and prevail. (William Faulkner, Nobel Prize Speech) The rats in Amazing Grace represent hardships that people in poverty must endure. The rats alone are small problems, but together create a major problem.
METONYMY Describing something indirectly by referring to things closely associated with it. Metonymy Examples "Detroit is still hard at work on an SUV that runs on rain forest trees and panda blood."
(Conan O'Brien) Im too pretty for Hollywood. Mrs. Washington asks me, as she will do many times this spring, why there is so much pressure to cut taxes. I repeat to her the arguments I hear downtown: Taxes are already viewed as very high in New York City. The pen is mightier than the sword
It was inevitable that the Nordic world and the African, especially that part of it which constitutes the Yoruba world - should meet at the crossroads of Sweden. (Wole Soyinka, Banquet Speech) PARAMYTHIA An expression of consolation and encouragement.
Paramythia Examples You may have lost a fight to a moose, but at least you tried your best. Thatll do pig. (Babe) Saras mother every day shes doin it, doin what she has to do, right out there in the street. (from Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace) But I wont be myself if I have to take drugs! I wailed
to my therapist. I think, he said, that youre more yourself when youre medicated than when youre not. (Nancy Mairs, Waist-high in the World) PARAPROSDOKIAN When the latter part of a sentence or phrase is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to
reframe or reinterpret the first part. Paraprosdokian Examples "If I am reading this graph correctly I'd be very surprised. (Stephen Colbert) Change is inevitable, except from a vending machine. Some of them wear G-strings or a pair of tiny shorts. Is this only in the summer? Even in October,
in November. (from Jonathan Kozols Amazing Grace) With soccer, 22 kids can be running around, most of them aimlessly, or picking weeds by the sidelines. (Dave Eggers, America and the World Cup) PARATAXIS Phrases or clauses arranged independently. Opposite of hypotaxis.
Parataxis Examples I came, I saw, I conquered. The sirens were blaring. We went inside. This is the express. Get off at 125th street. (from Amazing Grace) My heart and I went down again. I was aware of her hand. (James Baldwin, Tell Me How the Trains Been Going)
SYMPLOCE Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning and another at the end of successive clauses. Symploce Examples "When there is talk of hatred, let us stand up and talk
against it. When there is talk of violence, let us stand up and talk against it. (Bill Clinton) Sometimes clouds rain on the ground. Sometimes clouds snow on the ground. That spring was the harvest. That summer was the harvest. (S.L. Wisenberg, The Way of all Waiting) SYNESIS A construction in which a
form, such as a pronoun, differs in number but agrees in meaning with the word governing it. Synesis Examples If the band is popular, they will play next month. The police department is downtown.
Miami doesnt believe any of that stuff. (Esmeralda Santiago, When I Was Puerto Rican) The press subsequently reports a marked decline in murders in the area. (Jonathan Kozol, Amazing Grace) TAUTOLOGY Unnecessary repetition of meaning.
Redundancy! Tautology Examples Free gift Scary monster He had been a very charitable priest. (James Joyce, Araby) Being treated as a friend this way by children in
the neighborhood feels like a special privilege. (Jonathan Kozol, Amazing Grace) This presentation has been brought to you by Rhetorical Masters free of charge.
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