Guidance on Citations, Referencing, and Style Guide for UN ...
Guidance on Citations, Referencing, and Style Guide for UN Environment Publications First Authors Meeting for the Sixth Global Environment Outlook Frascati, Italy, 20 February 2017 By Angeline Djampou Content 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Selecting and organizing references Permissions Attribution: Harvard-UNEP Reference management software Checking content Submitting drafts Support from UN Environment Secretariat. Introduction Underpinning principle: copyright. Who created the third-party content acknowledgment of sources What are the conditions for using it?
Requirements for ethical and professional writing Credibility of UN Environment publications Harmonization in referencing and style of UN Environment publications Compliance with the United Nations editorial guidelines . 1. Selecting References Multiple document types with scientific content: books, reports, journal articles, etc. Multiple sources: paid sources, free sources, open access sources, various repositories, etc. Things to consider: reputation, impact factor, etc. 1a. Selecting References: Free and Open Access
Free sources and copyrighted sources: Various reports from the United Nations and non-governmental organizations Open access sources Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org. Directory of Open Access Journals: www.doaj.org. The Public Library of Science (PLOS): https://www.plos.org. Open access from traditional publishers: https://www.elsevier.com/about/open-science ; https://www.springeropen.com/journals 1b. Selecting References: Citations Repository Compilation of the sources used in the GEO-6 regional assessments with links to and/or PDFs where applicable. Available Good at www.unep.org/publications. place to start. 1c. Selecting References: OARE
OARE is the Online Access to Research in the Environment, founded by the UN Environment in 2006 in partnership with Yale University and up to 60 publishers. OARE is part of the Research for Life (R4L) partnership which provides free or low cost peer-reviewed content to academic, government and research institutions in the developing world through four research programmes: Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA) FAO Access to Research in Health (HINARI) WHO Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) WIPO Online Access to Research in the Environment (OARE) UNEP The Research for Life partnership includes: United Nations agencies (WHO, UNEP, AGORA and WIPO) Yale and Cornell Universities Publishers (the Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers and up to 185 international scientific publishers). 1c. Selecting References: OARE (cont.)
OARE: Up to 10,000 journals, 21,000 e-books 55 other resources to 2,900 institutions. R4L provides access to up to 77,000 peer-reviewed journals, books and databases to 8,200 institutions in more than 115 low and middle income countries. Some institutions may qualify to register for more than one programme. Eligible countries are categories into two groups: Category A (free access) and Category B (low cost access US$ 1,000 per institution per year) Currently registered institutions: http://www.research4life.org/institutions-registered/ How to register: http://www.research4life.org/howtoregister2/ Category A countries: Free Access to OARE Resources
Afghanistan Angola Bangladesh Belize Benin Bhutan Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cabo Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Congo Cote dIvoire Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Honduras Kenya Kiribati Kyrgyzstan
Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Micronesia (Federated States of) Morocco
Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Nicaragua Niger Papua New Guinea Republic of Moldova Rwanda Samoa So Tome and Principe Senega Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia South Sudan
Sudan Swaziland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tuvalu Uganda United Republic of Tanzania Uzbekistan Vanuatu Viet Nam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Category B countries: Low Cost Access to OARE Resources
Albania Algeria Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Cook Islands Dominica Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji
Gabon Georgia Grenada Guyana Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kosovo (in accordance with Security Council resolution 1244 (1999)) Libya Maldives Marshall Islands Mauritius Mongolia Montenegro Nauru Nigeria
Niue Pakistan Palau Paraguay Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Seychelles Serbia Sri Lanka Suriname The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Tonga Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine West Bank and Gaza Strip
2. Permissions Carefully review the content being borrowed to determine the conditions of use. a. The Rule: request permission Advanced permission within certain uses (non-profit, educational, etc.): Some organizations including the United Nations organizations. Adapted material (figures, map, table, etc.): How much originality are you bringing to the map? Consider using the data to create another visual (e.g. infographic) In case of doubt: Request permission. 2. Permissions (cont.) b. Exceptions Permission is not required for some content categories: Open access: authors retain copyright but allow copy, distribution, downloads, etc. Public access: funded or published by government
Public domain: expired copyright or ineligible for copyright. 2. Permissions (cont.) Identify rights owner: author, publisher, collective management e.g. Copyright Clearance Center? Request permission in writing specifying intended use, etc. Secure written permission before using material. Share evidence of permission with UN Environment. 3. Style Guide Based on the United Nations Editorial Manual. To access the full Style Guide, visit http://dd.dgacm.org/editorialmanual/ Text included footnotes to be single-spaced, 10-point Times New Roman. 3a. Style Guide: Headings and Subheadings
M Part One (Title Case, 17-pt bold) Ch I. Chapter or Main Section (Roman numeral, title case, 14-pt bold) H1 A. First-degree subheading (Identified by capital letter, sentence case, 12-pt bold) H2 1. Second-degree subheading (sentence case, 10-pt bold) H3 (a) Third degree subheading (sentence case, 10-pt bold) H4 (i) Fourth-degree subheading (sentence case, 10-pt italic)
H5 a. Fifth-degree subheading (sentence case, 10-pt roman) H6 i. Sixth-degree subheading (sentence case, 10-point roman) 3b. Style Guide: Numbers Numbers are expressed in words when they are i) under 10, ii) in simple fractions, and iii) at the beginning of the sentence. Numbers expressed in figures include percentages, ages, temperature, sums of money, measures and weight, ratios and map scales, and compound fractions. Numbers expressed in ranges should be homogenous (between 2,000,000 and 5,000,000). Millions, billions, trillions: 2 million not 2,000,000 but 2,577,457.
Punctuation: Write 2,577,457 in running text and 2 577 457 in tables. 3c. Style Guide: Abbreviations General rule: use of abbreviations and acronyms to be avoided. When used, spell in full on the first occurrence, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in square brackets, then use the acronym in subsequent occurrence. The Style Guide has a list of officially recognized acronyms and abbreviations. 3d. Style Guide: Spelling Current authority is Concise Oxford English Dictionary, twelfth edition. 4. Attribution Harvard Referencing system. (Surname year) in round brackets. Ensures integrity and credibility of UNEP information products.
Avoid as much as possible the use of footnotes. Attribution is made through in-text citation and references. 4a. Attribution: In-text Citation Format: (Surname year) or Surname (year) - No punctuation between surname and year. Multiple sources: chronological order (Sung 1980; Alper 2010). Different authors, same year: alphabetical order (Omam 2015; UNEP 2015) . Same author, same year: assign alphabetical letters following the year (UNEP 2015a; UNEP 2015b). Institutional authors: (United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP] 2016). Different authors, same name, same year (Omam, C. 2013; Omam, J. 2010).
Government entity (Kenya, Ministry of Environment 2016). Database names are not cited but the responsible institution. Tables 4b. Attribution: Types and Number of Authors In-text Citation Reference List One author (Milanovic 2005) Milanovic, B. (2005) Two authors (Epstein and Buhovac 2014) Epstein, M.J. and Buhovac, A.R. (2014). Three authors (Grozzetti, Bouraoui and Aloe 2012) Grizzetti, B., Bouraoui, F. and Aloe, A. (2012). Four to six authors
(Kenny et al. 2009) Kenny, J.F., Barber, N.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K. and Maupin, M.A. (2009). Seven or more authors (Seneviratne et al. 2012) Seneviratne, S.I., Nicholls, N., Easterling, D., Goodess, C.M., Kossin, J., McInnes, K. et al. (2012). Institutional authors (United Nations Environment Programme [UN Environment] 2016), (UN Environment 2016) United Nations Environment Programme (2016). UN Environment collaborating Center or administered MEA (United Nations Environment Programme/Secretariat of the Convention for Biodiversity [UN Environment/CBD] 2012), (UN Environment/CBD 2012)
United Nations Environment Programme/Secretariat of the Convention for Biodiversity (2012). Government body (Kenya, Ministry of Education 2016) Kenya, Ministry of Education (2016) 4c. Attribution: Types of Sources In-text Citation Reference List Book (Andrew 2014) Andrew, R. (2014). Socio-economic Drivers of Change in the Arctic. Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Book with an author and an editor (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] 2013) or (IPCC 2013) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M.M.B., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J. et al. (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_ALL_FIN AL.pdf
Book section (Lifset and Graedel 2002) Lifset, R. and Graedel, T.E. (2002). Industrial ecology: Goals and definitions. In A Handbook of Industrial Ecology. Ayres, R.U. and Ayres, L. (eds.). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Chapter 1. 3-15. http://planet.botany.uwc.ac.za/nisl/ESS/Documents/Industrial_Ecolog y_Overview.pdf United Nations Masthead document (A/62/156) United Nations, General Assembly (2007). Measures to Prevent Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Secretary-General. 27 July. A/62/156. Report by United Nations Department or Division (United Nations 2014) United Nations (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision: Highlights. New York. ST/ESA/SER.A/352. Publication by a United Nations Commission (United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean [ECLAC] 2005), (ECLAC
2005) United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (2016). Strengthening the Relationship Between India and Latin America and the Caribbean. Mexico City. LC/MEX/L.1223. 4c. Attribution: Types of Sources (cont.) In-text Citation Reference List Conference paper (Caroll et al. 2004) Carroll, A.L., Taylor, S.W., Regniere, J. and Safranyik, L. (2004). Effects of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle in British Columbia. Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium: Challenges and Solutions. Shore, T.L., Brooks, J.E. and Stone, J.E. (eds.). Kelowna, British Columbia, 3031 October 2003. Victoria: Natural Resources Canada. 223-232. Journal article (Degteva and Nellemann 2013) Degteva, A. and Nellemann, C. (2013). Nenets migration in the landscape: Impacts of industrial development in Yamal peninsula, Russia. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 3(1), 1-21. http://www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/3/1/15. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2041-7136-3-15 Online database (United Nations 2008) United Nations (2008). National Accounts Main Aggregates Database. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/snaama/Introduction.asp. Accessed 30 July 2009.
Illustration - Independent (Doe 2012) Doe, D. (2012). Sunset in Arusha [Photo]. http://www.jamesdoe.com/photo_123.html. Accessed 19 November 2015. Illustration from a source where the author of the illustration is aslo the author of the source (United Nations Environment Programme (2016) United Nations Environment Programme (2016). Emissions Gap Report 2016. Nairobi. 91. Illustration from a source where the author of the illustration is not the author of the source (Doe 2012) Doe, D. (2012). Food Burial [poster]. In United Nations Environment Programme (2014). Think Eat Save Report. Nairobi. 54. Illustration from an online database Doe, D. (2012). Sunset in Arusha [photo]. Shutterstock. http://www.shutterstock.com/12324.html. 4d. A few changes
Past Practice Current Practice Use of et al. in text Three authors or more Four authors or more Use of et al. in reference list No standard practice Seven authors or more. List first six et al. Institutional authors Often abbreviated form Name to be written in full Databases (e.g. Faostat) Cited by database name Use responsible institutions (e.g. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Photographs Only a credit including the copyright holder and the photographers name
In addition to the credit, mention the photographs in the text and number them among the figures, unless they are purely decorative. Also Important Titles of journals to be given in full 4d. Order of entries in the reference list Entries arranged by alphabetical order. Several sources, same author or co-authors: ascending chronological order. Same author, same year: alphabetical order by the letter assigned after year. Single author listed before multi-author source beginning with same author. Several sources with same first author and different co-author: alphabetical order by surname of first author then surname of the other authors. 5. Reference Management Tools The compilation and management of references can be enhanced by
the use of a reference management tool that can help: Build and organize libraries from various databases Attach full-text to selected references Insert citations in Word directly from the Endnote Library and have the text instantly formatted according to the selected citation style. UN Environment has purchased a multi-user Endnote X8 License. Each author group to have a passkey to an Endnote desktop account. Other members to share through their Endnote online account. Members of the UN Environment Secretariat to be assigned to each group. The owner of the passkey to consolidate the text before submitting to UN Environment Secretariat. 6. Submitting Drafts Compliance with referencing and style guide. Each in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list and vice versa. All required permissions have been secured and a copy of evidence submitted as an annex to the manuscript.
7. Support from UN Environment Secretariat Topical on-demand literature search. Research for Life registration of eligible institutions in eligible countries. Plagiarism checking. Purchase of iThenticate by UN Secretariat. Training being arranged, hopefully on time for use in the GEO project. Citations quality control. Thank you! Comments and suggestions to: [email protected]
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