H.A.W.T. DevelopmentPrototype and Testing - Final Report

H.A.W.T. DevelopmentPrototype and Testing - Final Report

H.A.W.T. Development Prototype and Testing - Final Report Vortex Wind Systems Group M9 April 1, 2014 INTRODUCTION Team members Supervisors Jeremy Tibbo Dr. Sam Nakhla Dan Follett

Dr. Kevin Pope Scott Guilcher Agenda Project Definition Past Accomplishments Optimization Theoretical Power Output Solid Mechanics Finite Element Analysis Prototype Model Experimental Results Conclusion Project Definition Design of a small wind turbine to:

Power a cottage based on light, radio and TV and fridge based on Power Evaluation 52 weekends per year Have a robust design that is optimized for Newfoundland wind characteristics Past Accomplishments Module 1 Project Definition Project Management

Plan Market Analysis Environmental Analysis Tool Evaluation Prototyping methods Testing Options Past Accomplishments Module 2

Blade Design Theory Airfoil Polar Data Evaluation Design Considerations Blade Design Analysis Blade Design Theory Prop-ID Element/Momentum Theory

Iterative Process Stall Regulated Turbines Tapered Blade Design Airfoil Polar Data Evaluation Airfoil Selection and Evaluation Selection Caveats Root Airfoil S814 Mid-Span Airfoil S812 Tip Airfoil S813 Design Considerations Betz Law Justification for 3 Blades Theoretical Blade Length Theoretical Power Output/Demand

Blade Design Analysis Geometry Performance Analysis Solid Mechanics Normalized chord and twist distribution 0.2 0.15 0.092902 0.083612 0.074322 0.065031 0.074322 0.065031 0.055741 0.05 16.0000

16.0000 16.0000 10.0000 5.0000 0.0000 -2.0000 -3.0000 -3.0000 -3.0000 Rotor Radius: 3.5 feet Preliminary Design Sketch Fabrication & Testing Phase - Module 3 Step 1 Optimization Step 2 Solid

Mechanics & FEA Step 3 Prototyping & Fabrication Step 4 Testing Step 5 Going Forward Optimization Performance and Wind Distribution Adjusted focus from maximum power output at low wind speeds to higher annual kWh Changed blade geometry to match

Weibull wind distribution Wind Speed (m/s) 0.50 1200.00% 0.45 1000.00% 0.40 800.00% Weibull Wind Distribution Wind Freq. Data Previous Model Current Model

0.30 0.25 600.00% 0.20 400.00% 0.15 0.10 200.00% 0.05 0.00 5.00 10.00

15.00 20.00 25.00 0.00% Cp Wind Frequency 0.35 Theoretical Power Output Power Output 600

1200.00% 500 1000.00% 400 800.00% 300 600.00% 200 400.00% 100

200.00% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.00% Total power: 4620 kWh 40% capacity: 1848 kWh Power (Watts) Frequency Wind Speed (m/s) Weibull Power Curve

Preliminary Stress Calculations - Blade Using the maximum coefficient of lift and drag: Two moments will occur in this stress evaluation while treating the blade as a beam: About the Y-axis in a negative manner About the Z- axis in the positive direction Preliminary Stress Calculations - Blade Using the lift, drag forces and moments calculated: Therefore the ballpark stress expected was: 1.297 MPa Finite Element Analysis (FEA) To ensure safety and reliability while testing, FEA was performed on the blades

Material: ABS-M30 Plastic Yield Strength: 36,000,000 Pa Maximum Lift Force: 140N/m2 Maximum Drag Force: 40N/m2 Do to the size, the aerodynamic moment was neglected during analysis Fatigue was evaluated as shown on the right. No issues found Finite Element Analysis Von Misses Stress Results Displacement (mm) Maximum: 1,149,901.8 Pa Maximum: 2.907 mm

Safety Factor: XXXXXXXXXXXX Prototype Model Design philosophy behind prototype: Simple to assemble Strong and reliable Cost effective Fit in the wind tunnel Prototype parts: 1. Shaft tapered shaft 2. Bearing and seat 3. Generator 4. Nacelle with end cap 5. Rotor hub 6. Blades 6

4 2 1 5 3 Experimental Results Prototype Power Output Measured at 10m/s theoretical peak output Other losses: Surface finish Bearing friction Alignment 90 80 70

Power (watts) 60 Other Losses Generator Efficiency Measured 50 40 30 20 10 0 Experimental Scaled Theoretical Conclusion

Blade design optimized to meet estimated power requirements Blade structural requirements met Prototype operated as predicted Peak power observed is acceptable Recommendations: Include gears to reduce TSR and increase driveshaft RPM Implement full scale prototype in rural setting to evaluate and compare power output Questions? www.vortexwindsystems.weebly.com

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