Hazardous Waste and Tire Incineration in the United States ...
Hazardous Waste and Tire Incineration in the U.S. and Mexican Cement Industries: Environmental and Health Problems Mike Ewall and Katy Nicholson Energy Justice Network (Nov 2005; updated Nov 2007) www.EnergyJustice.net/cementkilns/ Cement Processing in US Source: Map, EarthJustice (http://www.earthjustice.org/news/cement_kilns/cement_kilns.html), List of Plants, EPA Dec 31st, 1997 (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/pcem/plantlis.pdf), Original List, US and Canadian Portland Cement Industry: Plant Information Summary, 2003 (For Purchase) Cement Plants in Mexico Source: Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America, Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, 1990-2001, 2003, p11. (http://www.cec.org/files/pdf/ECONOMY/Session1-2-Jacott-Reed-Winfield_en.pdf)
Making Cement Entire process is environmentally destructive Extraction and mining of limestone Transportation of materials Combustion in kilns Toxic ash (cement kiln dust) Cement Kilns Very energy-intensive, especially wet kilns. Major air pollution sources, even when only burning fossil fuels. Worse when burning tires or hazardous waste. Cement Production Process
Extraction of prime materials: limestone (70%) and other materials like clay, aluminum oxide, iron, shale and silica. Materials are ground and stored separately. Material is measured to achieve a specific combination, depending upon the type of cement desired, and ground to produce a very fine powder. Powder is pumped to silos, where the blend is standardized. The blend is placed in long, rotating kilns, where it is heated at high temperatures (approximately 1,500 degrees centigrade), causing chemical and physical reactions. This process where heat
is used to break down the material is called calcination. A new material is formed, which is called pre-cement or clinker, which are composed of small balls about the size of a nut. The clinker is ground up, combined with gypsum and packaged. When this product cement is mixed with sand, stone, other materials and water, concrete is produced. The calcination process, turning the limestone into clinker in the kiln, is the fundamental step described above. This process requires a substantial amount of energy, provided by the burning of fuels, which are injected at the opposite end of the kiln, and it represents the major economic cost in cement production. Wet and Dry Process Kilns Wet Process (old process) Material ground using a rotating ball mill with water
Resulting slurry is fed to rotary kiln Processing temperatures of 1450C Uses more energy (burns more fuels) than dry process Dry Process (new process) Material ground using a rotating ball or vertical roller mill Resulting kiln feed blended and sent to a preheater tower and rotary kiln For both rotary kiln fired with energy-intense flame Clinker is cooled for handling Source: Essroc Italcementi Group (http://www.essroc.com/default.aspx?pageid=183) Dry Process of a Cement Kiln Source: Texas Environmental Profiles (http://www.texasep.org/html/wst/wst_4imn_incin.html) Energy Use in Cement Kilns One ton of cement requires an average of 4.4 million Btu
Equivalent to 400 pounds of coal Types of Fuel Used Coal Oil Petroleum coke Natural gas Hazardous Waste Tire Derived Fuel Municipal Solid Waste Plastics Sewage Sludge Source: American Lung Association (http://www.mindfully.org/Air/Cement-Kilns-Burning-Waste4.htm)
Fossil Fuels Becoming Expensive Coal prices climbing as global demand increases (U.S., China), partially due to rising oil and gas prices Fossil Fuels Becoming Expensive Oil production is peaking globally, meaning supply can no longer meet increasing You are here demand, causing prices to rise U.S. Global Oil Production Fossil Fuels Becoming Expensive Natural gas production peaked in North America; will peak globally around 2020 Prices have tripled in recent years Mexico used to export gas to the U.S. and now imports from U.S.
Why use Alternative Fuels? Diversify Fuel Use Tax Incentives Government grants and loans Environmental Benefits Waste Disposal Profits Tire Incineration in U.S. 52% of U.S. scrap tires are burned Tire Incineration Increasing in U.S. 2005 US Scrap Tire Market Summary (millions of tires)
Tire-Derived Fuel (TDF) Cement Kilns Pulp & Paper Mills Electric Utilities Dedicated Tire Incineration Industrial Boilers Total TDF Products Ground Rubber Cut/Punched/Stamped Civil Engineering Misc./Agriculture Electric Arc Furnaces Export TOTAL USE TOTAL GENERATION 58.0 39.0 27.0
10.0 21.0 155.1 37.5 6.1 49.2 3.1 1.3 6.9 259.2 299.2 37% of U.S. tire burning is done in cement kilns U.S. Cement kilns burn 19% of all U.S. scrap tires These are also very polluting and have
been fought by community groups Cement Kiln Incineration in Mexico Early 1990s cement companies allowed to burn alternative fuels on one-year authorizations 1996 SEMARNAT signs agreement with cement companies to continue allowing waste burning and to develop standards 2001 agreement with cement industry is extended Dec 2002 official standards for burning alternative wastes approved Nearly all cement kilns now allowed to burn 5%-30% alternative fuels Currently six cement kilns in Mexico that are burning tires:
CEMEX Ensenada CEMEX Hermosillo CEMEX Monterrey CEMEX Colima Cementos Apasco plant in Apaxco Cementos de Chihuahua plant in Samalayuca Fuels in Mexican Cement Industry Source: Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America, Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, 1990-2001, 2003, p12. (http://www.cec.org/files/pdf/ECONOMY/Session1-2-Jacott-Reed-Winfield_en.pdf) Alternative Fuels in Mexican Cement Industry Used Oils and Solvents Bottoms of Distillation Columns Paints, Thinners, Varnishes Contaminated Hydrocarbons
Greases and Waxes Organic and Refining Sludge Perforation Cuts Contaminated Solids Used Catalytic Converters Resins Textiles Leather Rubber Woods Plastics Papers Tires Contaminated Soils Source: Table 31 (p46) in Jacott, M., et al. "Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America: Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, 1990-2001," May 2003. http://www.texascenter.org/publications/cement.pdf Dioxin Facts
Dioxins and furans are the most toxic chemicals known to science Dioxins cause infertility, learning disabilities, endometriosis, birth defects, sexual reproductive disorders, damage to the immune system, cancer and more. 93% of dioxin exposure is from eating meat and dairy products. Exposure to Dioxins How to make dioxin Dioxins are created by burning hydrocarbons (fossil fuels, tires, hazardous wastes) with chlorine (present in coal, tires and some hazardous wastes) in the presence of oxygen. Dioxin emissions increase when: More chlorine is in the fuel/waste stream Certain metal catalysts are present The gases stay in a low temperature range (200450o C)
Pollutants Released by Cement Kilns Carbon dioxide (global warming gas) Acid Gases, Nitrogen Oxides, Sulfur Dioxide, Particulate Matter 19 heavy metals, including lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium VI Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs), including dioxins, furans and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Source: http://www.texascenter.org/publications/kiln.htm Pollutants Released by Cement Kilns Upset events in cement kilns operation trigger increased emissions from the stack and fugitive (non-stack) emissions from the cement kiln itself. When handling, storing and burning liquid hazardous wastes, fugitive emissions can be released from numerous points at ground level such as the seals on the cement kiln, vents and pressure release valves, the
storage tanks, and transfer points from the storage tanks through the pumps and into the rotary kiln. Test Burns are Unreliable Emissions estimates and regulatory enforcement usually based on infrequent testing under optimal conditions Tests dont reflect startup, shutdown and upset conditions Tests are usually done with careful attention paid to temperature, air flow and other operating conditions May take multiple samples until one passes Tests are very infrequent Continuous Emissions Monitors Only generally used for sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO) and opacity (indirectly monitoring particulate matter) Technology now exists to continuously monitor:
Chromium (Cr) Lead (Pb) Manganese (Mn) Mercury (Hg) Silver (Ag) Nickel (Ni) Zinc (Zn) and more www.ejnet.org/toxics/cems.html Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) in U.S. Large amounts of fine material given off and carried out by flow of hot gas within cement kiln Collected using pollution control systems like cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, or baghouses, and is then landfilled either on or off site. 4 million tons of CKD disposed of each year In 1990, average of 9 tons of CKD produced for every 100 tons of clinker.
Dry process cement kilns generally produce more CKD Some CKD is recycled into the cement product. Source: Beneficial Use of Solid Waste in Maine (http://useit.umaine.edu/materials/ckd/general_information.htm) Beneficial Uses Not considered hazardous waste by US EPA Soil Stabilization Stabilization and Solidification of Waste Cement Replacement Asphalt Pavement Mine Fill Crop Enhancer
Whats in Cement Kiln Dust? Calcium Oxide Toxic metals: Arsenic, Chromium, Cadmium, Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, Lead, Silver, Mercury, Thallium, Selenium, Nickel Dioxin, Furans Cement Kiln Dust More Toxic when Burning Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Fuels vs. Traditional Fuels Hazardous Waste either emitted into air, absorbed into CKD, or into clinker (final product) Using hazardous waste produces 104% more cement kiln dust by volume Lead concentrations 250% higher Cadmium concentrations 150% higher Chromium concentrations 50% higher Selenium concentrations 100% higher 700 times more dioxin
Source: EPA, Report to Congress on CKD, December 1993) Source: Downwinders (http://www.downwindersatrisk.org/DownwindersAtRisk-100FactsAboutTheIncineration.htm) Tire Pile Problems Tires cause health problems (mosquitoes) Can catch fire Expensive to get rid of Not many import restrictions on tires being sent to Mexico 40 million tires per year go obsolete in Mexico Stockpiled Tires in Border Cities. Mxico Mexicali Ciudad Jurez Matamoros Reynosa Nuevo Laredo Piedras Negras Ciudad Acuna Texas
El Paso Estimated tires in piles 5,000,000 3,000,000 800,000 500,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 75,000 Tire Derived Fuel US EPA General Information In 2003: 130 million scrap tires used as fuel (45% of amount generated) Shredded or whole tires used Claimed Advantages Tires produce the same amount of energy as oil and 25% more energy than coal The ash residues from TDF may contain a lower heavy metals content than some coals.
Results in lower NOx emissions when compared to many U.S. coals, particularly the high-sulfur coals. EPA The Agency supports the responsible use of tires in Portland cement kilns and other industrial facilities Mexico US Tires Many millions of scrap tires are located on the Mexico-U.S. border Border 2012 has the intention of reutilizing the tires generated by the clean-up for productive purposes, such as recycling or reuse Border 2012 is a ten-year program lead by the U.S. Environmental Protectin Agency and Mexicos Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Rucursos Naturales (SEMARNAT). Mexico US Tires Texas, California and Colorado are among the U.S. states with the largest
stockpiles of tires Chemical Composition of Tires Typical types of materials used to manufacture tires: Synthetic Rubber Natural Rubber Sulfur and sulfur compounds Silica Phenolic resin Oil: aromatic, naphthenic, paraffinic Fabric: Polyester, Nylon, Etc. Petroleum waxes Pigments: zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, etc. Carbon black Fatty acids Inert materials Steel Wire Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council Chemical Composition of Tires
Description Moisture % By Weight, as Received 0.62 Ash Carbon 4.78 83.87 Hydrogen 7.09 Nitrogen 0.24
Sulfur 1.23 Oxygen (by difference) 2.17 Total 100 Elemental Mineral Analysis Zinc (O xide Form) 1.52
Calcium 0.378 Iron 0.321 Chlorine 0.149 Chromium Fluoride High zinc levels in tires prevent cement kilns from using high percentages of tire-derived fuel, as the zinc presents a problem for formation of Portland cement, making it harden
too quickly 0.0097 0.001 Cadmium 0.0006 Lead 0.0065 Tires have lots of zinc in the steel belted radials and since tires may be burned whole rather than removing the steel belts, there are major challenges if the zinc content is too high. Representative Analysis of TDF Produced By WRI
(Source: TDF Produced From Scrap Tires with 96+% Wire Removed) Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council Chemical Composition of Tire Ash COMPOUND SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 AVERAGE Total Carbon -- % 0.071 0.258 0.164 Aluminum 0.128
0.106 Tin 0.007 0.006 0.006 Sulfur 0.766 0.762 0.764 Iron
0.001 Preliminary Results Of Slag (Bottom Ash) Analysis Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council Chemical Composition of Tire Ash Contents Weight by Percentage Zinc 51.48% Lead 0.22% Iron
0.03% Silicon 6.85% Cadmium 0.05% Carbon 32.20% Total 99.43% Note: These results are from incineration of 100% tire fuel. Sources: Radian Corporation, Results From Sampling and Analysis of Wastes From the Gummi Mayer Tire Incinerator, May 1985.
Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council Chlorine in Tires Aromatic extender oils Salt-bath" vulcanization process Halogenated butyl rubber liners California study: Tires have 2-5 times the chlorine level of western coal EPA survey: chlorine levels in tires to be 2% higher than the national average for bituminous coal Dioxin Emissions from Tire Burning Data From 4 California Cement Kilns
5 Canadian Cement Kilns Victorville, CA Cement Kiln Cupertino, CA Cement Kiln Davenport, CA Cement Kiln Davenport, CA Cement Kiln Lucerne Valley, CA Cement Kiln Chester, PA Paper Mill U Iowa, Iowa City, IA Industrial Boiler U Iowa, Iowa City, IA Industrial Boiler TDF Content (% TDF compared to 100% coal) Dioxins/Furans <20% Increased between 53% and 100%
Increased 37% and 247% in two tests Decreased 54% and 55% in two other tests Dioxins increased 139-184% 24.60% Furans increased 129% Increased 30% Dioxins increased 398% and 1,425% in two tests 30% Furans increased 58% and 2,230% in two tests 20% Increased 25% 20% Dioxins and some dibenzofurans increased 4-8% Increased 4,140% 4% Decreased 44% 8% Decreased 83% Tire Derived Fuel Emissions Data on emissions from tire burning varies Some studies compare a mixture of tires and coal to 100% coal; others compare to other mixtures of fuels Chemical composition of coal can vary by
coal type and region Data is from cement kilns, paper mills or other industrial boilers Operating conditions may vary Tire Derived Fuel Emissions Common trends in comparing TDF/coal mixture to 100% coal INCREASE Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Zinc Dioxins/Furans PCBs PAHs Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Benzene
POSSIBLY INCREASES DECREASE Arsenic Fluoride Barium Nitrogen Oxides Beryllium Cadmium Chlorine Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Manganese Mercury Whole vs. Chipped Tires Whole tires are harder to burn, resulting in less complete combustion and more pollution Chipping tires is more expensive and the burning of whole tires is increasing
Alternatives to Burning Tires Source Reduction Toxics Use Reduction Reuse (Retreading) Recycling Devulcanization Rubberized Asphalt Concrete Monofills Hazardous Waste Fuel U.S. 14 cement kilns and 3 light-weight aggregate kilns currently burn hazardous waste in the U.S.
Of the 7.3 million tons of hazardous waste that is managed off-site (commercially) each year in the US 2.4 million tons are burned About 1.4 million tons (about 19%) were burned in cement or light-weight aggregate kilns in 2003 This is down from 37 kilns in 1994, when 90% of commercially incinerated liquid hazardous wastes were burned in kilns Hazardous Waste Chemical Composition Residues from industrial / commercial painting operations, paint solids, spent solvents Metal cleaning fluids Electronic industry solvents (these materials include chlorinated/fluorocarbon solvents); trace metals contained become part of the cement Cleaning solvents Oil refinery wastes
Tank bottoms / still bottoms sludges can contain metals mixed in with liquids from bottoms of chemical drums Cement Kilns & Hazardous Waste Cement kilns not designed for hazardous waste incineration National air pollution regulations are full of loopholes Cement kilns have mass air flows 5-6 times higher than hazardous waste incinerators, but emissions limits allow similar concentrations Ashes and scrubber wastes from hazardous waste incinerators are legally considered hazardous waste, but cement kiln dust is not. Cement Kilns & Hazardous Waste Facility Total Annual Emissions TXI* = 23,995 tpy
Factor Difference AEI* = 744 tpy 32.25X lower than TXI LAI* = 645 tpy 37.30X lower than TXI CWM* = 598 tpy 40.12X lower than TXI 12X higher than all 3 Commercial HWI combined.
Hazardous waste incinerator data is 1995 annual tons; TXI's is 1997 draft air permit. TPY = tons per year * TXI is Texas Industries Inc. Midlothian Cement Kiln Complex. Data from draft TNRCC air permit. * AEI is American EnviroTech's commercial hazardous waste incinerator in Channelview, Harris County, Texas that was permitted by TNRCC but never built. Data from TNRCC air permit. * LAI is Laidlaw's (formerly Rollins Environmental Services) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Now called Safety-Kleen. Data from TNRCC air permit. * CWM is Chemical Waste Management's commercial hazardous waste incinerator at Port Arthur, Jefferson County, Texas. Data from TNRCC air permit. Dioxin Emissions Affected by Temperature Source: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A Hazardous Waste Burning = 21 times higher
Dioxin Emissions Source: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A Hazardous Waste Burning = 11,667 Times Higher Dioxin Levels in Cement Kiln Dust Source: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A Keystone Cement's Dirty History 1976 Started burning hazardous waste early 1990's Applied for increase in amount of waste burned Opposed by community group and school parent-teacher group 1992 Revealed that computer data had been altered to hide permit violations Permit application suspended 1995
Applied to burn 55 additional types of waste and increase burn rate Opposed by community group and school parent-teacher group State asked for health risk assessment 7/1997 Reapplied to burn more waste, but... 12/1997 Hazardous waste fuel tank overheated, 1-mile evacuation Community calls for better safety controls, monitoring & record keeping 8/1999 Application withdrawn Green Cement In 2007, the cities of Dallas, Texas and Fort Worth, Texas passed ordinances banning their cities purchase of cement produced in energy-intensive wet kilns Concentrated solar power can be used for cement manufacturing, avoiding the need for burning fossil fuels or wastes. With carbon taxes, this could even be made cost effective Source:
Economic Assessment Of The Industrial Solar Production Of Lime http://solar.web.psi.ch/data/publications/pdf2/lime_Annex2004.pdf Public Relations / Trade Associations Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (www.ckrc.com) Environmental Technology Council (www.etc.org) Association for Responsible Thermal Treatment (ARTT) [Hazardous waste incinerator industry group that oposed cement kiln incineration. ARTT shut down in mid-1990s] For more information
Energy Justice Network: www.energyjustice.net/tires/ www.energyjustice.net/cementkilns/ GAIA: www.no-burn.org American Lung Association report: www.mindfully.org/Air/Cement-Kilns-Burning-Waste.htm Downwinders at Risk www.downwindersatrisk.org Montanans Against Toxic Burning www.notoxicburning.org Texas Center for Policy Studies www.texascenter.org/tires/ Alberni Environmental Coalition www.portaec.net/local/tireburning/ Friends of Hudson www.friendsofhudson.com Citizens Against the New Kiln (UK) www.cank.org.uk
Email lists: To subscribe to email networks for activists fighting tire burning or cement kilns, contact Mike Ewall at
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