Health Hazards in Construction Part 2 Developed by: Construction Safety Council 4100 Madison Street Hillside, IL 60162 1 Chemical Health Hazards Learning Goals: Be able to explain what a chemical health
hazard is and how construction workers might be exposed to these hazards. Define important terms used to describe chemical hazards in the workplace. Overview the health effects of these hazards on the human body. 2 Important Terms
Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts/fibers & mists Routes of entry Units of concentration Respirable Breathable Air Simple asphyxiant Chemical asphyxiant Gas & vapor density
Carcinogens Toxic & highly toxic 3 Important Terms
Reproductive toxins Irritants Corrosives Sensitizers Hepatotoxins (liver toxins) Nephrotoxins (kidney toxins) Neurotoxins (nerve toxins) Hematopoietic system (blood forming system) Synergistic Effect Your Right to Know
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 4 Chemical Health Hazards Gas Vapor Fume Dust/Fiber
Units of Concentration (ppm) Parts per Million (mg/m) Milligrams per Cubic Meter of Air (g/m) Micrograms per Cubic Meter of Air (f/cc) Fibers per Cubic Centimeter of Air 7
Part Per Million (ppm) Four (4) eye drops in a 55 gallon drum is equivalent to 1 part per million (1 ppm). 55 gallons 8 Milligrams per Cubic Meter of Air (mg/m) Empire State Building
X 1000 = 1 mg/m Approximate Volume = 1,000,000 m 9 Micrograms per Cubic Meter of Air (g/m) Empire State Building X 1 = (1 g/m) X 50 (artificial sweetener packets) = 50 g/m (OSHA PEL for Lead).
Approximate Volume = 1,000,000 m 10 Fibers per Cubic Centimeter (f/cc) Fiber Means a particulate form of asbestos, 5 micrometer (m) or longer, with a length-to-width ratio of at least 3 to 1. 11
OSHA PEL for Asbestos 0.1 f/cc is equivalent to the number of fibers on the tip of a pencil mixed in with the volume of ten refrigerators. Average amount of air a worker breathes during an 8-hour shift (ten refrigerators) 12 Respirable Particles
Respirable dust is less than 10 microns (m) in diameter! Human hair is between 80 120 microns (m) in diameter. 13 Respirable Particles Respirable Dust, e.g., Lead, Silica & Asbestos (<10 m)
A lower case 'o' when printed in Times New Roman size 10 (1mm). Human Hair (80 120 m) Large Dog 1m 1 cm o
14 15 16 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) 100 Capable of filtering 0.3 micrometer particles with 99.97% efficiency. 17
Gases Examples of gases found in construction: Oxygen used for welding and cutting. Acetylene used for welding and cutting. Propane used for heating & fuel. Carbon Dioxide used as an inert gas and can be found naturally in sewers. Methane the principle component of natural gas and found in earth deposits.
18 Gases Examples of gases found in construction: Hydrogen Sulfide break down of organic matter and can be found naturally in sewers. Carbon Monoxide highly toxic and produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Welding Gases The welding arc can produce ozone, phosgene and carbon monoxide gases. Diesel Exhaust Nitrogen Dioxide. 19 Group Discussion
How do Gases Affect the Body? Whos at Risk? What hazardous gases are present on your job? 20 Gases Important questions concerning gases: What is the gas density? What is the flammable range (LFL) of the gas? How toxic is the gas (PEL, TLV, REL & IDLH)? Is the gas a simple asphyxiant or a
chemical asphyxiant? 21 Gas Density Helium .062 Gas Density (Air = 1) Propane 1.55 Carbon Dioxide 1.53
22 Breathable Air Composition of Air Substance (Gas) % by Volume (ppm) Nitrogen 78% (780,000)
Never use pure oxygen for ventilation, cooling or cleaning! 24 Simple Asphyxiants Asphyxiant (Gas) Carbon Dioxide Nitrogen Argon Methane
Gas Density 1.53 .97 1.38 .55 LFL
NA NA NA 5.3% PEL 5000 E
E E IDLH NFPA 704M 40,000 Fire: 0 Health: 0 Reactivity: 0 Specific Hz: NA
NA Fire: 0 Health: 0 Reactivity: 0 Specific Hz: NA NA Fire: 0 Health: 0 Reactivity: 0 Specific Hz: NA
5300 Fire: 4 Health: 1 Reactivity: 0 Specific Hz: NA 25 Sewer Entry Engulfment Toxic gases Explosive Flammable gases
Oxygen Deficiency 26 Confined Space Hazards Confined Space Hazards Always check for hazardous atmospheres! 27 28 Exposure to simple asphyxiants is like
suffocating in a plastic bag. 29 Temporary Heating Devices & Asphyxiation Fresh air must be supplied in sufficient quantities. OTI Southwest Education/elcoshimages.org 30 When using portable heaters, special care must be
taken to provide sufficient ventilation in order to ensure a safe and healthful environment. 31 Chemical Asphyxiant Carbon Monoxide The Silent Killer Hydrogen Sulfide Rotten Eggs 32 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Odorless, colorless and toxic gas.
Found in combustion exhaust. 33 Good example of generator exhausts being vented to the outside. 34 Concentration of Carbon Monoxide (CO) & Health Effects % Volume
of Air ppm .02 200 Possibly headache, mild frontal in 2-3 hrs. .04 400
Headache, frontal, and nausea after 1-2 hrs. .08 800 Headache, dizziness and nausea in 3/4 hour, collapse and possible unconsciousness in 2 hrs. .12 Headache, dizziness and nausea in 20 min.; 1200 collapse, unconsciousness, possibly death in
2 hr. 35 Health Effects Hydrogen Sulfide Colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas. Characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. Bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Found in swamps and sewers
(manholes). 36 Concentration of Hydrogen Sulfide & Health Effects % Volume of Air ppm .0002 .02
Odor detected by human nose. .001 10 Irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. 50 Headache, dizziness and nausea; coughing and breathing difficulty. 100
Severe respiratory tract irritation, eye irritation, convulsions, coma & death in severe cases. .005 .01 Health Effects 37 Welding, Cutting & Brazing
Ozone Phosgene 38 Diesel Exhaust Ensure proper ventilation. Do not idle engines excessively. See manufacturers MSDS. 39 Respiratory Protection for
Exposure to Gases Acid gas cartridges [White] Organic vapor (OV) acid gas cartridges [Yellow] Multi vapor gas cartridges [Olive Green] 3M Organic Vapor/Acid Gas Respirators 5000 Series 40
End of Service Life Indicator (ESLI) The indicator completely changes color when the service life of the cartridge is expired. The indicator background changes to a different color as the service life shortens. 41
Vapors Examples of vapors found in construction: Gasoline used for fuel. Organic Solvents used as paint thinners (toluene & turpentine) & glue solvents (acetone & methyl ethyl ketone) Nail polish remover, an organic solvent (usually acetone)
has a distinctive vapor odor. 42 How are Vapors Formed? Liquid reaches a certain temperature Flash Point. At Flash Point vapor is released into the Water needs to air. be heated (212F) The amount of vapor is dependent on the for vapors to be
formed. Vapor Pressure. Some solvents give off vapor at or below room temperature (72F). 43 Vapors What is the vapor density? What is the flash point of the liquid to which vapor is produced? What is the vapor pressure?
What is the flammable range (LFL) of the vapor? How toxic is the vapor (PEL, TLV, REL & IDLH)? 44 Vapor Density Vapor Density (Air = 1) Gasoline 3 4 Turpentine 4.69
45 Flash Point Flash Point is the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite. 46 How do Solvents Affect the Body? Dissolve Vapors can skin
befats inhaled. and oils. Central Skin dryness, nervous cracking, system redness, damage.and blisters Systemic Local health health effect effect
47 Vapor Pressure Fewer Vapors (Less Hazardous) Toxic solvent with a relative low vapor pressure More Vapors (More Hazardous)
Toxic solvent with a relative high vapor pressure 48 Hazardous (Dangerous) Vapor Pressure Vapor pressure is less than 1mmHg; it is not likely to evaporate (not an inhalation hazard). Vapor pressure greater than 50 mmHg; it is likely to evaporate (is an inhalation hazard).
49 Group Discussion What hazardous vapors are present on your job? 50 Respiratory Protection for Exposure to Vapors Organic vapor (OV) cartridge [Black] Organic vapor (OV)
acid gas cartridges [Yellow] Multi vapor gas cartridges [Olive Green] North 7700 Series Half-Face Respirator equipped with organic vapor acid gas cartridge (yellow) 51 Fumes Examples of fumes found in construction:
Welding Fumes Asphalt Naphtha Coal Tar a brown or black thick liquid that comes from coal; its a skin irritant known to cause cancer. Lead Fumes Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI) 52 Group Discussion Welding fumes are some of the most hazardous exposures a construction worker may experience.
53 How do fumes affect the body? Irritate the skin, eyes and nose; causing an immediate (acute) health effect. Fumes can easily pass from the lungs into the blood stream; resulting in a systemic health effect. Fumes are respirable size
particles that are inhaled and can enter the blood stream. 54 Welding Fumes Metal Fume Fever [Zinc (Galvanized Metal)] Siderosis [Iron, Iron Oxide (Rust)] Manganism (Manganese) 55 Remember Using proper engineering controls will help
prevent diseases associated with welding and cutting, always use them! Courtesy of Sentry Air Systems, Inc. Houston, TX USA Model 300 Welding Fume Extractor www.sentryair.com 56 Asphalt Fumes Made from petroleum.
Headache Skin rash Sensitization Throat and eye irritation Cough Suspect carcinogen No specific OSHA standards. Must wear appropriate
PPE. 57 Naphtha (Coal Tar) By-product of coal. Acne Allergic skin reactions Know to cause cancer Photosensitivity A condition in which a person becomes more sensitive to light. 58
Lead Fumes Lead poisoning Loss of appetite Nausea &vomiting Stomach cramps & constipation Fatigue Joint or muscle aches, anemia Decreased sexual drive. 59 Plumbers Melting Pot (Lead) Plumbers melt lead in special melting pots. Cast iron joints and fittings.
Temperature must never exceeds 900F. Use electric pot with temperature gage. Electric Melting Pot Fuel (propane) Melting Pot 60 Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI) compounds Dyes, paints, inks, and plastics.
Stainless steel & chromium metal. Health effects: Lung cancer Irritation or damage to the nose, throat, and lungs. Irritation or damage to 61 Respiratory Protection for Exposure to Fumes
Particulate Air Filter Use Description Oil Designation P R N 95 Oil Proof Low Efficiency
Oil resistant Low Efficiency Not Oil Proof Low Efficiency 99 Oil Proof Medium Efficiency Oil resistant Medium
Efficiency Not Oil Proof Medium Efficiency 100 Oil Proof High Efficiency Oil resistant High Efficiency
Not Oil Proof High Efficiency Efficiency 62 Dusts & Fibers Examples of Dusts & Fibers found in construction:
Crystalline Silica Asbestos Metal Dusts Lead-Based Paint Fiberglass 63 Dusts & Fibers Important questions concerning dusts & fibers: What is the particle size of the dust and/or fiber?
How toxic is the dust and/or fiber (PEL, TLV, REL & IDLH)? How does the dust or fiber affect the body? Is the dust or fiber regulated by OSHA? 64 How do dust & fibers affect the body? Dusts & Fibers
Quartz Sand Gravel Clay Granite Other forms of rock Smaller particles can be inhaled deep into the lungs - cause damage. 68 Silicosis Disease of the lungs due to the breathing of dust containing crystalline silica
particles. NO cure! 69 Concrete cutting with no engineering control or PPE! 70 Silicosis
Silicotic Lungs Normal Healthy Lungs 71 Crystalline Silica Exposures to crystalline silica dust include:
Concrete cutting. Sandblasting for surface preparation. Crushing and drilling rock and concrete. Masonry and concrete work (e.g., building and road construction and repair). Mining & tunneling. Cement worker wearing a full-face piece negative pressure air purifying respirator. Demolition work. Cement and asphalt pavement manufacturing. 72
73 Asbestos Exposure during demolition or remodeling jobs. Found in some taping compounds, asbestos cement, pipes and floor tiles. Measured in fibers per cubic centimeter (ff/cc). 29 CFR 1926.1101 Asbestos
74 Asbestosis Asbestosis and mesothelioma Rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining that covers many of the body's internal organs. Worker with chronic health problems; he needs oxygen. 75
Lead-Based Paint Dust White Lead" (a lead carbonate) Red Lead" (a lead oxide) 76 EPA Certified Lead Renovator All work performed under the supervision of certified lead renovators. Post signs and warn occupants of buildings. Barricade off work area
and contain lead dust. Clean all objects and surfaces. 77 Fiberglass Insulation Provide general or local exhaust ventilation systems. Wear PPE. Maintain PEL for nuisance dusts (15 mg/m).
100 (HEPA) Atmosphere supplying respirators may be required. 100 (HEPA) Requires specific respirators to be used based on task and exposure level. No disposable filtering facepieces allowed! Atmosphere supplying respirators may be required. 100 (HEPA)
Requires specific respirators to be used based on task and exposure level. Atmosphere supplying respirators may be required. Fiberglass Insulation 95, 99 or 100 (HEPA) Nuisance Dust
95, 99 or 100 (HEPA) No specific respirator required. Select approved respirator bases on exposure level, use and comfort. No specific respirator required. Select approved respirator bases on exposure level, use and comfort. 79
Mists Examples of mists found in construction: Oil mist Paint mist Pesticides Aerosols 80
How do mists affect the body? Skin Designation X Mists 81 Respiratory Protection for Exposures to Mists AOSafety 95110 Paint Spray Respirator
Filters designated as a P or R if the mist contains oil. Organic Vapors Paints Lacquers Enamels
Detachable Prefilter 82 Chemical Health Hazard Categories Carcinogen Corrosive Toxic & Highly Toxic Irritant Sensitizer Affects a Target Organ 83
Reproductive Toxins Benzene (mutagen) Mutation Cadmium and compounds (fertility & teratogen) Permanent change of the genetic material in a
Chloroform (mutagen) cell. Lead and compounds (fertility, teratogen & mutagen) Teratogen Mercury and compounds (fertility & teratogen) Malformations of an embryo or fetus. 84 Synergistic Effect Two or more hazardous materials are present at the
same time. Smoking paralyses the bodys natural defense cilia. 85 Your Right to Know! OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) Chemical manufacturer responsibilities Labels MSDS
86 Contractors Guide to HCS Compliance Become familiar with the OSHAs Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) Prepare and implement a Hazard Communication Program. Assign a competent person to implement all aspects of the Program. Identify all hazardous chemicals in the workplace. Labels and other forms of warning must be in place. Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) available. Employee information and training conducted.
87 Safety Data Sheet (SDS) 1. Identification 2. Hazard(s) Identification 3. Composition/Information on Ingredients 4. First-aid Measures 5. Fire-fighting Measures 6. Accidental Release Measures 7. Handling and Storage 8. Exposure
Controls/Personal Protection 9. Physical & Chemical Properties 10. Stability & Reactivity 11. Toxicological Information 12. Ecological Information 13. Disposal Considerations 14. Transport Information 15. Regulatory Information 16. Other Information 88
Physical Health Hazards Learning Goals: Be able to explain what a physical health hazard is and how construction workers might be exposed to these hazards. Define important terms used to describe physical hazards in the workplace. Overview the health effects of these hazards on the human body. 89 Important Terms
Non-Ionizing Radiation Melanoma 90 Physical Health Hazards Temperature Extremes Too hot or too cold. Noise Irreversible hearing loss. Repetitive Motion Cumulative Trauma Disorder
Radiation Discomfort and eye damage (non-ionizing) Cancer (ionizing), 91 Heat Heat Cramps Electrolyte imbalance caused by sweating. Too much and too little salt. Do not rely on thirst to replenish fluids. Heat Exhaustion Headache
Nausea Fainting Heat Stroke Hot, dry skin High temperature 92 93 Sun Cover up Use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30.
Wear a wide brim hard hat. Wear UV-absorbent sunglasses (eye protection). Limit exposure 94 Safe Work Practices (Heat) Drink water frequently. Wear light-colored, loose-fitting, breathable clothing. Take frequent short breaks in cool shade. Eat smaller meals before work activity. Avoid caffeine and alcohol or large
amounts of sugar. Work in the shade. Consult doctor regard medications. Know limitations of PPE. 95 Cold Frostbite Hypothermia Wear several layers of clothing. Wear gloves and a helmet liner. Wear warm footwear with one or two pairs of warm socks. Wear a scarf or face mask.
Take frequent short breaks in a warm shelter. Drink warm, sweet beverages. Eat warm, high calorie food such as 96 Workers exposed to cold must dress appropriately for the weather. 97 THE COLD STRESS EQUATION LOW TEMPERATURE + WIND SPEED + WETNESS
= INJURIES & ILLNESS When the body is unable to warm itself, serious coldrelated illnesses and injuries may occur, and permanent tissue damage and death may result. U.S. Department of Labor Occupationa l Safety and
Health Administrati on Hypothermia can occur when land temperatures are above freezing or water temperatures are below 98.6F/37C. Coldrelated illnesses can slowly overcome a person who has been chilled by low
Adapted from: ACGIH Threshold Limit Values, and Physical Agents Biohazard Indices, 1998 1999. 98 Occupational Noise Noise is measured using sound level meters Decibel (abbreviated dB) unit used to measure the intensity of a sound.
Standard Sound Level Meter Quest Technologies 99 Normal Conversation 60 65 dB Yelling 80 85 dB 100 What is AWeighted?
A-weighted response most resembles the sensitivity of the human ear. 101 Tinnitus Ringing in the ears Damage to tiny sensory hair cells in the inner ear. 102 The Inner Ear
Cochlea Ear Drum 103 Cochlea 104 How Noise Damages the Ear Like walking on grass. 105
110 115 OSHA Requirement When employees are subjected to sound levels exceeding those listed in Table D-2, feasible* administrative or engineering controls must first be utilized.
If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table (D-2), ear protective devices must be provided and used. 107 Engineering & Administrative Controls for Noise
Enclosures (operator cabs) Routine maintenance on tools and equipment. Lubrication to reduce friction. Acoustical enclosures & sound absorbing materials. Use rubber mallets to erect and dismantle scaffolding and formwork. Rotate workers Post warning signs. Train all employees on how to properly wear
hearing protective devices. 108 109 110 111 Hearing Conservation Program
Monitoring of employee noise exposures. Engineering, work practice, and administrative controls. Signs and barriers to warn workers of high noise levels). Individually fitted hearing protector. Employee training and education. Baseline and annual audiometry. Procedures for preventing further occupational
hearing loss. Recording Keeping 112 113 Recommendations for Protecting Hearing Know your hazard. Trust the annual audiogram. Select hearing protection that is right for you. Wear your hearing protection right. To test the fit, cup your hands over your
ears, then release. 114 Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) A hearing protector's ability to reduce Noise noise. Reduction 29 Rating The greater the NRR, the better the noise reduction. Listed on the hearing protector box. DECIBELS
(When used as directed) THE RANGE OF NOISE REDUCTION RATINGS FOR EXISTING HEARING PROTECTORS IS APPROXIMATELY 0 TO 30 (HIGHER NUMBERS DENOTE GREATER EFFECTIVENESS) NMC Company Model Earplug 115 Proposed Noise Reduction Rating (NRR)
Minimally trained users (the lower number) vs. Highly motivated, trained users (the higher number). Reflects A-weighted attenuation no adjustment necessary. NRR 21 Noise Reduction Rating Possible for most
individually trained users to achieve or exceed 0 10 20 34 Possible for a few motivated proficient users to achieve or exceed
30 40 Noise Reduction (dB) When Worn As Directed 50 116 OSHA NRR Adjustment Calculation NRR 7
For example Noise Reduction Rating 29 DECIBELS (When used as directed) THE RANGE OF NOISE REDUCTION RATINGS FOR EXISTING HEARING PROTECTORS IS APPROXIMATELY 0 TO 30
(HIGHER NUMBERS DENOTE GREATER EFFECTIVENESS) NMC Company Model Earplug Ear plugs with a listed NRR of 29 29 7 = 22 117 NIOSH NRR Adjustment Calculation Earmuffs
Subtract 25% from the manufacturers adjusted NRR Formable Ear Plugs Subtract 50% from the manufacturers adjusted NRR All Other Ear Plugs (Canal Caps)
Subtract 70% from the manufacturers adjusted NRR 118 Dual Hearing Protection 22 + 5 = 27 (Adjusted NRR)
WARNING! Make sure that any plugs used with double protection do not have a cord; it will interfere with the fit of the earmuffs and not provide added protection. 120 Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) Repetitive motions Forceful exertions Awkward postures Static postures
Mechanical compression of soft tissues Fast movement Vibration Lack of sufficient recovery 121 Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Preventing CTDs Hand tools with smooth, rounded edges and long handles. Job layout - Tools, parts, and equipment should be easy to reach. Job rotation or reassignment. Regular breaks Adjusting physical factors in the work environment. The ability to stretch and move around. 127 Ergonomics Study of fitting the job to
the person Fits your hand. Allows a good grip. Takes less effort. Does not require you to work in an awkward position. Does not dig into your fingers or hand. Comfortable and Paladin Tools 1300 Series Ergonomically-designed handles for effortless
Upper Body 131 Pre-Work Stretch & Flex Forearm Stretch 132 Pre-Work Stretch & Flex Open Hand Stretch 133
Ionizing Radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays X-Rays Symbol for Radiation 134
Stopped by a sheet of paper Stopped by a layer of clothing or by a few millimeters of a substance such as aluminum Stopped by several feet of concrete or a few inches of lead
135 Non-Ionizing Radiation Infrared Radiation (IR) Microwave (MW) & Radiofrequency (RF) Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Symbol for Infrared Radiation (IR) Symbol for Microwave (MW) &
Radio (RF) Symbol for Magnetic Field 136 Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) Welding & cutting creates radiant energy that must be protected against (see requirements for filter lens shade number).
137 Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) 138 Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) NIOSH/John Rekus/elcoshimages.org Bad Work Practice not wearing a shirt will result in sunburn and skin damage. Bad Work Practice welder
unprotected from ultraviolet radiation. 139 Melanoma Type of skin cancer. Leading cause of death from skin disease. Excessive exposure to sun light. 140 Protect Against UV Radiation Avoiding working in the sun. Wear protective clothing and (hats).
Apply sunscreens 141 Biological Health Hazards Learning Goals: Be able to explain what a biological health hazard is and how construction workers might be exposed to these hazards. Define important terms used to describe biological hazards in the workplace. Overview the health effects of these hazards on the human body. 142
Important Terms Fungi (mold) Histoplasmosis Hantavirus
Blood Borne Pathogens Universal Precautions HIV Hepatitis HBV & HCV Rabies 143 Biological Health Hazards When working in health care facilities. Accumulation of animal waste and the presence of rodents, insects and birds. During demolition and remolding of old structures. During clearing operations and the
removal of plants, trees and other foliage. Landscaping 144 Fungi (Mold) Molds are organized into three groups: 1. Allergenic 2. Pathogenic 3. Toxigenic 145 How do Molds Affect the Body? Spores small
enough to be airborne. Considered respirable. Produce toxic agents known as mycotoxins. Mold 146 Worker exposed to fungi (mold) wearing personal protective equipment.
147 Histoplasmosis Disease caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). Fungus seems to grow best in soils having high nitrogen content, especially
those enriched with 148 Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Disease spread by rodents that is similar to the flu. Virus is in urine and feces. 149 Respiratory Protection for Exposures to Fungi (Mold) Avoid breathing in mold or mold
spores! Approved Filtering Facepiece Respirator (Disposable) any combination of N, R & P with efficiency 95, 99 or 100. Half Mask, Elastomeric, Air Purifying Respirator any combination of N, R & P with efficiency 95, 99 or 100. 150 Bloodborne Pathogens
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Symbol for Bloodborne Pathogen 151 How Bloodborne Pathogens are Spread Present
Quantity Route of Entry Susceptible For an infection to occur, all four conditions must be present. 152 Universal Precautions Concept of bloodborne disease control which
requires that all human blood and fluids be treated as if known to be infectious. Protect yourself against bloodborne pathogens always wear gloves. 153 Preventing Disease Frequent hand washing will help to
prevent sickness and disease. 154 Poisonous Plants Poison Ivy Poison Oak Poison Sumac Others?
155 Poisonous & Infectious Animals Rabies What are, if any, the poisonous & infectious animals on your job-site? 156 Special Considerations for Construction Host Employer Controlling Contractor Sub-Contractors
Remember Cheap is good, until someone gets hurt! 157 Questions? 158
Talking (Rainbow Passage) Normal breathing. FIT TEST. CARE & MAINTENANCE. 6. CARE & MAINTENANCE. MAINTENANCE. Cartridges. Cartridges and filters must be changed regularly. Keep them in original packaging until ready for use. Store properly or dispose during non-use.
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RIUNIONE NAZIONALE COMU. Modena 3 febbraio 2017. N.B. Per questo intervento non ricevo nessun compenso. Research is an essential component of strong health systems for informed and knowledgeable action to improve people's health and accelerate the rate of global, regional,...
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