Highway Transportation - University of Kentucky College of ...

Highway Transportation - University of Kentucky College of ...

Highway Motor Transportation Concentrate On Commercial Motor Vehicles (CMV) Trucks Busses History

1913 1916 1919 1921 1925 Lincoln Highway

1st Federal Aid Legislation Army Convoy took 62 days 2nd Federal Aid Legislation Adopted Numbered System Even #s east-west routes The rest is history Odd #s north-south routes

History WW I: Motor carrier industry started, converted automobiles were used for pick up and delivery in local areas Railroads encouraged the growth. They had difficulty with small shipments and short distances. WW II: Rail began to compete with trucking but trucking had already become the popular form of transportation 1950-1980: Trucks replaced rail

1950: Rail moved 1.4 billion tons of freight, truck moved 800 million 1980: Rail moved 1.6 billion tons of freight, tuck moved 2 billion; significant growth of smaller truck carriers 1956 - Eisenhower signed bill to establish National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (interstate system) to connect major cities Federal-Aid Act (funding and catalyst for the project) Called for nationwide standards for design of the system

Increased the length of the system to 41,000 Set federal governments share of project cost at 90% Highway Revenue Act Highway Trust Fund consisting of revenue from federal gas and other motor vehicle taxes Used to pay federal share of interstate and other federal-aid highway projects 1980s Deregulation, significant growth

Motor Carrier Act 1935 Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) had control of trucking industry Required carriers to file rates (tariffs) with the ICC New truckers had to receive a certificate from ICC to enter the industry Regulated rates and competition within the trucking industry. Motor Carrier Act 1980

Partially deregulated the industry Eased entry into the industry = increase in the number of carriers Eliminated many restrictions on commodities Encouraged carriers to increase or decrease rates to increase competition Basically removed many ICC regulations Advantages Accessibility: Access to any location/destination

Link between other modes of transportation and the final destination of goods Fast/speed: Products can be delivered directly from the truck and without delay Less delay from unloading/loading like other forms of transportation experience (rail, air, water) No highway constraints: trucks can travel on any designated highway unlike rail and water that have to pay fees/rates to cross over and use other companys facilities.

Typical max. weight 80,000 + 5% pounds Small capacity: consumer can have lower inventory levels, lower inventory costs, and more frequent services Minimum Shipping Weights by Mode: Truck25,000 - 30,000 pounds Rail Car 40,000 - 60,000 pounds Barge hundreds of thousands of tons Smooth ride: less chance of damage to goods Consumer market oriented: very responsive to consumer needs

Two Types of Carriers A. For-Hire Carriers Provides a public service Charges a fee Several Types Local Intercity Exempt Truckload Less-Than-Truckload

Local: pickup and deliver freight within a city zone Intercity: operate in between city zones Often work with local carriers to pick up and deliver goods in the city zones.

Interstate: Truckload: Volume meets the minimum weight required for a truckload shipment and truckload rate Picks up and delivers the same truck load Less-than-truckload: Volume lower than minimum Consolidate smaller shipments into truckload quantities for line haul/intercity movement and

separate the loads back into smaller quantities for delivery Common: serve general public at a reasonable rate Contract: under contract to serve specific shippers Exempt: carriers that are exempt from economic regulations Determined by type of commodity or nature of its operation

Laws of marketplace determine rates, the service provided, and the number of vehicles provided Classification Carriers are classified based on their annual gross operating revenues. Class I $10 million or greater Class II $3-10 million Class III Less than $3 million B. Private (not for hire) Carriers

Provides service to industry or company that owns or lease vehicles Does not charge a fee Motor Carrier Act of 1980: Eased entry requirements Could transport as a for-hire depending on the commodities carried. In this case, would be considered an exempt carrier. Types of Vehicles Line-Haul -- 18 & 24 wheelers

Haul freight long distances between cities Truck trailer combo of 3 or more axles City Trucks Smaller than line-haul vehicles Single units 20 to 25 ft long with cargo unit 15 to 20 ft long. Special Vehicles vehicles specifically designed to meet shippers needs These can be subject to special regulations Ex: number of lights on the vehicles, brakes used, tire

specifications, allowable length and/or height) Special Vehicles: Dry van - standard trailer or truck with all sides enclosed Open top - trailer open for odd-sized freight Flatbed - no top or sides and usually used to haul steel - Tank Trailer - liquids and petroleum products

- Refrigerated vehicles - controlled temperature High cube - higher than normal to increase cubic capacity Special - unique design to carry a specific product Low Startup Fees $5,000 -10,000 to start Many small carriers or Class III, main reason for significant growth in the 1980s Class I and II have more invested because their

companies are larger and require more trucks and terminals, entry into the industry is more limited than Class III Truckload vs Less-than-truckload: LTL require terminals to separate and consolidate shipments, therefore, their startup fee is higher and entry is more limited Commodities Almost all sheep, lambs, cattle, and hogs are transported by trucks

Food products Manufactured products Consumer goods and industrial goods Can transport the following but rail or water is more common: Grains Motor vehicles and equipment paper and allied products Competition

Rivalry between carriers (union vs. non-union) Low entry fee, freedom to enter, and discounting of services have made it easy for individual trucks to compete with larger carriers Market oriented Carriers are forced to meet demand and consumers needs. Smaller for-hire carriers are more capable of giving individual attention to customers. Larger carriers are more limited in the attention they can give customers. Competition between modes: 30,000 - 60,000 pounds hauled less than 300 miles truck

90,000 pounds or more hauled more than 100 miles rail In between these ranges rail and truck compete Operating Ratio Measure of operating efficiency The closer to 100 the higher the need to raise rates to generate revenue For example, a ratio of 94 means 94 cents of every dollar goes to expenses Usually between 93 and 96

Issues Safety improved safety = profit and less expensive claims for lost/damaged goods, increase in insurance, accidents, fines Driver drug testing and training programs Highway road improvements New technology Social Media Satellites are being used to pin point exact location throughout the

movement from origin to destination. Drivers can be rerouted for poor weather and/or road conditions. With the movement of hazardous good, the movement can be monitored and carriers can have a quick reaction to accidents or spills. American Trucking Association (ATA) Established 1933 - American Highway Freight Association and Federation Trucking Associations of America came together to form ATA

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Mission: Prevent commercial motor vehicle-related fatalities and injuries Established January 1, 2000 under the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 Activities Enforcement of safety regulations Targeting high-risk carriers and commercial motor carriers Improving safety information systems and technologies

Strengthening equipment and operating standards Increasing safety awareness & enhance efficiency Kentuckys Highways Freight tonnage 43% inbound 73% outbound

47.2 trillion vehicle miles of travel annually 78, 913 miles of public roads and streets 9 interstate Highways 73% within state, 28% from state, 38% to state (by weight) Highway Design Basics Things to consider Type of road rural or urban Functional Class

Design Speed Design vehicle Traffic Characteristics Terrain Scope of work or purpose for the new roadway Funding Functional Class Arterial: main movement; high mobility and limited access Collectors: link between arterials and local

roads; moderate mobility and access Locals: allows access to properties; low mobility and high access Horizontal Alignment Horizontal curvature of a roadway or a series of curves connected by tangents Tangent Tangent

Horizontal Curve Horizontal Curve Tangent Horizontal Alignment Terms Point of Curvature, PC Point of Intersection, PI

Point of Tangency, PT Radius, R Tangent, T Chord, C Interior Angle, Middle Ordinate, M External Distance, E C Horizontal Alignment Equations

Sta PC = Sta PI-T Sta PT = Sta PC+L L = R/180R/180 C = 2Rsin(/2) T = Rtan(/2) M = R[1-cos(/2)] Superelevation Slope of pavement necessary to keep vehicles on the road e+fs =V2/(15R)

e= superelevation rate fs= coefficient of side friction V=design speed, mph R=Radius Superelevation Angle Vertical Alignment Vertical curvature of a roadway consisting of tangent grades and vertical curves Two types: sag and crest curves

Vertical Alignment Terms Beginning of Curve, PVC Vertex/Intersection, PVI End of Curve, PVT Vertical Grade, g Length of Curve, L Vertical Alignment Equations Sta PVC = Sta PVI L/2 HPVC = HPVI g1*L/2 Sta PVT = Sta PVI + L/2

HPVT = HPVI + g2*L/2 Minimum Curve Lengths Crest Sag SSD

SSD>L 2SSD-(2158/A) 2SSD-(400+3.5SSD)/A **A=|g2-g1|*100 (%) **SSD: Stopping Sight Distance Sight Distance

Sight Distance: length of roadway that is visible to the driver Stopping Sight Distance: Distance that is necessary for a vehicle traveling at design speed to come to a stop Passing Sight Distance: Distance required for a vehicle traveling at design speed to pass another vehicle Stopping Sight Distance SSD = 1.47Vtr + V2/[30(a/32.2+G)]

SSD : Stopping Sight Distance (ft) V : Vehicle speed (mph) tr :driver reaction time, usually 2.5 sec a : deceleration rate (ft/s2) G : grade Design Criteria All roadway design criteria is based on AASHTOs green book or A policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets The green book is used as a guide by roadway


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