History & Development of Forensic Science

History & Development of Forensic Science

History & Development of Forensic Science Forensic Science Students will learn: How a crime lab works The growth and development of forensic science through history Federal rules of evidence, including the Frye

standard and the Daubert ruling Basic types of law in the criminal justice system Students will be able to: Describe how the scientific method is used to solve forensic problems Describe different jobs done by forensic scientists and the experts they consult. Murders at the Mansion

August 20, 1989, Lyle Menendez, 21, & his brother Erik Menendez, 18, went

out for the evening. When they returned, they found that their parents, Jose and Kitty, had been shot and killed in the living room. At 11:47 p.m. Lyle called 911. The police arrived shortly afterward. There was no evidence of forced entry, and nothing had been stolen from the home an indication Jose and Kitty likely knew their attackers.

A witness told police she had seen two men enter the home at around 10:00 p.m. The brothers were questioned at the scene, but they were not considered suspects. No gunshot residue tests were administered. http://thedebbiedaily.com/?page_id=1999 http://thedebbiedaily.com/?page_id=1999

August 28, the brothers began cashing in on their $650,000 life insurance policy. Jose and Kitty had owed money on their mortgage and several other loans. After those had been paid, the brothers were left with a total inheritance of approximately $2 million.

By the end of the year, they had spent more than $1 million. This behavior drew suspicion from police. The brothers were arrested in March 1990. With little physical evidence, the investigators were hoping to find a link between the brothers and the guns used in the killings.

Investigators searched the firearms records of a Big 5 store and uncovered the sale of two shotguns on August 18, 1989, to Donovan Goodreau of San Diego. Goodreau had an alibi for August 18 and August 20, and the signature for the firearms did not match his. A court order was issued for handwriting samples from Lyle and

Erik. Erik refused to provide a handwriting sample. On December 8, 1992, the Menendez brothers were indicted by the Los Angeles Grand Jury. The trial began on July 20, 1993. The defense admitted the brothers killed their parents; they argued that the brothers had been sexually, physically, and emotionally abused for years.

Under California law, jurors had to believe the brothers feared for their lives in order to acquit them. The case resulted in a mistrial. A second trial in 1995 resulted in guilty verdicts for Lyle and Erik. They were convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder. On April 17, 1996, the brothers were sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Inheritance Killers - Erik & Lyle Menendez: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=lofyBKoKnas

Living next door to the killer Menendez brothers: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Inb6zCb5Ns When in Rome Forensic comes from the Latin word forensis meaning forum. During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before the public. Both the person accused of the crime & the accuser would give speeches based on their side

of the story. The individual with the best argument would determine the outcome of the case. First Known Forensic Science 3rd Century China - A wife poisoned her husband and burned his body. The coroner noted no ash inside his mouth and simulated the crime with dead & live pigs. The dead pig had no ash and the live pig did have ash in its mouth. The Wife confessed when shown the

evidence. Chinese were the first to see potential in fingerprints. Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) Father of Toxicology Wrote about the detection of poisons & their effects on animals.

Alphonse Bertillon Father of Anthropometry Developed a system to distinguish one individual person from another based on certain body measurements. Anthropometry Francis Galton (1822-1911)

Father of Fingerprinting Developed fingerprinting as a way to uniquely identify individuals. James Marsh Scottish Chemist First to introduce chemical evidence of arsenic in a body during a trial in 1839.

Leone Lattes (1887-1954) Father of Bloodstain Identification He developed a procedure for determining the blood type (A, B, AB, or O) of a dried blood stain. Calvin Goddard

(1891-1955) Father of Ballistics Developed the technique to examine bullets, using a comparison microscope, to determine whether or not a particular gun fired the bullets. Albert Osborn

(1858-1946) Father of Document Examination His work led to the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts. Walter McCrone

(1916-2002) Father of Microscopic Forensics He developed & applied his microscope techniques to examine evidence in countless court cases. Edmond Locard Father of criminalistics. (1877-1966) Used the

scientific method in criminal investigation. Background was medicine and law. Built the worlds first forensics lab in France in 1910 The Locard Exchange Principle

Locard Exchange Principle states: Whenever two objects come into contact with each other, there is always a transfer of material. J. Edgar Hoover Father of the FBI - Director of Federal Bureau of Investigation during the 1930s

Hoover's leadership spanned 48 yrs & 8 presidential administrations. His reign covered Prohibition, the Great Depression, WWII, the Korean War, the Cold War, & the Vietnam War. He organized a national laboratory to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the U.S. VERY CONTROVERSIAL He exceeded & abused his authority with unjustified investigations & illegal wiretaps based on political beliefs rather than suspected criminal activity

FBI directors are now limited to 10-year terms Sir Alec Jeffreys First to develop a DNA profile (DNA fingerprint) 1984 The Scientific Method Forensic science begins at the crime scene. Forensic scientists rely on the SCIENTIFIC METHOD.

Scientific Method: is a series of logical steps used to solve a problem. Steps in the Scientific Method Identify the Problem: crime has been discovered & police arrive at the scene. Do Background Research: Observe and collect the physical evidence found at

the crime scene. (done by the police & investigators) Construct Hypothesis: (police) hypothesis is an attempt to answer the following questions: what happened, how did it happen, and when did it happen? The crime-scene

investigator does not form a hypothesis. Instead, he or she sends the evidence to the crime lab for further analysis. Establish a set of Procedures: send the physical evidence collected to the lab for testing. Ex. The hair removed from a crime scene is tested to reveal

color, texture, and shape. Analyze results: If the toxicology report shows no use of drugs & there is no follicular tag (no nuclear DNA), it means that the hair will mostlikely not be linked to anyone. The tests can help investigators reduce the

number of potential suspects. Draw conclusion: After all of the physical evidence has been processed and evaluated, a conclusion is drawn. If a suspect can be linked to a crime, then the suspect is apprehended.

When a suspect is brought in for questioning or arrested: Miranda rights are read. You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a

court of law. You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during any questioning. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at the governments expense.

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