History of MSHA - miningquiz.com

History of MSHA - miningquiz.com

History of MSHA Leadership Intensive Course Mine Safety and Health Administration Jesse P. Cole, District Manager Mine Safety and Health Administration, District 4 Coal History First Legislation On September 16, 1869, 179 miners perished in a fire at the Avondale Colliery, located west of WilkesBarre, Pennsylvania. Avondale was thought to be a safe mine. Pennsylvania Legislature passed the Act of 1870. Required 55 cubic feet of air per second for every 55 men. Regulated air currents and movements in mines, forbade the use of a single airway as the intake and exhaust. Required mines to be divided into districts at each level, with each district receiving a separate air current. This helped to contain sections of bad-air and contain it to one general location. Late 1800s Multiple Disasters Most notable: Laurel Mine Explosion Pocahontas, VA 112 miners March 13, 1884. Mommouth Mine Mount Pleasant, PA 109 miners January 27, 1891. Congress responded March 3, 1891 An Act for the Protection of the Lives of Miners in the Territories. First federal statute for mine safety. An Act for the Protection of

the Lives of Miners in the Territories Established minimum ventilation requirements at underground coal mines. Prohibited operators from employing children under 12 years of age. No Enforcement Provisions. Bloody December 1907 Naomi Mine Fayette City, PA Gas and Dust Explosion kills 34 miners on December 1, 1907. 5 days later, the greatest single mining disaster in American History: MONONGAH Monongah 6 & 7, explosion kills 362 miners at Monongah, WV. Monongah 1907 362 Miners Killed Sole Survivor Patrick McDonald Public Law 61-179 In effect May 16, 1910, established: The Bureau of Mines in the Department of Interior. Actions of Bureau limited to research and investigations. Dr. Joseph A. Holmes, First Director of the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

Death and Disasters Continued to Occur.. Between 1910 and 1941 there were 62,281 mining related deaths (era of less than poor reporting). 1941 Public Law 77-49 Federal inspectors given right-of-entry to conduct annual or other inspections and investigations. NO safety or health regulations were mandated. Still, Death and Disasters Continued to Occur March 5, 1947 Centralia, Illinois Centralia No. 5 Mine Explodes 65 miners fatally burned. 45 additional die from afterdamp. Public Law 80-326 passed in 1947 First Code of Federal Regulations for mine safety for bituminous and lignite mines. NO enforcement provisions, law expired in one year. 1951 Explosions Continue to Kill Reported explosions killed 163 persons. 10 ignitions of gas or dust by electric arc. 10 ignitions of gas or dust by open lights or smoking. 3 ignitions of gas and dust by blasting. This record led to further legislation in

1952. Enforcement Begins to Increase 1952 Federal Coal Mine Safety Act Mandated annual inspections of underground coal mines, with more stringent standards for gassy mines. Power to issue violation notices and imminent danger withdrawal orders. Mandated orders of withdrawal for failure to abate conditions of less serious violations. Surface mines and all mines < 15 people were exempt. 23 more coal disasters killed 299 persons from 1952 to 1966. Public Law 89-376 1966 Extended 1952 law to all underground coal mines and provided for orders of withdrawal for repeated unwarrantable failures to comply with standards. Expanded education and training. Farmington November 20, 1968 - Consol No. 9 Farmington WV 78 of 99 miners underground died. Fifteen separate explosions. Disaster occurred less than five miles from Monongah.

Inspection provisions of both surface and underground coal mines. 2 annual inspections of surface mines, 4 annual inspections of underground mines. Increased enforcement powers. Monetary penalties and criminal penalties established. Established black lung compensation for disabilities due to the disease. 1972 Buffalo Creek Disaster 08:05 a.m. February, 26, 1972 - Dam failure at Buffalo Creek, West Virginia resulted in a deluge of water. 132 million gallons of black water released. 126 people living below the dam were killed, 1,100 injured, and over 4,000 left homeless. Former Site of the Town of Saunders. 1973 Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) MESA is created by an administrative action.

Given the enforcement responsibilities that formerly belonged to the Bureau of Mines. Basically a separation between research and enforcement. 1976 Scotia Mine Disaster March 9, 1976 Explosion occurred at Whitesburg, Kentucky killing 15 miners. 2 days later A second explosion kills 11 rescue workers. Scotia Mining Complex Arrow Indicates Mine Portal MESA moved to Department of Labor and changed to Mine Safety and Health Administration. Combined Coal and Metal/Nonmetal health and safety laws. Established the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. Expanded the rights of miners.

3500 3000 Coal Mine Fatalities 1900-2003 Dark Ages 1900-1934 Mechanization Era 1934-1969 Group Safety And Hazard Control Era 1969-2000 2500 2000 1500 2 0 0 0 P r e s e n t 1000 500 0 1900 P e r s o n a l

S a f e t y 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Mechanization Era Group Safety and Hazard Control Era 1934-1969 1969 - 2000 300 1969 Passage of Coal Act 250 1977 Mine Act 200 1993Annual Fatalities

Drop Below 50 150 100 50 0 1960 Personal Safety Era 2000 Present 350 Major Fatality Events 19602003 2002Record Low 27 Fatalities 1983Annual Fatalities Drop Below 100 1970 1980 1990 2000 Metal / Nonmetal History Early 1900s June 8, 1917 Fire at Granite Mountain Mine near Butte, Montana. 163 persons died of smoke inhalation. August 27, 1922 Fire at Argonaut Mine, Jackson, California. 47 miners killed.

November 3, 1926 Fall of Ground at Barnes-Hecker Mine, Ishpeming, Michigan. 51 miners killed, lone survivor climbed over 800 feet of ladders to the surface. Mining Disasters Not as abundant as Coal; however. 1950s: 30 Miners were killed in 6 separate disasters. 1961 Public Law 87-300 Gave right of entry to collect information and study causes of and prevention of accidents. Between 1961 and 1966 1070 miners were killed at a rate of 178 per year. August 28, 1963 Texas Gulf Sulfur Co. - Moab, UT - 18 miners killed in a gas explosion at a Potash mine. 1966 Public Law 89-577 The Federal Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act Provided for the promulgation of standards. Allowed inspections and

investigations. Minimal enforcement authority. Disasters Continued 1968 Mine Fire - Cargill Underground Salt Mine Belle Isle, Louisiana. 21 miners died from carbon monoxide and head injuries. 1972 Mine Fire Sunshine Mine Kellogg, Idaho. 92 Miners died from carbon monoxide poisoning. One of the worst metal and non-metal mining disasters in history. Two Men were Rescued 7 days Later from the 4800 Level 1973 Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) 1977 Public Law 95-164 The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act Metal / Nonmental Mine Fatalities 1911-2003 1200 Dark Ages Mechanization Era 1932-1969 19111932 Group Safety And Hazard Control Era 1969-2000 1000 800 P

e r s o n a l S a f e t y 600 2 0 0 0 P r e s e n t 400 200 0 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981

1991 2001 Major Metal Nonmetal Fatality Events 1911-2003 1200 1917 Granite Mountain Fire kills 163 1000 1972 Sunshine Mine Disaster 800 1966 The Federal Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act 600 1977 The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act 400 200 0 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971

1981 1991 2001 Black Wolf Coal Company Inc. Quecreek #1 Mine July 28, 2002 Future Challenges Increased challenges from extreme mining conditions. Lower seam heights, poor roof/floor conditions. Overlying multiple coal beds / interseam interactions. Older existing mines developed towards depletion. Equipment improvements including digital technology. Information Technology. New Training Challenges. Renewal of an Aging Workforce. Further Reduction in Accident Rates. Judicial Use of Limited Budgets. Teamwork One MSHA. Increased Production due to High Oil Prices. Meeting the Supervisory Needs of Industry. Behavior Based Initiatives. Broad Opportunity for Motivated Leaders: Set achievable goals. Communicate expectations to ensure goals are realized. Set the pace for others to follow. Provide guidance to ensure daily hurdles are surpassed.

Mentor workforce to develop skills. Challenge your people to achieve growth. Monitor your progress. Assess development/progress and modify plan as necessary. Good leaders and managers plan. The end. WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 ALASKA 10-26-37

01-18-57 Jonesville Evan Jones Jonesville, AK 14 Jonesville, AK 5 EXP EXP ARKANSAS 03-04-1897 Kansas & Texas No. 4 Huntington, AR 14 11-20-03 Bonanza No. 20 Bonanza, AR 11 06-25-22 Central Coal & Coke Huntington, AR 02-24-28 Mama No. 3 Jenny Lind, AR13 EXP AR13 11-19-36 Bates Bates, AR 5 EXP 08-27-40 No. 2 Bates, AR 10 EXP 05-11-42 Peerless No. 2 Excelsior, AR 6 EXP 02-08-48 Sun Excelsior Excelsior, AR 8 EXP CALIFORNIA 07-24-1876 Black Diamond Nortonville CA 6 01-19-09 Stone Canyon Chancellor, CA

COLORADO 01-24-1884 Crested Butte Crested Butte, CO 09-09-1889 White Ash Greeley, CO 10 Inun H2O 01-10-1893 Como King, CO 24 EXP 02-18-1896 Vulcan New Castle, CO 49 09-03-1897 Sunshine Sunshine, CO 12 EXP 09-16-01 Spring Gulch Spring Gulch, CO 08-07-02 Bowen Bowen, CO 13 10-28-04 Tercio Tercio, CO 19 02-19-06 Maitland Walsenburg, CO 04-22-06 Cuatro Tercio, CO 18 01-23-07 Primero Primero, CO 24 05-19-07 Engleville Engleville, CO 5 07-06-09 Toller Tollerville, CO 9 01-31-10 Primero Primero, CO 75 EXP EXP 5

FIRE 6 EXP 59 EXP EXP 6 EXP EXP 14 EXP EXP FIRE EXP EXP EXP EXP SUFFOC WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 (cont.)

10-08-10 EXP 11-08-10 12-11-10 02-09-11 06-18-12 12-16-13 EXP 04-27-17 03-31-19 08-18-19 02-12-21 12-13-21 03-24-22 05-05-23 10-07-23 05-27-27 01-20-36 8 EXP 01-27-42 12-28-65 03-02-66 EXP 09-19-68 04-15-81 Starksville Starksville, CO Victor American No. 3 Leyden Cokedale Hastings Vulcan Delagua, CO Leyden, CO Trinidad, CO Hastings, CO New Castle, CO

Hastings Empire Oakdale Moffat No. 1 & 2 Satanic Sopris No. 2 Southwestern Midwest Delagua Monarch No. 2 Hastings, CO Aguilar, CO La Veta, CO Oak Hill, CO Morrison, CO Sopris, CO Aguilar, CO Palisades, CO Delagua, CO Wadge Dutch Creek Mine Burnwell No. 1 Mount Harris, CO 34 Redstone, CO 9 Hesperus, CO EXP EXP 3 Somerset Dutch Creek No. 1 Somerset, CO Redstone, CO 4 15 RFALL EXP EXP 20

5 EXP EXP IOWA 02-14-1893 Chicago & Iowa Albia, IA 01-24-02 Lost Creek No. 2 03-30-53 O=Brien Oskaloosa, IA Lovilia, IA 56 79 10 17 12 121 13 18 5 6 17 10 6 7 Broomfield, CO 8 EXP FIRE EXP EXP 37 EXP EXP EXP EXP FIRE EXP EXP EXP

EXP WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 (cont.) KANSAS 11-09-1888 Shaft No. 2 Frontenac, KS 40 EXP 12-20-06 No. 1 Stone City, KS 7 03-18-11 No. 16 Mineral, KS 5 01-14-14 N0. 7

Mulberry, KS 6 12-13-16 Fidelity No. 9 Stone City, KS 20 EXP EXP HAUL EXP MISSOURI 03-29-1888 Keith & Perry No. 6 Rich Hill, MO 24 EXP 02-18-15 New Home No. 2 Rich Hill, MO 5 MONTANA 06-07-06 11-20-08 02-27-43 Red Lodge Red Lodge Smith Red Lodge, MT Red Lodge, MT Washoe, MT 74 8 9 EXP EXP FIRE FIRE NEW MEXICO 02-27-1895 White Ash Madrid, NM 24 EXP 04-21-1899 Cook & White Madrid, NM 5 EXP 06-19-03

Blassburg No. 3 Blossburg, NM 5 10-05-06 Dutchman Blossburg, NM 10 EXP 12-31-07 Bernal Carthage, NM 11 EXP 10-22-13 Stag Canyon No. 2 Dawson, NM 263 04-14-20 Stag Canyon No. 1 & 6 Dawson, NM 5 11-05-22 #4 Anthracite Madrid, NM 7 EXP 11-25-22 No. 4 Cerillos, NM 12 EXP 02-08-23 Stag Canyon No. 1 Dawson, NM 120 12-06-30 Lamb Madrid, NM 5 EXP 12-07-32 Morgan-Jones Madrid, NM 14 EXP 07-28-44 Brilliant No. 2 Brilliant, NM 6 EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 (cont.)

OKLAHOMA 04-04-1887 Old Savanna No. 2 Savanna, OK 18 EXP 01-07-1892 No. 11 Krebs, OK 100 EXP 03-13-1893 Choctaw Alderson, OK 9 EXP 01-04-1897 No. 1 Alderson, OK 5 EXP 04-29-01 McAlester No. 5 Alderson, OK 6 12-28-01

No. 1 Hartshorne, OK 6 01-13-02 Milby & Dow Dow, OK 10 FIRE 04-12-03 Central Slope 77 Carbon, OK 6 04-30-05 No. 19 Wilburton, OK 13 EXP 01-24-06 Poteau No. 6 Witteville, OK 14 EXP 08-26-08 Hailey-Okla No. 1 Haileyville, OK 10-21-09 Rock Island No. 8 Hartshorne, OK 03-31-10 Great Western No. 2 Wilburton, OK 6 02-22-12 Western No. 5 Lehigh, OK 9 FIRE 03-20-12 San Bois No. 2McCurtain, EXP 2McCurtain, OK 73 09-04-14 No. 1 Adamson, OK 13 R FALL 06-30-19 Alderson No. 5 Alderson, OK 15 08-21-20 No. 19 Degnan, OK 10 EXP 10-11-22 No. 11 Progressive McCurtain, OK 8

01-13-26 No. 21 Wilburton, OK 91 EXP 09-03-26 Tahona Tahona, OK 16 EXP 09-27-29 Covington Tahona, OK 8 EXP 12-17-29 Old Town McAlester, OK 61 EXP 10-27-30 Wheatley No. 4 McAlester, OK 30 11-29-30 Lutie No. 5 Lutie, OK 15 EXP 01-17-45 Bond Valley Haileyville, OK 9 UTAH 05-01-00 03-08-24 09-21-24 Winter Quarters 1 & 4 Scofield, UT No. 2 Castle Gate, UT Rains Rains, UT 5 200 172 EXP EXP HAUL EXP

29 10 EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP FIRE EXP WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 (cont.) 02-06-30 03-08-30 03-14-45 05-09-45

12-16-63 05-12-75 RFALL 08-24-79 RFALL 12-19-84 FIRE WASHINGTON Standard New Peerless Kennilworth No. 1 Carbon Fuel No. 2 Deer Creek Star Point No. 1 Wilberg Mine Standardville, UT Lynn, UT Kennilworth, UT Sunnyside, UT Helper, UT Huntington, UT 23 5 7 23 9 Wattis, UT 4 Orangeville, UT 05-10-1892 Roslyn Roslyn, WA 45 08-24-1894 Franklin Franklin, WA 37 04-08-1895 Blue Canyon Lake Whatcom, WA 12-09-1899 Carbon Hill No. 7 Carbonado, WA 31

08-21-00 Issaquah Issaquah, WA 10-01-02 Lawson Black Diamond, WA 12-07-04 No. 5 Burnett, WA 04-26-07 Morgan Black Diamond, WA 10-03-09 Northwestern Roslyn, WA 11-06-10 Lawson Black Diamond, WA 11-16-15 Northwestern Ravensdale, WA 12-17-17 Wilkeson Wilkeson, WA 08-28-18 Burnett Burnett, WA 12-17-24 Burnett Burnett, WA 12-14-25 Wilkeson Tacoma, WA 04-08-27 Carbonado Carbonado, WA 04-12-30 Carbonado Carbonado, WA EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP 3 27 EXP

FIRE 23 EXP 5 11 17 7 10 16 31 6 12 7 5 7 17 EXP FIRE EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP EXP INUND EXP EXP EXP INUN EXP WESTERN COAL MINING DISASTERS 1800-2000 (cont.)

WYOMING 03-04-1881 Almy Almy, WY 01-13-1886 Almy No. 4 Almy, WY 03-20-1895 Red Canyon 02-25-01 Diamondville No. 1 10-26-01 Diamondville 06-30-03 Hanna No. 1 12-02-05 Diamondville No. 1 03-28-08 Hanna No. 1 01-20-12 Kemmerer No. 4 EXP 04-30-14 No. 2 07-26-20 No. 6 08-14-23 Frontier No. 1 EXP 09-16-24 Sublet No. 5 02-11-38 Vail (Star Valley) 38 13 Red Canyon, WY Diamondville, WY Diamondville, WY Hanna, WY Diamondville, WY Hanna, WY Kemmerer, WY EXP EXP 60 26 22 169

18 59 Cumberland, WY Sublet, WY Kemmerer, WY 5 8 HAUL EXP 99 Sublet, WY Afton, WY 39 5 EXP EXP EXP FIRE FIRE EXP EXP EXP 6 WESTERN M/NM MINING DISASTERS FROM 1860 TO 2000 ALASKA 03-02-10 09-28-11 CAVE 12-09-12 03-15-43

ARIZONA 04-17-13 08-13-13 11-24-27 02-20-45 07-24-52 Collapse 06-11-55 11-11-71 05-10-82 08-10-93 CALIFORNIA 05-30-1874 Amador 10-03-1879 Tioga 11-30-07 04-28-17 08-27-22 09-04-29 Alaska-Mexican

Shakespeare Placer Treadwell, AK 37 Dome Creek, AK Gold 14 EXP Gold SHAFT Great Northern Development Cordova, AK Atkinson Quarry Excursion Inlet, AK 9 5 Gold Rock SNOWSLIDE EXP Miami Miami, AZ Coronado Incline Magma Superior, AZ St. Anthony Tiger, AZ Arizona Precast Concrete 5 COPP Clifton, AZ 9 7 COPP 5 Lead Maricopa City, AZ CAVE IN COPP HAULAGE FIRE

Bnk House FIRE 5 Rock Miami Copper Miami, AZ Inspiration Concentrator Magma Superior, AZ Magma Superior , AZ 4 COPP Inspiration, AZ 3 COPP 4 COPP Shaft Acc 3 COPP Roof Fall Raise Collapse Amador, CA 5 Gold Bodie, CA 6 Gold Fremont Drytown, CA 11 Mountain King Mariposa Co, CA Argonaut Jackson, CA 47 Calaveras Copperopolis, CA Fall of Cage Cage accident Gold FIRE 7 Gold Gold FIRE 5 COPP

Asphx Cave In Tun Asphx WESTERN M/NM MINING DISASTERS FROM 1860 TO 2000 (cont.) 07-14-30 11-12-34 02-19-37 01-05-71 COLORADO 11-13-1885 Bull Domingo Silver Cliff, CO 10 08-29-1895 Sleepy Hollow Sleepy Hollow, CO 09-26-1895 Belgian Leadville, CO 6 Gold 01-04-1896 Anna Lee El Paso City, CO 8

11-20-01 Smuggler-Union Pandora, CO 01-26-04 Strattons Independence Victor, CO 06-07-30 Climax Mine Lake County, CO 01-09-42 Pride Silverton, CO 8 IDAHO 02-25-17 07-25-19 10-06-36 05-02-72 09-09-81 KANSAS 01-31-39 LOUISIANA Glenn Lost Chance, CA 5 Rohl Connolly Quarry Avalon, CA 9 Walker Walkermine, CA 6 El Dorado Mine Shingle Springs, CA 04-15-20

03-05-68 02-19-70 08-30-78 06-08-79 Gold Gran COPP 4 FIRE EXP EXP Limes Gd/Sl 12 EXP Gold 31 14 6 Cp,Gd EXP Gold Inundation Cave In Gd/Sl Gold Moly suffocation North Star Hailey, ID Hecla Burke, ID Morning Mine Mullan, ID Sunshine Mining Co Warrior Mine Riggins, ID 16 5 10 Kellogg, ID 3

Gd,Sl Lead Lead 91 Gold Snowslide CAGE Hoisting Silver EXP Southern 5 Zinc R Fall Delcambre. LA Calumet, LA 21 Jefferson Island, LA Gramercy, LA 3 Franklin, LA 5 6 Salt 4 Baux Salt Treece, KS Jefferson Island Belle Island Salt Mine Jefferson Island Mine Gramercy Works Belle Isle Mine, Hoisting Bnk House FIRE CAGE CAVE IN FIRE Salt

FIRE Salt Mach EXP EXP Roof Fall WESTERN M/NM MINING DISASTERS FROM 1860 TO 2000 (cont.) MISSOURI 02-26-09 MONTANA Keystone

Joplin, MO 5 02-16-1881 Belmont Belmont. MT 6 COPP 11-23-1889 Neversweat-St.Lawrence Butte, MT 6 04-21-1893 Silver Bow #2 Butte, MT 9 04-08-1896 Hope Basin, MT 7 Gold 04-11-1896 St. Lawrence Butte, MT 6 11-06-03 Koarsarge Virginia City, MT 05-12-05 Cora Butte, MT 7 01-18-11 Keating Radersburg, MT 09-03-11 Butte & Superior Butte, MT 04-23-13 Leonard Butte, MT 5 10-19-15 Granite Mountain Shaft Butte, Mt 02-14-16 Pennsylvania Butte, MT 21 06-08-17 Granite Mountain Butte, MT 07-17-17 Three Forks Quarry Trident, MT 11-05-53 American Gilsonite Co

Bonanza, MT NEVADA 04-07-1869 KY-Yellow Jacket Gold Hill, NV 37 09-20-1873 Yellow Jacket Gold Hill, NV 6 06-24-1887 Gould & Curry Virginia City, NV 02-23-11 Belmont Tonopah, NV 17 08-23-11 Giroux Ely, NV 7 07-07-12 Eureka Pit Ely, NV 10 08-04-14 Copper Flat Steam Pit McGill, NV Lead FIRE COPP COPP FIRE COPP 9 COPP 6 6 COPP 16 COPP 163 8 8 Gold Gold 11 Gd/Sl COPP COPP 5

CAVE IN FIRE FIRE EXP Gold EXP Gold ZINC Hoisting COPP FIRE COPP Gyps Gils FIRE FIRE Gd/Sl FIRE FIRE EXP COPP FIRE EXP CAGE EXP FIRE EXP EXP FIRE EXP WESTERN M/NM MINING DISASTERS FROM 1860 TO 2000 (cont.)

11-09-14 08-13-36 06-23-70 NEW MEXICO 03-10-1895 Old Abe 03-31-54 Oklahoma 11-28-10 TEXAS 02-15-75 UTAH Cave In COPP Fall suffocation White Oaks, NM Santa Rita Open Pit 8 Gold Santa Rita, NM FIRE 5 COPP EXP

Jumbo 13 Asphlt EXP 3 Silver EXP 3 Gold GR Fall 3 Stone Mach Ld,Cp 25 COPP 11 5 18 Powder Fumes Limstn EXP FIRE Gold CAVE IN Ld,Zn FIRE Potash EXP Durant, OK 6-15-76 Silver Ridge Mine Quartzville, OR South Dakota

03-21-72 Homestake Mine Lead, SD Iron 6 Gold OREGON Sibley N0. 9 Shaft Ely, NV 5 Mountain City Copper Mountain City, NV Texavada Pine Grove, NV 3 07-15-02 06-01-10 01-21-14 09-17-14 07-16-50 08-27-63 Washington 05-15-70 END El Paso Quarry El Paso, TX Park-Utah Park City, UT 34

Union Quarry Devils Slide, UT Boston Bingham, UT 5 Centennial-Eureka Eureka, UT Lark, U.S. Smelting Lark, UT Cane Creek Mine Moab, UT Silver Eagle Mine Stevens County, WA 3 Silver As

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