History of Neurology

History of Neurology

History of Neurology WALTER B. CANNON SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM & STRESS RICHARD J. BAROHN, MD GERTRUDE AND DEWEY ZIEGLER PROFESSOR OF NEUROLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MEDICAL CENTER Walter B. Cannon MD 18711945 Born: Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin Harvard Med School-1896-1900 Instructor in Physiology at HMS Mentor Henry Pickering Bowditch who trained under Claude Bernard

1906-Professor and Chairman of the Department of Physiology Till 1942 Initial research: used newly discovered x-rays to study mechanisms of swallowing & stomach motility 1st paper- Digestion in the Goose (1898) In 1945 Cannon summarized his career in physiology by describing his focus at different ages: Age 26 40: digestion and the bismuth meal Age 40 46: bodily effects of emotional excitement Age 46 51: wound shock investigations Age 51 59: stable states of the organism Age 59 68: chemical mediation of nerve impulses (collaboration with Arturo Rosenblueth) Age 68 + : chemical sensitivity of nerve-isolated organs He said If I had not undertaken research on the physiology of the digestive tract by use of the newly discovered X-rays, I would have become a neurologist.

Walter B. Cannon MD Autonomic Nervous System 1912- Observed movements of gut stopped experimental animals were Prior automatic research by Gaskill/Langley showed origins distribution & local effects of autonomic neurons Some Aspects of Animals Surviving Over 20 years he & team published many papers on howComplete Exclusion of Sympathetic under physiologic stress the sympathetic NS & adrenal Nerve medulla act to produce visceral adjustment that are needed for preservation Also researched on central mechanisms Involved in emotional behavior & emotional experience. Emergency theory of sympatho-adrenal system:

1929 experiment reviewed chains of ganglia in cats when stressed showed physiologic deficiencies Coined term homeostasis-steady state of internal milieu Demonstrated heart affected by product secreted by adrenal medulla- sympathetic Amer. J. Physiol, 1929, 89:51-107 Walter B. Cannon MD: Publications for Lay Public 1915 Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear

and Rage "Voodoo" Death 1942 The Wisdom of the Body 1932 Digestion and Health 1936 The Way of an Investigator 1945 VOODOO Death Walter Cannon .

American Anthropologist, 44. 1942. 169181 Advice to Young Investigators From Successful, Wise Scientists Over Last 150 Years Claude Bernard An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine (1865) Santiago Ramon y Cajal Advice for A Young Investigator (1916; 1999 English translation) Walter Cannon The Way of an Investigator: A scientists experiences in medical research (1945) Edward O. Wilson Letters to a Young Scientist (2013) The Way of an Investigator: A scientists experiences in medical research (1945)

Walter Cannon Chapter III: Fitness For The Enterprise As the years have gone by, I have been more and more impressed by the occasional lack of one or another of the essential qualities in a man, that spoils his otherwise excellent equipment in mind and character. As an investigator he may, for example, be rich in suggestive ideas and yet be indolent and therefore sterile; he may be a hard worker but secretive about his results and suspicious of his fellow workers, so that his is despised by them; he may be an earnest experimenter but inconsiderate of his helpers, and therefore he may find that help is begrudged him; or he may be prone to display an attitude of superiority and consequently be subjected to derision, expressed or silent. Sometimes an investigators excellence in important regards is so great that it overbalances his defects. I have heard of an eminent scientist who, after weeks of intense and exhausting labor on a difficult problem, would break away in a disgraceful carouse. His escapades ere tolerated because of his

outstanding discoveries. Clearly such need for balancing good and evil is not to be looked upon with any enthusiasm. It is better to strive for a set of qualities that can consistently exist in one anothers companionship and that together favor effectiveness. The Way of an Investigator . Pitch for Nobel?

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