HokieSat Nanosatellite Presentation for Astrium

HokieSat Nanosatellite Presentation for Astrium

HokieSat Introduction Daniel Pedraza Systems & Operations HokieSat [email protected] 22 August, 2002 Overview 1. Introduction 2. Mission & System Overview 3. 3CS Mission 4. ION-F Mission 5. Design/ Configuration 6. Structure/Mass 7. Propulsion 8. Testing Mission and System Overview Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) TechSat-21 Investigate small, distributed spacecraft systems Missions of larger, single platforms University Nanosatellite Program (UNP)

Purpose: help explore and implement technologies of small satellites 10 schools Participating Universities Mission Flight Program Emerald Nanosat-1 Orion ION-F Nanosat-2 Three Corner Sat Institution Stanford U Santa Clara MIT Stanford U Utah State U U of Washington Virginia Tech Arizona State U U of Colorado at Boulder New Mexico State U

Nanosat-1 Nanosat-2 Emerald Orion Anticipated Shuttle Flight Min Alt / Incl / On-Orbit Life April '03 325 km / 28.5deg / 2 months June '03 350 km / 36 deg / 2 months ION-F 3-Corner Sat

Mission and System Overview VT-ISMM Virginia Tech Ionospheric Scintillation Measurement Mission Single satellite investigation Design quickly integrated with: Utah State University University of Washington VT-ISMM =====> ION-F Mission and System Overview ION-F Formation Flying Mission NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Many algorithms developed at GSFC Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) flies with Landsat 7 Three (3) satellites with propulsive capabilities Demonstrate more involved formation flying routines Nanosat-2 Brief Milestone Schedule

Dec01 Sep01 Jun01 Mar01 Mar02 04-06April 01 CDR 25 May 01 (est.) Phase 0/1 Safety Review Phase 2 Safety Package Development Phase 3 Safety Package Development 15 July 01 MSDS Fabrication

01 December 01 Nanosat Delivery Integration and Test University Nanosatellite Program Overview University Nanosatellites DESCRIPTION Nine U.S. universities are producing nine nanosatellites. The nanosats will be deployed via 2 flight missions from Space Shuttle SHELS hardware (Nanosat-1 and Nanosat-2) The nanosats are organized into 3 subclusters for the purposes of demonstrating formation flying, intersatellite collaborative processing/ communication, and autonomous control operations and data downlink Each nanosat cluster incorporates unique technology demonstrations and science measurement capabilities Sponsors: Air Force Research

Labs, NASAs Goddard Flight Center AFRL MultiSatellite Deployment System (MSDS) NASA Shuttle Hitchhiker Experiment Launch System (SHELS) 3 CS Introduction/System Three Corner Sat Introduction/Systems Arizona State University New Mexico State University University of Colorado at Boulder 3CS Mission 3 universities working together to develop constellation of 3 identical satellites ~2 year development schedule Launched as stack on NASA Space Shuttle Each university emphasizing its past heritage Innovative, low-cost solutions & development encouraged

3CS Mission Objectives Inter-satellite Communications Virtual Formation Flying Distributed & Automated Operations Imaging Modular, Generic Design Micropropulsion Experiment Student Education ION-F Introduction/System ION-F Introduction/Systems Virginia Tech University of Washington Utah State University ION-F Mission Investigate satellite coordination and management technologies and distributed ionosphere scintillation measurements Coordinate on satellite design, formation flying, management mission development, science instruments, mission Design and implement internet-based operations centers, enabling each university to control its satellite

from a remote location Mission Configuration: 3CS ION-F USUSat Dawgstar Scenario: HokieSa t Multiple Satellite Deployment System Separation Scenarios 2 . M S D S D e p l o y m e n t fr o m S h u ttle O r b ite r 3 . N a n o s a t D e p lo y m e n t fr o m M S D S

MSDS: Multi- Satellite Deployment System 1. Launch 4. Individual Nanosat deployment Multiple Satellite Recontact Deployment hazard inhibits T4 = T T3 = T T T1 =timers MSDS initiated removed aboard T2 = T Safety inhibits removed System (MSDS) Nanosats for all MSDS systems time-out Safe, Recontact Hazards

Safe, All Systems Except Recontact Hazards 0:00 SEP SEP, Nanosat = T0 + 96 hours, 4 secs = T0 + 102 hours, 4 secs T3 = T SEP without recontact Recontact Hazards Recontact Hazards hazards. Recontact hazard inhibits Stack separation = T0signal + 96 hours, 4 secs MSDS is 20 minutes out 96 hours = 20 T1 minutes = T Safe, All Systems Except= T0 +T2

= TSafe, om 0:00 = T0 + 96 T2 hours= releases TSafe, both stacks T1 = Tremoved T0 =from Safe, All aboard SystemsMSDS Except = 20 =minutes Orbiter,timers T Safe, All Systems = TSafe, T3 = T T3 T1 T0 = 0:00 T2 Except Recontact Hazards SEP Recontact Hazards T0 = 0:00 T1

T3 T4 = TSEP, Nanosat = T0 + 102 hours,=4Tsecs Intersatellite separation = T SEP T4 SEP, Nanosat T4 = TSEP, Nanosat T4 time-out Recontact Hazards T+SEP Hazards = Thours, = Recontact T Safe, = TSafe,

== T0 96 hours, 4 secs = T0 + 102 4 secs SEP, Nanosat All Systems Recontact Except S released from hazard inhibits Stack signal MSDS is 20 minutes out = T0separation + 96 hours, 4 secs = T0 + 96 hours = T0 + 102 hours, 4 secs = 20 minutes

Intersatellite separation Recontact Hazards Recontact Hazards = T0 + 96 hours Recontact hazard inhibits biter/SHELS removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks = 20 minutes from Orbiter,timers Safety inhibits = T0 + 96 hours, 4 secs = T0 + 102 hours, 4 secs ted removed

aboard removed time-out = T0 + hazard 96 hours MSDS released from Recontact inhibits Stack separation signal MSDS is 20 minutes out = 20 minutes Safety inhibits removed Intersatellite separation for Nanosat systems MSDS released from Recontact hazard inhibits Stack separation signal Nanosats

Orbiter/SHELS MSDS is 20 minutes removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks Intersatellite separation fromout Orbiter,timers Orbiter/SHELSfor all MSDS systems removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks Recontact hazard inhibits from Orbiter,timers time-outwithout recontact MSDS released from Recontact Stack separation signal without recontact MSDS is 20 minutes out time-out timers initiated removed aboard hazard inhibits

Intersatellite separation hazards. Orbiter/SHELS hazards. removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks Safety inhibits removed from Orbiter,timers Nanosats Recontact hazard inhibits Recontact hazard inhibits for all MSDS systems time-out MSDS timers initiated removed aboard MSDS timers initiated without recontactSafety inhibits removed removed aboard Nanosats Safety inhibits removed Nanosats Recontact hazard inhibits for all MSDS systems hazards. for all MSDS systems inhibits removed without recontact MSDS timers Safety initiated

removed aboard without recontact Safety inhibits removed for Nanosat systems hazards. Nanosats hazards. for all MSDS systems without recontact recontact Safety inhibitswithout removed hazards. hazards. for Nanosat systems Safety inhibits removed without Safetyrecontact inhibits removed for Nanosat systems for Nanosat systems hazards. without recontact

T2 without recontact hazards. Safety inhibits removed hazards. T0 = 0:00 T0 = 0:00 Recontact In-place Hazards MSDS released from for Nanosat systems without recontact hazards. T1 = T Safe, All Systems Except Recontact Hazards = T Safe, All Systems Except T1 = 20 minutes Recontact Hazards

T2 T4 = TSEP, Nanosat T3 = T SEP INHIBITS STATUS MSDS AND NANOSAT = T3 T0 + 96 = T0 T4 + 102 hours, 4 Nanosat secs = hours, T SEP 4 secs = TSEP, = 96 TSafe, T2 = T0 + hours = TSafe, Recontact Hazards Recontact Hazards In-place INHIBITS STATUS MSDS

AND NANOSAT Recontact hazard inhibits Removed = T0 + 96 hours, 4 secs Removed = T0 + 102 hours, 4 secs Stack separation signal MSDS is=20 out = T0 + 96 hours 20minutes minutes Intersatellite separation Orbiter/SHELS removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks from Orbiter,timers Removed All other In-place Removed Removed time-out MSDSIn-place

released from Recontact inhibits Stack separation signal Removed MSDS isINHIBITS 20 minutesRemoved out Removed STATUS MSDS ANDhazard NANOSAT Intersatellite separation INHIBITS STATUS MSDS AND NANOSAT systems Orbiter/SHELS removed aboard MSDS releases both stacks from Orbiter,timers INHIBITS STATUS

MSDS AND NANOSAT Recontact hazard inhibits Removed Removed Removed time-out Removed Removed Recontact MSDS timersIn-place initiated removed aboard In-place In-place Removed Removed Removed Removed In-place Removed act Safety inhibits removed Hazards Removed In-place

In-place Removed Removed Nanosats ds Recontact hazard inhibits for all MSDS systems All otherMSDS timers initiated removed aboard Removed Removed INHIBITS STATUS MSDS AND NANOSAT Removed without Removed Removed Removed In-place Removed r In-place Removed Safetyrecontact inhibits removed

Removed systems Removed Removed In-place Removed Nanosats hazards. s for all MSDS systems ntact Removed In-place In-place Removed Removed without recontact ards hazards. her Safety inhibits removed Removed Removed Removed In-place Removed ms for Nanosat systems

Leader / Follower Formation Orbit Ground Track Same Ground Track Formation Orbit Ground Track Design HokieSat 18.25 (~ 45 cm) major diameter hexagonal prism 12 tall (30 cm) 39 lbs (~18 kg) Isogrid Structure Composite Side Panels 0.23 isogrid 0.02 skins External Configuration Crosslink Antenna

GPS Antenna LightBand Solar Cells Pulsed Plasma Thruster s Data Port Camera Science Patches Downlink Antenna Uplink Antenna Internal Configuration

Camera s Torque Coils (3) Camer a Battery Enclosur e Rate Gyros (3) Crosslink Component s Power Processing Unit Magnetomete r Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (2) Camer a Downlink

Transmitter Electronic s VT Structures Overview HokieSat Structure Panel 6 Panel 5 Panel 4 Panel 1 Panel 2 Panel 3 Nadir/Zenith Panel Hardware Description: Nadir and Zenith Heritage: None Manufacturer: In-House/Techsburg Properties: Al 6061 T-6, Class 3 Irridite (MIL-C-5541E)

Mass: 1.70 lbm (0.773 kg) Status: Prototype Complete 0.190x3 Thru 0.010" 0.005" 0.5 Class 3 Irridite TBD 1.70 lb Mass COMPONENT Isogrid Side 1 Isogrid Side 2 Isogrid Side 3 Isogrid Side 4 Isogrid Side 5 Isogrid Side 6 Skin Side 1 Skin Side 2 Skin Side 3 Skin Side 4 Skin Side 5 Skin Side 6

End Panel Bracket 1 Bracket 2 Bracket 3 Fasteners Lightband Honeycomb Epoxy MASS lbm (kg) QUANTITY DESIGN MARGIN (10%) SOURCE 1.13 (0.514) 1 0.113 (0.0514) Measured 1.13 (0.514) 1 0.113 (0.0514) Measured 1.12 (0.509) 1 0.112 (0.0509) Measured 1.13 (0.514) 1 0.113 (0.0514) Measured 1.12 (0.509) 1 0.112 (0.0509) Measured 1.14 (0.518) 1 0.114 (0.0518) Measured

0.246 (0.112) 1 0.0246 (0.0112) AutoCAD 0.25 (0.114) 1 0.025 (0.0114) AutoCAD 0.247 (0.112) 1 0.0247 (0.0112) AutoCAD 0.242 (0.110) 1 0.0242 (0.0110) AutoCAD 0.247 (0.112) 1 0.0247 (0.0112) AutoCAD 0.247 (0.112) 1 0.0247 (0.0112) AutoCAD 1.7 (0.773) 2 0.17 (0.0773) Measured 0.0519 (0.0236) 1 0.00519 (0.00236) Measured 0.0160 (0.00727) 1 0.0016 (0.000727) Measured 0.0127 (0.00579)

1 0.00127 (0.000579) Measured 0.008 (0.00364) 82 0.00008 (0.000364) Measured 1.76 (0.800) 1 0.176 (0.0800) PSC 0.510 (0.232) 1 0.051 (0.0232) AutoCAD 0.487 (0.221) 1 0.0487 (0.0221) Estimated Total TotalMass Mass==16.6 16.6lbm lbm(7.57 (7.57kg) kg) Mass Breakdown (Stack) Total Mass = 118.8 lb (54 kg)

Propulsion Propulsion subsystem requirements Schematic VT thruster arrangement System parameters Operations summary Propulsion Subsystem Requirements Provide thrust required for the formation flying mission (phase 1) 22 m/s V required Orbit raising to extend life (phase 2) Remaining propellant Augment torque coils for yaw attitude control VT Thruster Arrangement Top View 1 2 3 4 Schematic Spring Ultem 2300 Thruster Assembly

Teflon Fuel Bar Mica-paper / Foil Capacitor Ultem Isolator Cathode Boron Nitride Insulator Anode Thruster mount System Parameters Translational DV (m/s) 54 Rotational DV (m/s) 54 Specific Impulse (s) 485 Impulse Bit (mNs) 56 Thrust - 1 Hz Fire Rate (mN) 56 Power Component Orbit Ave

Power (W) Propulsion System 0.65 Peak Power (W) 13 Voltage (V) 28 Interfaces Structural 4 thruster nozzle holes, sized and placed as defined in drawings 2 thruster mounts, attached directly to isogrid nodes Power

Requires 13 watts at 28 volts for translation System can tolerate a decrease in voltage to 16.5 volts No power required when system not in use Approximate duty cycle: 3% for formation keeping 10% for formation maneuvering Solar Cell Tecstar Triple-Junction 24% Cascade cells Heritage on DS-1, MightySat, SMEX, TRACE, others Cell Dimensions: 2.497 x 1.522 (6.25 x 3.75 cm) 0.030 spacing between cells Cells supplied kitted Cover glass Diode on each cell Interconnects Fabrication Composite structure comprised of 0.23 isogrid and 0.02 skin

Static Testing Strength & stiffness test of structure without skin panels Strength & stiffness test of loading fixture Static Testing Strength & stiffness test of structure with skin panels Experiment demonstrated a 32% gain in stiffness in the cantilever mode due to addition of skins Skins added less than 8% to the total mass Dynamic Testing Modal (tap) Testing of Side Panels Hammer provides impulsive input Accelerometer measures accelerations used to characterize natural frequencies Tap testing with and without skins Verification of predictions of finite element analysis Up-Link Antenna Pictures

Clean Room Pictures Acknowledgements Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Office of Scientific Research Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA Wallops Flight Facility Test Center University of Washington Utah State University Virginia Tech Professor A. Wicks Professor B. Love Members of ION-F AFOSR Goddard Space Flight Center STP Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

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