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Click icon to add picture TRUTHE DER Say what you see! The question will ask you how useful a primary source is to historians who are studying X. To do this, you need to look at: o Provenance o Tone/Emphasis o Argument/content in the source How to set out each paragraph 1. Point about provenance/tone/content 2. Own knowledge 3. Explain whether this makes the source useful to a historian NEVER USE THE WORD BIASED

Assessme nt Provenance Emphasis and Tone Content and Argument Step 1-POINT Nature of the source letter, ( speech, novel etc) Author Date/Context Audience Step 2 OWN KNOWLEDGE

Step 3IS IT USEFUL All of the above will require How these things make own knowledge of: the source useful to a historian The author What is happening at the time How these things limit The purpose/audience of the how useful the source is to a source historian The language used: imagery, Always relate to you own literary devises. knowledge the author is setting a specific tone Tone: emotive, defensive,

What reaction does the aggressive, legal, balanced author want? etc. How these things make the source useful to a historian detail does the source What contain?. How these things limit how useful the source is to a historian How

these things limit how useful the source is to a historian What theview/viewsare that Always relate to you own How these things make are being presented in the knowledge of what actually the source useful to a historian source. happened. It is important to go through this bit bybit Lesson 1 Click icon to add picture https://create.kahoot.it/#user/02978d17-8b9e-4c25-b0d7-6bcf2c77b842/kahoots/created

By the end of this lesson, everybody will be able to Describe the geographic and economic issues that the Confederacy and Union faced Explain the positive and negative impact of geographic and economic issues Evaluate how far these factors impacted the Confederacy and Union What were the main geographic factors in the American Civil War? Geographic Factor

Impact on the Confederacy Impact on the Union The Confederacy was 2 million km2 Confederates would have difficulty maintaining their supply lines Difficult to blockade and conquer Defence is an easier option in war than to attack Union have the harder job, not only to acquire land, but keep control of

it! Confederate forces did not have to invade the North; the Union had little option to but attack Between Washington and Richmond was a series of west to east running rivers Throughout the Confederacy were railways and roads Four upper Southern states did not secede, and Virginia split when West Virginia seceded from the state.

Long coastline in the South Useful barrier against the Union who are trying to capture Richmond More obstacles in their aim of capturing Richmond, this is where most of the battle would take place Confederacy could move its forces quickly (can concentrate their force against dispersed Union army) The dispersed armies could face large Confederate armies

Thousands from Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky still fight for the South The states that stayed loyal to the Union would have added 80% of the Confederacies industrial Capital Hard to blockade Hard to blockade, but they enjoyed huge naval supremacy Click icon to add picture NEGATIVE POSITIVE

Judge and justify: what impact did geographic factors have on the Union and the Confederacy? Finance: Concerns the management of funds (available money) Economics: Concerns production, consumption, and transfer of wealth THE SITUATION Confederacy had few gold reserves Union blockade was making it hard to sell cotton and raise money from tariffs Taxes of

income/profit/property were unpopular Most state governments were reluctant to send money to Richmond The Union was struggling to feed the Confederate troops 1. Financing the war What would you do?? Serious inflation 1865 prices were in the Eastern Confederacy were 5000 times their 1861 level Richmond Dispatch newspaper estimated that a grocery bill for a small family rose from $6.55 to $68.25

This led to widespread suffering Attempts to fix prices made shortages worse Eroded Southern morale 1. Print more paper money There were initially a lot of buyers both within the Confederacy and abroad But after 1863 when the Confederacy began losing battles, Southerners and European financiers were reluctant to risk loaning money to what seemed like a lost cause 2. 1861

Congress allowed Treasury Secretary Christopher Memminger to raise $15 million in bonds and stocks Allowed the seizure of goods to support the armies at the front line Allowed government agencies to collect 10% of produce from all farmers Helped supply the army in the last 2 years of the war 2. 1863 Congress

passed the Impressment Act and the Tax-in-Kind Act THE SITUATION The Union had an established Treasury, gold reserve and source of revenue from tariffs However, the northern financial structure was not ready for war Over the winter of 1861-2, the northern banking system was near to collapse 1. Financing the war What would

you do?? One million northerners ended up owning shares in the national debt 2/3 of Union revenue was raised by loans and bonds 1. Raised loans and issued bonds An income tax (the first in US history, was enacted in 1861 (3% tax on incomes over $800) Internal Revenue Act 1862 (taxed everything) 1/5 of revenue was raised by tax 2. Tax

Legal Tender Act (1862) issued $150 million paper currency not redeemable in gold or silver Gave the treasury resources to pay its bills and restored confidence National Banking Act (1863 and 1864) taxed state bank notes Inflation was only 80% 3. Inflationar y monetary policy CONFEDERACY pp.119-121 Confederate

UNION pp.129-131 Socialism Ordnance Bureau Legislation Draft exemptions Blockade running Economic The Economic policies of the North and the South

Federal Intervention Railway system Equipping the army Women Economic growth Slavery

Farmers King Cotton Cotton Mills Labour Force You will be asked to look at either the Confederate, or Union economic policies It is your job to explain the different economic policies, and

whether they had a positive or negative impact P TOTALLY POSITIVE Click icon to add picture MAINLY POSITIV E 50/50 MAINLY NEGATI VE TOTALLY

NEGATI VE N What impact did economic policies overall have on the Confederacy? Lesson 1 Resources Financing the War: Confederacy THE SITUATION Confederacy had few gold reserves Union blockade was

making it hard to sell cotton and raise money from tariffs Taxes of income/profit/propert y were unpopular Most state governments were reluctant to send money to Richmond The Union was struggling to feed

the Confederate troops WHAT THE CONFEDERACY DID IMPACT Financing the War: Union THE SITUATION The Union had an established Treasury, gold reserve and source of revenue from tariffs

However, the northern financial structure was not ready for war Over the winter of 1861-2, the northern banking system was near to collapse WHAT THE UNION DID IMPACT Lesson 2 Click icon to add picture You have two ropes. Each rope takes

one hour to burn. These ropes are not identical in size or width, nor are they uniform (it does not necessarily take half an hour for half the rope to burn) With only these two ropes and a way to light them, how do you measure out 45 minutes? By the end of this lesson, everybody will be able to Describe the issues in foreign relations that the Confederacy and Union faced Explain the positive and negative impact of issues relating to foreign relations on the Confederacy Evaluate how far these factors impacted the Confederacy and Union

A distinct part of a country feels like a larger section is imposing economic and social policy on it. Economic policy is damaging its interests. The smaller section feels that it is not being listened to, has its own identity and feels it would be more successful as an independent nation. It feels as though it is culturally distinct from the other part of the country. It wants to maintain good relations with the other part of the country, and does not want a war. The wealthier, more powerful part of the country, wont let the smaller section leave. When it tries, declares war on it. Who would you

support? Reasons to support the Confederacy Reasons to support the Union Break up of America would serve immediate and LT self-interest Independent Confederacy would have strong economic links (cotton for manufactured) Conflict with the Union could lead to the loss of Canada

Would lead to loss of valuable markets and investments Need cotton to prevent hardship at home British pinion was not united (slavery) Many Britons sympathise with Confederacy Crimean War had indicated difficulties of fighting far away from

home 4 slave states in the Union = suggests slavery isnt an issue = easier to support What Britain did the Confederacy e.g. The Times Stay neutral Problem 1: Does England recognise the Confederacy? (or a rebellion?) Lincolns blockade May 1861 Compromise position: belligerent states (legally as waging war)

Attempt to remain neutral throughout Embargo p.136 Attempts to persuade Britain p.136 The Trent Affair p. 137 British Mediation p.138 Commerce raiders pp.138 Laid arms p.139 The Internation al Situation 1861 Confederates think Britain would be forced to recognise the Confederacy

and break the blockade because of their need for cotton. In order to heighten this need for cotton, the south brought in a unofficial cotton embargo (ban on trade). Not official (i.e. not authorised by Congress), local committees halted the export of cotton. (Charles Mercury). It fails Europe had bought a lot of cotton in 1859-60, and there was no immediate shortage. Not only does it fail, but backfires! South fail to sell their most valuable commodity. They also angered Europeans in the process. Embargo The Confederacy did its best to try and get the support of Britain The Confederacy set up a newspaper

called The Index which was devoted to presenting the rebel case. They also sent agents across to sympathetic MPs; sent purchasing agents to buy armaments (success). Could they have done anything else??? Index November 1861, James Mason and John Slidell (Confed commissioners), left Cuba for Europe in the Trent (steam boat) Soon after leaving Havana, Trent was stopped by Captain Wilkes, commanding USS San Jacinto. Wilkes forcible removed Mason and Slidell from the British ship. This led to anger in Britain. They demanded that Mason and Slidell be released and the Union must made a

public apology. They also prepared a fleet for action and soldiers were sent to Canada. They also stopped the export of essential war material to the Union. Serious dilemma for Lincoln = cant Trent Affair Close Confederacy came to getting British mediation After triumph at Second Manassas, French Emperor Napoleon III, proposed that Britain and France should attempt to mediate in the conflict. Mediation = recognition of the Confederacy Failure of Lees Maryland invasion convene Palmerston it would be unwise to intervene. Even after the Emancipation

Proclaimation, some members of Palmerstons cabinet wanted to take action. October 1862, William Gladstone claimed they have made a nation. Prepared a memorandum British Mediation ? Although they did not get recognition, the Confederacy received valuable aid- military supplies. British shipbuilders built vessels for a variety of Confederate purposes. Most were to run cargo through the blockade. The Confederacy also purchased Commerce raiders (warships that attacked Union merchant ships). Law forbid constructing warship for belligerents. Got around this by purchasing

unarmed ship and adding the guns elsewhere. Caused considerable damage to Union merchant ships. Alamaba took 64 Union shops before been sunk. North lost 200 ships altogether. Didnt cripple trade, they were a nuisance (e.g. insurance). This led to using neutral Commerc e Raiders Last serious crisis between Union and Britain Lincoln knew Laird Brothers shipbuilders were building two ironclad ships for the Confederacy These board (Laird rams) would be the strongest ship afloat Charles Adams threatened war

against Britain. British government eventually bought the rams and the crisis fizzled out. Laird rams Factor Leadership Cabinet Congress Opposition Voluntary Associations Military Resources Geography Finance Economic Foreign Relations Union Advantage

Confederate Advantage

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