Hope College

Hope College

Undergraduate Research Lessons From the Past and Opportunities for the Future Saint Anselm College March 31, 2011 Acknowledgements Lorna Jarvis, Professor of Psychology, Hope College Curtis Gruenler, Professor of English, Hope College Moses Lee, Dean for the Natural Sciences, Hope College One Definition of Undergraduate Research Undergraduate Research is an

inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline. T. J. Wenzel. What is Undergraduate Research? Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly. 17:163, 1997. Two Models of Undergraduate Research College of Wooster Hope College Required of all students

Independent Study For credit 9% of total Part of standard teaching load Not usually related to faculty members research Often not presented outside institution or published Not required by students Generally self-selected Volunteer, for credit, in

summer with stipend Not part of formal teaching load Usually related to faculty members research Often presented outside institution and/or published

Undergraduate Research at Hope College Hope College Location: Holland, Michigan Founded: 1866 Type: Four-year, Coeducational, Residential, Undergraduate, Liberal Arts Affiliation: Reformed Church in America Degrees: B.A., B.M., B.S., B.S. in Nursing Departments: 27 + 10 Interdepartmental Programs

Majors: 87 Students: 3,202 Faculty: 235 Full Time, 79 Part Time ACT Average: 25 Tuition: $26,350 STEM at Hope Division of Natural and Applied Sciences Department of Biology Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Department of Computer Science Department of Engineering Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences Department of Mathematics Department of Nursing Department of Physics Undergraduate Research

Program in STEM Fields About 75% of Hope STEM Majors Engage in Independent Research While at Hope Developing Undergraduate Research in STEM Fields at Hope 1899 First research active science faculty member hired (Prof. Mast, Biology) 1902 First faculty research laboratory 1947 Profs. Van Zyl and Kleinheksel begin UR program in chemistry 1958 First NSF research grant Effect of Mammalian Hormones on Unicellular

Organisms 1964 VanderWerf Hall of Physics and Mathematics Developing Undergraduate Research in STEM Fields at Hope 1965 First NSF Undergraduate Research Participation grant 1973 Peale Science Center 1987 First NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates grant 2003 Schaap Science Center 2009 29 Undergraduate co-authored publications

NSF-REU Awards Biology Chemistry 1987-2006, 2008-2012 1988-2007, 2009-2012 Computer Science 1992-2010 Mathematics 1992-1996, 1998-2011 Physics & Engineering 1995-2010

Geology 2004-2007 2006-2010 Hope College STEM Undergraduate Research Data Summer Students Non-Hope Under-represented Female Academic Year Students Celebration Presentations

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 163 183 138 153 177 31 23 77 152 21 29 85 121 27

16 51 130 29 28 62 115 50 30 73 113

117 110 97 98 111 2010 Summer STEM Research Program Undergraduate Research

beyond STEM at Hope Social Sciences: Psychology Political Science Sociology & Social Work Economics, Management & Accounting Kinesiology Communications Education Humanities:

History Religion Philosophy English Modern & Classical Languages Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences at Hope Expectation of publication in the Humanities began with faculty hired in the late 1960s. Internal sources of support for faculty scholarship began in the 1970s.

Model of collaborative research with undergraduate research began to migrate from the natural sciences in the 1990s with internal and external faculty grants targeted to collaborative research with undergrads. Focus on Collaborative Research Distinguished from collaborative performance in the arts Distinguished from other kinds of independent research that are more traditional (especially in the Humanities) Definition: students and faculty working on the same or closely related projects leading to

original results publicly presented by students Summer Undergraduate Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Summer 2009: 26 students working with 21 different faculty Summer 2010: 35 students working with 18 different faculty (about 6% of majors and 15% of faculty)

Social Science and Humanities 2010 Hope College Celebration of Undergraduate Research Social Sciences participants 112 students presented 50 projects involving 34 faculty Approximately 10% of declared majors Humanities participants 26 students presented projects involving 15 faculty Approximately 5% of declared majors

Social Sciences Celebration Participation The Role of the Institution in Supporting Undergraduate Research Institutional Contributions 1. Commitment to undergraduate research 2. Hire research active faculty 3. Expect research program involving undergraduates 4. Space for research

Institutional Contributions 5. Significant start up funds for new faculty 6. Internal competitive grants 7. Reasonable teaching expectations 8. Funds for faculty and student travel Institutional Contributions 9. Regulatory expenses (radiation and chemical safety, animal use, human subjects) 10. Modest departmental research budgets 11. Equipment

Institutional Contributions 12. Access to literature 13. Half price summer housing for students 14. Celebration of Undergraduate Research and Creative Performance 15. Office of Sponsored Research Institutional Contributions Specific to the Humanities and Social Sciences 1. Encourage

collaborative research 2. Internal competitive grants designated for collaborative research with students 3. Faculty workshop on collaborative research across the disciplines Institutional Contributions Specific to the Humanities and Social Sciences

4. 5. 6. Provide work spaces for humanities and social science students Summer luncheons for collaborative research teams Divisional celebration of undergraduate research The Role of Faculty Members in Supporting Undergraduate Research

Faculty Contributions 1. Have active research programs 2. Present and publish regularly Undergraduates as authors and coauthors Take students to meetings to present Faculty Contributions 3. Write and submit grant proposals

Research proposals Student research program proposals Pedagogy/student scholarship proposals Equipment proposals Sources of Funding for STEM Undergraduate Research NSF NIH Research

Corporation Howard Hughes Medical Institute Beckman Foundation Merck Foundation NASA Homeland Security American Heart Association Campbell Foundation Kresge Foundation

Dreyfus Foundation Petroleum Research Sources of Funding for Social Sciences and Humanities Undergraduate Research

Howard Hughes Medical Institute Mellon Foundation Templeton Foundation U.S. Department of Education Lilly Endowment DeVos Foundation Great Lakes Colleges Association Faculty Contributions 4. Enthusiasm for undergraduate research

Like working with and mentoring undergraduates Understand undergraduate research capabilities Sometimes willing to have reduced productivity in order to involve undergraduates in research Sometimes willing to work with summer undergraduate research students without pay

Faculty Contributions 5. Maintain a research community Hire people who want to involve undergraduates in research Seminars, symposia, discussions Introduce students to STEM world outside of Hope Social activities

6. Integrate research and teaching Faculty Contributions of Particular Importance in the Humanities and Social Sciences 1. Maintain a collegial research community, especially across disciplines 2. Choose research topics more amenable to collaboration with undergraduates 3. Creativity in developing models of collaboration, tailoring them to

students Benefits and Costs of Undergraduate Research Institutional Benefits Institutional Costs Faculty Benefits

Faculty Costs Assessing Student Benefits Benefits to Institution of Undergraduate Research

Improves student learning Builds collegiality Recruitment of engaged students Academic reputation Grants bring financial resources Invigorates curriculum Opportunities for engagement at national level Loyal alumni Potential Costs to Institution of Undergraduate Research Institutional contributions cost money Faculty time on undergraduate research could be used in other ways

May lead to undergraduate research race with peer institutions Benefits to Faculty of Undergraduate Research Personal satisfaction working with and mentoring undergraduates Long term friendships Assistance with research program Intellectual collaboration Opportunity for in-depth teaching

Fun Potential Costs to Faculty of Undergraduate Research Reduced research productivity High work load - increasing demands for research opportunities No time off from teaching Competition with other goals - teach well, continue scholarship, enjoy a personal life, and obtain tenure and promotion Importance of administrations and faculty tenure and promotion committees understanding of impact of supervising

undergraduate research on faculty Assessing Undergraduate Research A key aspect of institutionalizing undergraduate research Identify what information is needed and relevant Design appropriate assessments to obtain that information SURE Summer Undergraduate Research Experiences Assessed the learning benefits of summer

undergraduate research experiences on student learning Students participating in a summer undergraduate research program at four different institutions completed surveys measuring the impact of the program on their learning Worked with David Lopatto, Grinnell College Funded by HHMI and NSF Some Results from SURE Gains in: Understanding the research process in the field Understanding how scientists work on real problems

Learning laboratory techniques Tolerance for obstacles faced in the research process Learning to work independently Ability to read and understand primary literature Self confidence Clarification of career path Skill in effective oral presentation SURE Comparing STEM students versus other disciplines STEM Weekly contact hours

Mentor availability Design of Project High Other Disciplines Lower High Lower

Assigned by instructor Worked with instructor to design project SURE Comparing STEM students versus other disciplines Program structure

Style of interaction Work setting STEM Other Disciplines Detailed schedule with deadlines Learning by example

Rough schedule to achieve goals 19.5% worked alone 58% worked alone Self-organized Benefits of Undergraduate Research from Elaine Seymours Qualitative Study

Career clarification Increased understanding of the process of science Improved communication ability Improved ability to access and read the literature Opportunities for networking Gains in independence and responsibility Additional Benefits of Undergraduate Research

Understanding the relevance of classes Increased retention in major Increased expectation of earning Ph.D. Increased enrollment in graduate school Improved employment opportunities Leadership development Opportunities for the Future 1. Increasing research possibilities in the humanities and social sciences

2. Increasing interdisciplinary research 3. Increasing the diversity of undergraduate research students 4. Moving undergraduate research into courses Expanding Undergraduate Research in the Social Sciences and Humanities at Hope Shared understanding of goals and expectations in each discipline Refining and expanding models of collaboration Expanding the summer program

Interest in collaborative research increasingly seen as desirable in hiring More intentional mentoring of faculty interested in collaborative research Increasing interdisciplinary research Develop culture of interdisciplinary activities Model for students interdisciplinary approach to solving problems Promote interdisciplinary teaching Add to body of knowledge in interdisciplinary areas Seed long term collaborations

Interdisciplinary Research Grants Two or more faculty from at least two departments New or established research team

Research plan Plan for incorporating research into teaching Plans for continuation of team including future funding 18 Awards over 4 years Faculty in 11 Departments Examples Physiological Changes Related to Perceiving Racism (Biology and Psychology)

Antifungal Compounds in Seeds of Pioneer Plants (Biology and Chemistry) Testing of a New State-Trait Hopelessness Scale (Nursing and Mathematics) The Psychological Profile of Young Athletes

with Overuse Injuries (Psychology and Kinesiology) Increasing the Diversity of Undergraduate Research Students 1. Hughes Science Education Scholars program for future teachers 2. NSF Community Colleges Undergraduate Research Collaborative 3. NSF S-STEM program includes a summer of research for each scholarship recipient 4. Project REACH (Research Experiences Across Cultures at Hope) for high

school students and teachers Moving Undergraduate Research into Courses Assessment of research like activities in courses CURE A Research Course Involving Professional Level Research The Phage Course CURE

Classroom Undergraduate Research Experiences To learn how courses that provide research like experiences compare to the intensive summer research experience some undergraduate students have. We identified courses that included classroom activities or assignments in which students conducted research in which no one knew the outcome. We compared the students learning gains in these high research-like courses to low research-like courses.

A New Level of Classroom Research - Phage Project Sponsored by HHMI Part of the Science Education Alliance (SEA) Initially 12 institutions Isolate bacteriophages from environment Characterize phages Have DNA of one phage per institution sequenced Do bioinformatics study of the phage DNA Recently published

Action Steps Consider costs and benefits of undergraduate research Build a culture of undergraduate research

Takes time but never too late to start Can begin with a few faculty and students Consider various models Build assessment into program early Join undergraduate research networks - CUR Obtain administrative support

Financial Infrastructure Internal Grants Non-financial

Obtain external resources Have fun Thank You Questions? PURE Pedagogical uses of Research Experiences Use the findings from CURE to implement changes in existing courses Create a community of scholars of teaching Mentoring Thirteen different instructors have

participated Resources Council on Undergraduate Research CUR Quarterly National Conference on Undergraduate Research NSF Research Experiences of Undergraduates Program Books Books Science in Solution: The Impact of Undergraduate Research on Student Learning

D. Lopatto Undergraduate Research in the Sciences: Engaging Students in Real Science S. Laursen, A-B. Hunter, E. Seymour, H. Thiry, and G. Melton Creating Effective Undergraduate Research Programs in Science: The Transformation from Student to Scientist R. Taraban and R. Blanton Books Broadening Participation in Undergraduate Research: Fostering Excellence and Enhancing the Impact Edited by M Boyd and J. Wesemann

Transformative Research at Predominately Undergraduate Institutions Edited by K. Karukstis and N. Hensel Building Excellence: The Rewards and Challenges of Integrating Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum Edited by C. Dulmus and K. Sowers Advancing Undergraduate Research: Marketing, Communications and Fundraising J. Kinkead Examples of Assessment of Interdisciplinary Team Development Q. What did you learn about

communicating across disciplines? Were there any difficulties in communicating? How did you overcome them? A. Most faculty responded that the primary issue with communication across disciplines was the use of jargon. Thus a lot of time was needed to define concepts and terms. The communication process was facilitated by the willingness of the collaborators to state that

they just did not understand. Hope College STEM Publications from WEB of Science (1970-2009) 250 Number 200 150 100 50 0 70-74

75-79 80-84 85-89 90-94 95-99 Five Year Period 00-04

05-09 Hope College Funding from the National Science Foundation (1955-2010) Million of Dollars 10 8 6 4 2 0

55-60 61-65 66-70 71-75 76-80 81-85 86-90 91-95 95-00 01-05 06-10 Five Year Period

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