How did Southern Africa decolonise? - History at WCS
WHY DID THE CAF DISSOLVE? C AIM TO EXPLAIN WHY THE CAF DISSOLVED AND DESCRIBE RHODESIAS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRITAIN B/A AIM TO ANALYSE WHY THE CAF DISSOLVED AND EXPLAIN RHODESIAS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRITAIN Everyone List three reasons why the CAF was founded. Label them from most important to least important. Overall, was the CAF a strong federation? What does this quote suggest about Ian Smiths attitude? He was the PM of Southern Rhodesia. How would this have affected his relationship with Britain? Think about who came to power in 1964 and what policy they followed towards the colonies
The CAF had full Commonwealth membership leading to independence. Members of the Commonwealth opposed the CAF and particularly disliked it that it was intended for the CAF to become fully independent with its white minority government in the future. The black nationalist governments in the Commonwealth like Ghana put pressure on Britain to enforce economic and trade sanctions, they did half-heartedly, but they never seriously tried to stop oil getting to CAF through Mozambique. Write on postit note(s) why the CAF might dissolve Write on a separate post-it note about the relationship between the
CAF and Britain In June 1956, Northern Rhodesias Governor, Sir Arthur Benson, wrote a highly confidential letter to Britain heavily criticizing the federation in general and the new constitution planned for it, and the Federal Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister, Sir Roy Welensky, in particular. Nearly two years later, somebody showed Welensky the letter. Relations between Whitehall and the CAF cabinet would never recover. Macmillan knew what was happening but assumed it was from old Southern and Northern Rhodesian rivalries and didnt realise it was the symptom of worsening relations in the federation and it would lead to its dissolving. Write on postit note(s) why the CAF might dissolve
Write on a separate post-it note about the relationship between the CAF and Britain Write on a post-it note(s) why the CAF might dissolve Write on a separate post-it note about the relationship between the CAF and Britain
Dissent from black Africans also grew as there were huge amounts of white settlers in the CAF. Harsh colour-bars and pass laws were enforce. The best land was reserved for European agriculture and industry. With the second colonial invasion of immigrant settlers peasants were evicted in a huge number. Compulsory labour was employed and only whites could own land. By 1948 only 258 Africans were registered in an electorate of 47,000. Towards the end of the 1950s in the Northern Territories, Africans protested against the white minority rule of CAF. In July 1958, Dr. Hastings Banda, the leader of African National Congress (ANC) of Nyasaland returned to Nyasaland, and nationalist movements grew in Northern
Rhodesia. The CAF banned them and imprisoned the leaders. In early 1959, unrest broke out in Nyasaland, which, according to historian Robert Blake, was "economically the Macmillan began to express misgivings about its political viability due to the unrest and the impact of the letter. A Royal Commission to advise Macmillan on the future of the CAF, to be led by Walter Monckton, was set up in the late 1950s. Macleod became Colonial Secretary in 1964, he favoured African rights. Macmillan also said that it was essential "to keep the Tory party on modern and progressive lines", noting electoral developments and especially the rise of the Liberal Party. He felt decolonisation was the
modern thing to do. By the early 1960s, Macmillan went on his famous African tour leading to his Wind of Change speech in the parliament of the Cape. Change was well underway and he was giving the message to South Africa and Rhodesia that black nationalist rule was inevitable. Write on a post-it note(s) why the CAF might dissolve Write on a separate post-it note about the relationship between the CAF and Britain Stick your post it notes from the
most important to least important reason why the CAF would dissolve. Write a paragraph explaining what relations were like between Britain and the CAF. The new Commonwealth Secretary, Duncan Sandys, negotiated the '1961 Constitution', a new constitution for the CAF which greatly reduced Britain's powers over it. By 1962, the British and the CAF cabinet had agreed that Nyasaland should be allowed to secede. In 1963 the same status was given to Northern Rhodesia, decisively ending the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the immediate future. Write bullet points explaining how the
CAF dissolved. In 1963, the Victoria Falls conference was held, partly as a last effort to save the CAF, and partly as a forum to dissolve it. After nearly collapsing several times, it ended by 5 July 1963, and the state was virtually dissolved. Only the appropriation of its assets remained as a formality. At this stage all of the countries were officially part of the British empire, but Britain had little power over them. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvA-vIYMlYI By 31 December, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formally dissolved and its assets distributed among the territorial governments. Southern Rhodesia obtained the vast majority of these including the assets of the Federal army, to which it had overwhelmingly contributed. In 1964, Northern Rhodesia gained independence as the Republic of Zambia, obtaining majority rule and led by Kenneth Kaunda. The same year, the Nyasaland
Protectorate became the Republic of Malawi led by Hastings Banda. On 11 November 1965 Southern Rhodesia made a unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom proposed by the Rhodesian Front government led by Prime Minister Ian Smith. They clearly did this with the intention of maintaining white minority rule and multi-racialism. Britain would not have allowed this under Macmillan whilst Southern Rhodesia was still in the empire. It is thought that Rhodesia did this as Wilson had publicly said he would not use force to stop them doing this due to British kith and kin living in Southern Rhodesia. Wilson didnt want to rattle relations with South Africa, who supported this UDI of Southern Rhodesia, as they were a crucial trading partner due to their geographic position. Wilson also
did not believe that Smith would actually declare Rhodesias independence due to the international hardships it would encounter he thought it was just a strong negotiating technique turns out he was wrong. Create a voiceover for this clip. You must include Why the Rhodesian Front felt they could and should declare their independence What their relations were like with Britain Rhodesia was criticised internationally and faced
economic, cultural and trade sanctions. Britain was https://www.youtube.com/watch? Write your own declaration of independence. Write a black nationalists reaction to the declaration of independence. Write a British reaction to the declaration of independence from a journalist. WHY DID THE CAF DISSOLVE? C AIM TO EXPLAIN WHY THE CAF DISSOLVED AND DESCRIBE RHODESIAS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRITAIN B/A AIM TO ANALYSE WHY THE CAF DISSOLVED AND EXPLAIN RHODESIAS RELATIONSHIP WITH BRITAIN Using your post-it notes as prompts explain (C) or
analyse (B/A saying the most important reasons and why they are important) to your partner why the CAF dissolved. Using your post-it notes as prompts describe (C) or explain (B/A) Rhodesias relationship with Britain. HOW FAR DO YOU AGREE THAT RHODESIA DECLARED ITS OWN INDEPENDENCE DUE TO IAN SMITH? Homework Read the chapter and create a timeline of for the UDI and its aftermath. How far do you agree that the growth of African nationalism in the 1950s and 1960s was encouraged mainly by Britains declining prestige?
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