How orderly was decolonisation? C aim - to identify overall ...

How orderly was decolonisation? C aim - to identify overall ...

Economic problems Imbalance in distribution of and access to resources Economic problems often lead to unrest African countries relied on cash-crop economies, leaving them very vulnerable to price fluctuations as happened to Ghana in the early 1960s. It also meant it was hard for them to produce enough food for themselves. Farmers were vulnerable to agricultural marketing boards who fixed prices. This had originated from colonial times. This happened in Ghana. This contributed to civil unrest. Infrastructure was inadequate for needs Rapid population growth from the 1950s to the 1970s which no-one predicted

Early schemes for industrialisation were wildly ambitious and costly, such as Nkrumah building a costly hydroelectric dam These all contributed to the military coup Nkrumah neglected the agricultural sector Droughts Britain remained major share holders in new companies in Africa and gave them a lot of practical power over the economy, to the detriment of former colonies. As did SAPs. How orderly was decolonisation? C aim to identify overall themes, causation and give examples B/A aim to give an overall argument by drawing out themes, causation and examples Write down key words about what happened to these countries after decolonisation Nigeria Uganda Ghana

Kenya Egypt (optional) this one decolonised much earlier, so make sure you are clear about this What common themes can you identify? Theme (C): How does this show decolonisation was orderly (C): Theme (C): How does this show decolonisation was orderly (C): How does it show decolonisation was disorderly(C): How does it show decolonisation was disorderly(C): Actual Examples: Actual Examples: Is this the fault of the colonial legacy, the Black Africans, something else or a combination? (B/A):

Is this the fault of the colonial legacy, the Black Africans, something else or a combination? (B/A): What overall themes can you identify in decolonisation and how can you pull them together...? Theme (C): How does this show decolonisation was orderly (C): How does it show decolonisation was disorderly(C): Actual Examples: Is this the fault of the colonial legacy, the Black Africans, something else or a combination? (B/A): Economic problems and Structural Adjustment Plans (SAPs) These are policies the IMF and World Bank put into place when giving loans to developing countries. They are made to ensure borrowing is reduced and it is spent in the right way It wants the economy in these countries to become more market oriented it privatises companies, removes trade barriers, deregulates industries. It is often argued these countries have no choice

For example in the 1980s Ghana applied for a loan after uncontrolled spending from authoritarian rulers. It was in huge debt and had no choice but to accept the SAP from the World Bank. They are now even further into debt and spend four times more on their debt than they do on health care. What are the main problems with SAPs? What are the benefits? Do you think they should be enforced? Strong leaders Artificial territories however the OAU decided that these should be maintained as allowing states to split up into ethnic groups would easily become a bloodbath with multiple civil wars as had happened with Biafra Nkrumah bought together the different ethnic groups in

Ghana, as did Egyptian leaders by emphasising Islam and their shared Egyptian history The parliamentary model didnt really work when any oppression had been oppressed for decades Strong leaders had led family units, villages and tribes in recent history in Africa It was often said Africa was politically immature Even Western leaders said the case of Africa needed strong leaders due to its economic pressures and political immaturity this led to single-party states abusing power, being oppressive, monopolising it in their interest. Botswana was the only country that enjoyed early independence and regular democratic elections. One party states became the norm into the 1970s. By the 1980s these began to be overthrown international pressures, SAPs, humanitarian and economic pressures contributed to this. Military involvement

By the 1970s many African states endured military rule. Ghana had a very famous one in 1966 which removed Nkrumah. In pre-colonial society military and politics were closely intertwined, political leaders had to be soldiers or seen as soldiers (can you think of an example) In colonial society the military and politics were closely intertwined to rule effectively The African military had their routes in the 1890s and 1900s, when Africans were conquesting others, this was how the army was structured and its philosophical purpose. They were usually only involved in internal rule, such as keeping order, relying on the army to protect borders and not be involved in politics was a superficial thing. The military werent professional standing militaries, they were often more like part-time militias who followed particular local leaders Military rule usually included brutal murders and extreme violence especially when they had lost their moral right to rule over a scandal, and then resorted to extreme violence instead, this happened in Liberia and Somalia. How orderly was decolonisation? Not very

orderly Very orderly Note this will not come up in the exam but it is interesting to think about and discuss Things started to change for Africa into the 1980s and 1990s why might this have been? What problems does Africa still have today and how could it solve them? 14 How far do you agree that decolonisation was more orderly in west Africa than in east Africa? Homework 1. Complete exam question. Due Monday 15th April. Remember to be analytical. 2. Revise colonisation and material covered so far on decolonisation. Mind-maps, notes on walls, start a notebook whatever works for you. Use this Easter wisely. More revision you do now, the less you need to do in the 2 weeks you will have to revise at the end of the course, and the less panicked you will be. 3. Britain re-takers revise key events and key figures. Complete 2 (b) type practice timed questions. Make sure you include own knowledge. Reminder Africa revision day Thursday 4th April 10am-1.15pm. You can email me questions over Easter I will be checking my work email. My address is [email protected] All powerpoints and digital notes are on the website www.historywcsch.wordpress.com Use this website. Post questions on it and discuss if you wish to.

Let me know if you know you are missing any photocopied chapters. A* = 28 A = 23 B = 19 C = 17 D = 15 E = 12 Those of you who are now achieving at least your target grade in your essays are off intervention on a Tuesday they are Kelsea, Whelan. That means Ash, Reginald and Fares you are still on intervention. Everybody is still welcome to attend if they want to. The first Tuesday after Easter will be on the Berlin West Africa conference.

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