How useful are subcultural theories to an understanding of ...

How useful are subcultural theories to an understanding of ...

Developing Literacy Skills for A2 essay writing Context- Subcultural Theory of Crime Lesson objectives Objectives To review performance and identify targets for future writing To develop understanding of PEELE model To develop writing structure and apply PEELE model Context Functionalist essay (review) and Subcultural Theories essay (write) Success criteria

Grade C Include a range of points Explain points and avoid listing Give a range of criticisms Grade A Using key terms well and explaining clearly Illustrating points Evaluation is balanced Contrasting theories Self Review Go back over your answer and identify your targets to work on in your next piece of writing. You may wish to apply the following success criteria to help with this. success criteria

Grade A Grade C Good clear structure with intro/body/ evaluation section/conclusion Introduction that does not set the scene well A good range of points included Some points given but tend to be listed rather than explained Concepts/points explained clearly Examples used to illustrate points A good range of evaluation points that are focused and used effectively Conclusion used to sum up the overall contribution of a theory Study presented but not that

detailed scope to explore/discuss ideas more Limited/no examples used to support points A few evaluation points - may be listed rather than explained No conclusion Top Tip: Structure Introduction set the scene Separate paragraphs on key points (using PEELE structure) Body Evaluation/ analysis Conclusion Evaluation - Challenge ideas - Strengths and weaknesses

- Contrast views B/A C/B Application/Analysis/Synthesis - Relevancy - Focused points - Links - Evidence/illustration - Deconstruction of a debate Developing AO2 Literacy Skills C D Understanding/Explanation - Meaning Knowledge - Relevant concepts/studies etc Mastering

Skills in Sociology PEEEL is vital for displaying AO2 skills To present a solid case against chivalry thesis, you should : Aim to include a range of points Use PEEEL format to structure a paragraph = point = explain State the point Give an explanation of the point = example Illustrate with examples/studies = evaluate Offer a criticism/disadvantage of factor = link Relate to the issue in the question Mastering Skills in

Sociology Using PEEEL to organise a paragraph In sociology, PEEEL is probably best presented in the following order: Point Explain Example Link - Evaluation Example of using the PEEEL model in your socialisation essay One point emphasised by Durkheim is the way that deviance can be functional for society. It can help to reinforce boundaries in society, for example, we need to be reminded of the extremes of evil like rape and murder. It also helps to test boundaries and help to cause social change, such as Nelson Mandela and his actions to end apartheid in South Africa. A further function is in how punishment unifies a community, this was shown in the case of the murder of Lee Rigby on the streets of London, people are joined in their anger and desire for justice. Another function is how it helps to single out individuals from wider society, those who maybe a risk to us. The functions of deviance can be highly beneficial and not just be a bad thing in society. However, Durkheim can be criticised as he ignores the impact of crime on victims surely that cannot be positive. He also fails to explain where the laws come from in society and how benefit the powerful more. He also does not consider how the media may lead to copycat

crimes. Apply the success criteria to the following paragraph (in pairs) 1. What would you grade it (and why)? 2. How could it be improved? Rewrite this paragraph to make it stronger Mastering Skills in Sociology Using PEEEL to organise a paragraph In sociology, PEEEL is probably best presented in the following order: Point Explain Example Link - Evaluation Durkheim says that crime can have positive functions for society. One way is by reinforcing boundaries and supporting shared values in society. It also can test boundaries, as some crimes may be needed to make change happen in society. Another way is how the media can help to bring drama to punishment. Even in a society of saints crime would happen as it is inevitable and good.

Durkheim can be criticised as he ignores the power in society, who controls biased laws and invisible crime. Planning the subcultural theory essay Assess the usefulness of functionalist subcultural theory to an understanding of crime and deviance in society (21 marks) Study the following points that could be included in the essay Study the cards carefully Put them into an order for the essay Add the following where you can: - explanations - examples - evaluation points Albert Cohen Definition of

subculture Working class culture Source of status Advantages of subcultural theory Failure at school Illegitimate Opportunity Structures Career path Explain links to Merton

Cloward & Ohlin Matza Juvenile delinquency Focal Concerns Rebellion Working class neighbourhoods Challenge authority Status Frustration

disadvantages of subcultural theory Conclusion Group behaviour Definition of subculture Group behaviour Cloward & Ohlin Career path Illegitimate Opportunity Structures Working class

neighbourhoods Albert Cohen Status Frustration Failure at school Source of status Miller Working class culture Focal Concerns Explain links to Merton Rebellion

Juvenile delinquency Advantages of subcultural theory disadvantages of subcultural theory Matza Conclusion Plenary Using the 2 post its provided: Note any skills/knowledge that you have developed today Anything that you would like further help with to develop your writing style Lesson objectives Objectives

To review performance and identify targets for future writing To develop understanding of PEELE model To develop writing structure and apply PEELE model Context Functionalist essay (review) and Subcultural Theories essay (write) Success criteria Grade C Include a range of points Explain points and avoid listing

Give a range of criticisms Grade A Using key terms well and explaining clearly Illustrating points Evaluation is balanced Contrasting theories Grade A/B target contrasting theories How can the following be used to challenge or support Functionalist Subcultural theories? Labelling Theory Stress how the police are biased and patrol more working class areas. Marxist Theory Note how crime is caused by capitalism. How it causes inequalities and greed which

lead to deviance. They note how the selfconcept of people is affected when they are labelled and this can make deviance increase. They note how middle class and rich people commit crime but they tend to avoid getting detected. They note how deviants form subcultures when rejected by society. They also see the laws as biased and helping to control the working class. Ecological Theory Examine the links between

geographic area and crime. They note the way that urban areas are linked to crime. They stress the importance of community for reducing crime by strengthening bonds that help to control behaviour. Grade C target getting the evaluation right Before your conclusion set aside 2 paragraphs. One to cover the strengths of subcultural theory. Include at least 3 Use these concepts/ideas: status frustration, career, identity, mindless deviance One to cover weaknesses of subcultural theory. Include at least 3 Use these concepts/ideas: too deterministic, transient, middle class crime

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