HPP: HIGH-PRESSURE PROCESSING HOST Bill Kinross Publisher, Meatingplace MODERATOR Mike Fielding Managing Editor of Technical Content, Meatingplace FUNDAMENTALS AND PACKAGING ASPECTS Tatiana Koutchma, PhD. Research Scientist Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Poll Question What research topics should federal government scientists focus on to assist faster implementation of HPP technology in the meat industry? 1. Microbial safety 2. Nutritional considerations 3.Chemical/Toxicological considerations 4. Raw meats functionality 5. HPP for control of emerging pathogens Why High Hydrostatic Pressure Independent of product mass, size and geometry Minimizing treatment time and scale up Inactivates all vegetative bacteria and spores Destroys enzymes Minimal impact on quality and nutrition Commercially economical processes Emerged as a post-lethality treatment
Emerging as a pre-treatment before cooking Regulatory Status of HHP USA USDA has approved High Hydrostatic Pressure as an intervention method for Listeria contaminated prepacked ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted the commercial use of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) processes for application in the production of low acid foods (LAF) ( February 2009) Canada
Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure for Processing Ready to Eat (RTE) Meat-containing Entrees, Meat-containing Salads and Meat Products (Maple Leaf, December 2006) Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure for the Control of L. monocytogenes in Ready to Eat (RTE) Meats and Poultry (Santa-Maria, Foods, October 2006) Principles of High Hydrostatic Pressure ( Listeria HPP systems design Vertical vessel Horizontal vessel
Commercial HPP systems Vessel layout horizontal Automatic loading / unloading Wave 6000 / 55 L Wave 6000 / 135L Wave 6000 / 300T L Wave 6000 / 420 L Maximum pressure 87,000 PSI Pressure Hold Time 3 min Photo courtesy of NC Hyperbaric Commercial HPP systems
Wide range of HHP systems 100 L - 600 215 L - 600 350 L - 600 687 L - 300 7 contract services facilities Photos courtesy of Avure Product and process conditions for establishment of HPP preservation HPP pasteurization
HPP sterilization Product parameters pH, aw 3.5 4.6; aw >0.86 Process parameters Temperature, oC 45 > 100 Pressure, MPa
Refrigerated conditions Ambient temperature Hermetically sealed flexible containers Hermetically sealed flexible containers Packaging Product Development Issues
Product selection Product formulation Food safety/regulatory Pre & post pressure processing Packaging Product storage temperature Shelf-life HPP In-Container Principles Product is generally treated in its final primary package Food and its packaging are treated together
Entire package remains a secure unit until the consumer opens it Packaging must withstand a change of volume up to 18% followed by return to its original size Without loosing package integrity Seal integrity Barrier properties Packaging under vacuum or modified atmosphere Food Packaging Materials In general, traditional packaging materials are not intended to have any technical effect in the food, and considered as food additives because their components can migrate into the food
that contacts the packaging In the case of active and intelligent packaging, sometimes the package may be designed to deliver a chemical to the food for the purpose of exerting some technical effect in the food. Definition Available Packaging Materials Plastic-laminated materials nylon/coextruded EVOH nylon/PP PET/AlOx/CPP PET/PE Aluminum foil-laminated pouches
PET/Al/CPP nylon/Al/PP Deposited coatings of SiOx Blends of polymers Nanocomposite materials Physical Compression Compression forces act on Food Air Packaging materials Decompression Food package system undergoes a reversible return to its initial volume Except for porous structures
ln (V/V0) = ln[1 - C ln(1 + p/CB0)] where Vo and Bo are the polymer volume and the bulk modulus at atmospheric pressure for each polymer, respectively, p is pressure and C is a polymer dependent constant Compression of Packaging Materials 5% of the vessel is full of packaging material Polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) undergo compression heating (CH) CH was greater than water under HP-LT (10C and 50C) HP-HT (90C) conditions up to 750 Mpa CH was non-linear
Warmer layer may be formed surrounding the food Temperature elevation due to pressurization 140 Water Pro pylene-Glycol HDPE PP data5 PTFE data7 data8 data9 data10 data11 data12 data13
data14 data15 data16 T e m p e r a tu re / C 120 140 100 80 60 40 T e m p e r a tu re / C 20 0
0 100 200 100 80 60 20 0 0 600 700 W a t er
P r o py le ne - Gl y c ol H D PE PP d a ta 5 P TFE d a ta 7 d a ta 8 d a ta 9 d a ta 1 0 d a ta 1 1 d a ta 1 2 d a ta 1 3 d a ta 1 4 d a ta 1 5 d a ta 1 6 120
40 120 300 400 500 Pressure / MPa 140 100 200 30 0 400 500 P re s su re / M P a
600 700 Temperature /(C) C 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Ardia et al., 2004 100
Gas barrier Material and seal strength Head space Aging and printability Integrity requirement1 (maximum expected pressure/ temperature) HP-LT (600 MPa/80C) HP-HT (800 MPa/133C) Retort2 (0.2 MPa/ 133C) Visual integrity
no delamination or blistering no delamination or blistering no delamination or blistering Oxygen permeability (maximum deviation 12%) product dependent 0.06 for US military or 0.5-1.0 g/m/day for some commercial products
0.06 for US military or 0.5-1.0 g/ m/day for some commercial products Water permeability (maximum deviation 12%) product dependent 0.01 g/m/day or product dependent 0.01 g/m/day or product dependent Seal strength properties (maximum deviation 25%) material dependent
material dependent seal strength, 2-3.5 kg/100 mm; bond strength 150 150-500 g/10 ml; burst test 7.5 kg/15 mm seal Physical strength (tensile, elongation, elasticity modulus; maximum deviation 25%) material dependent material dependent material dependent Global migration of packaging components to food simulants
< 10 mg/dm2 < 10 mg/dm2 < 10 mg/dm2 Maximum headspace3,4 up to 30% up to 30% up to 30% High thermal conductivity4 not required (with exceptions)
required required Polymer Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) Oxygen permeability at 23C 50% or 0% RH (ml/m2/day) Water vapour permeability at 23C 85% RH (g/m2/day) 0.001-0.01 (dry)
Poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDC) Polystyrene (PS) Residual Headspace Residual headspace in certain packages has been shown to influence package integrity by causing delamination Headspace must be minimized not only to maximize vessel use capacity but also to maintain integrity Further work must be done in order to establish a minimum headspace value acceptable to maintain package integrity at both HP-LT and HP-HT conditions Summary Integrity criteria has to be met by a packaging material after HPP processing at mild and high temperature visual integrity, gas permeability, seal and physical strength properties,
and global migration of packaging components into the food Reported EVOH-based materials showed no deviations after HPLT in terms of visual integrity, permeability, and physical properties. Information gaps for certain properties, including global migration, must be provided for a complete assessment of the suitability of some reported materials Future Trends Further research is required in screening new materials that are finding applications in thermal processing (hot fill or retort) for their potential use in HPP processes Transparent materials are desirable due to higher consumer preference Thin vacuum deposited coatings of SiOx on PET, PP or PA which are transparent, waterresistant, retortable microwaveable options New barrier polymers currently used as discrete layers with an oxygen permeability
value 50-100 times lower than PET. Biodegradable polymers are being developed with oxygen barrier properties resembling those of EVOH, with heat sealability and resistance to grease. Blends of barrier polymers and standard polymers have been developed, including EVOH in PP, PE or PA; PA in PP or PET, and LCP in PET and PE Nanocomposite materials, or polymers filled with small (100-1000 nm) inorganic particles, may improve barrier properties by a factor of 50 or higher. GFRC PILOT PLANT: CL-02 Certified Facility
2010 2009 2011 PHAC certification 26 McCormick Place, Chicago, IL Wednesday, November 2 2:30-3:30 PM The Promises and Challenges of Applying High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP) for RTE Food Products Presented by Dr. Tobias Richter Dr.-Ing., Dipl.-Kfm., M.Sc. MULTIVAC Sepp Haggenmueller GmbH & Co. KG, Germany NEXT-GENERATION HPP: BEYOND SHELF-LIFE EXTENSION
Dr. Phil Minerich Vice President of Research and Development Hormel Foods Agenda Applications Natural Meats Produce Fresh Meats Harvest Processing Conclusion Poll Question
What product features are achieved by using High-Pressure Processing? 1. 2. 3. 4. Minimally processed Extended shelf-life Post-package pasteurization All of the above Application: Natural Meats U.S. Department of Agriculture definition A product containing:
No artificial or synthetic ingredient No chemical preservative No coloring ingredient Only minimally processed Hormel Natural Choice products HPP benefits Post-package pasteurization Inactivates harmful microbes in foods Extends shelf-life Sourse: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/factsheets/meat_&_poultry_labeling_terms/index.asp Application: Produce Food safety assurance
Stabilizes enzyme activity Preserves and enhances: Natural flavor Color Texture Other quality attributes Extends shelf-life Application: Fresh Meats Raw beef patties Stops post-mortem glycolysis Improves meat quality for consumers Stabilizes pH >6.0
Improves color Increases water-holding capacity Decreases shear force Increases tenderness eating experience Increases overall liking Application: Harvest Processing Hair/feather removal Loosens hair/feather follicles from skin Eliminates scald tank Toenail removal Loosens toenails from hoof
Reduces fecal contamination Conclusion HPP fits a variety of applications: Allows ready-to-eat meats to meet the USDA natural definition Enhances quality attributes for produce products Enhances quality for fresh meats Improves harvest processing Future outlook ??? HOW TO ENTER THE MARKET WITH AN ADVANTAGE Justin Segel President Greg Zaja Vice President
American Pasteurization Company Poll Question Besides food safety, what is driving your interest in high-pressure processing? Clean labels Longer shelf life Risk management (raw materials/finished product) Regulatory compliance Basic Concept of Toll vs. In-house Capital costs Hidden costs Operations Coordinating volume stream First Steps
Initial product testing Product evaluation Identify quality & food safety measures Validation Inoculation studies Shelf studies Packaging Process Implementation Integration between establishments USDA approval for transferring product Product specification overview HACCP plan Typical Tolling Process Documentation of all records
Receiving Processing Certification of HPP Pre-shipment reviews What to Expect from a Toll Processor Final product inspection Final packaging solutions Storage and distribution needs Supply chain integration Redundancy of equipment QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FOR MORE INFORMATION Dr. Tatiana Koutchma: [email protected]
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