第三章 英国名家演说汉译 - Huainan

第三章 英国名家演说汉译 - Huainan

31-35 Original 31: Gentlemen, I cannot do better than take my cue from your

distinguished President, and refer in my first remarks to his remarks in connection with the old, natural, association between you and me. When I received an invitation from a private association of working members of the press of New York to dine with them today, I accepted that compliment in grateful remembrance of a calling that was once my own, and in loyal sympathy towards a brotherhood which, in spirit, I have never quitted. 1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis

A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure The present selection consists of two sentences, of which the first is a simple sentence while the

second is a complex sentence, composed of an adverbial clause of time, a main clause and two attributive clauses, one embedded in the middle of the main clause and the other at the end of it. (2) Additional complicatio n After the conjunction than in the first sentence, there are two coordinate infinitive phrases;

the second sentence begins with an adverbial clause and has a parenthesis embedded in the attributive clause at the end of the sentence. (3) Notes In the first sentence, I cannot do better than take m y cue and refer tomeans it would be better for me to take my cue and refer to whileand refer in my first remarks to his remarks in connection with t he old, natural, associationmeans and in my first r

emarks refer to his remarks regarding the old, natural association. And in When I received an invitation fro m a private association of working members of the pr ess of New York to dine with them today, I accepted t hat compliment in grateful remembrance of a calling t hat was once my own, and in loyal sympathy towards a brotherhood which, in spirit, I have never quitted, th e backbone structure is when I received, I accepted in grateful remembrance and in loyal sympathy (4) Paraphrase The selection could be paraphrased as follows: It

would be better for me to take my cue from your distinguished President and begin my remarks by referring to his remarks concerned with the old, natural relations between you and me. When I received an invitation from a private New York press association to dine with them today, I gratefully accepted the compliment and recalled the profession that was once my own. I regard them as my brothers and have loyal sympathy for them, and that sympathy, in spirit, I have never quitted. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication

(3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity Of two sentences, the first is loose while the second is periodic in structure, for it begins with an adverbial clause and has a parenthetic structure embedded.

(2) Structural complicatio n The two sentences are structurally complicated to some extent for the reason that in the first sentence, there are two infinitive phrases in coordination, which together with the conjunction than form an elliptic adverbial clause of comparison, and the second sentence is complex in structure and

it is a periodic sentence. (3) Parallel structure In the selection, parallel structures are frequently used, for example, take my cue, and refer in my first remarks to his remarks; old and natural; you and me; I received and I accepted; and in grateful remembrance and in loyal sympathy .

(4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are frequently used; I and remarks are repeated, and my and me are used to stand for I; association is used as a synonym for connection; and that complement is used to refer to the invitation, and so on.

(5) Structural and lexical f ormality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used, for example, distinguished, president, remark, connection, natural, association, receive, accept, remember, invitation, to name only a few.

2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1: :

Comments: The translation is far from satisfactory due to the fact that it rigidly follows the original lexicall

y and structurally, although some fine-tuning h as been imposed on during the translating proc ess. For the sake of authentic Chinese, clauses within the two sentences should be rearranged and clarity should be added to the meaning of t he translation. Specifically speaking, is not a natural Chinese expression; ; and are put in the wrong positions agai nst Chinese norms. B) Translation 2:

Comments:

Improvements are made on the previou s translation in that the first sentence is re organized and sounds more authentic. Furt hermore, the second sentence is reorganiz ed to a greater extent with the use of such natural expressions as ; ; ; ; ; ; and so on. Ho wever, this does not necessarily imply that there is not any room for further improvem ent. C) Translation 3:

Comments:

Improvements are further made on the previ ous translation in that the first sentence is brok en up into two and reorganized drastically. For example, is fronted and now stands as a sent ence on its own. In addition, more natural expre ssions are employed such as ; ; ; ; ; ; , and others. The second se ntence is also broken up into two and reorganiz ed drastically with more natural expressions us ed such as ; ; , and others.

Original 32: To the wholesome training of severe newspaper work, when I was a very young man, I constantly refer my first successes; and my sons will hereafter testify to their father that he was always steadily proud of that ladder by which he rose. If it were otherwise, I should have but a very poor opinion of their father, which, perhaps, upon the whole, I have not. 1) Analysis of the original:

A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure

The present selection consists of two sentences, of which the first is a compound complex sentence, composed of a main clause, which in turn consists of two coordinate clauses, and an adverbial clause of time embedded at the end of the prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence, an object clause embedded in the second coordinate clause and an attributive clause embedded in the object clause. The second is a complex sentence, composed of an adverbial clause of condition and a main clause, which in turn has an attributive clause embedded at the end of the sentence.

(2) Additional complicatio n The first sentence begins with a prepositional phrase and the adverbial clause immediately after it is parenthetic in structure; the second sentence, in subjunctive mood, begins with a conditional clause, and at the end of the sentence, perhaps and upon the whole, are two parentheses.

(3) Notes In the first sentence, to the wholesome training of severe newspaper work, when I was a very young man, I constantly refer my first successes could be understood like this: I constantly refer my first successes to the wholesome training of severe newspaper work, and at that time, I was a very young man. In the second sentence, I should have but a very poor opinion of their father means I

should have only a very poor opinion of their father. (4) Paraphrase Since a paraphrase for the second sentence is unnecessary, the first sentence will be paraphrased as follows: When I was a very young man, I received the wholesome training of severe newspaper work and now I constantly refer my first successes to that training. I regard the training as the ladder by

which I rose and am always steadily proud of that ladder. And my sons will give evidence to that after my death. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity

The two sentences the selection contains are both periodic in structure in that the first sentence begins with a prepositional phrase with an adverbial clause embedded as a parenthesis; and the second sentence begins with an adverbial clause of condition and has two parentheses embedded at the end of it. (2) Structural complicatio n

The two sentences are structurally complicated for their multiple embeddings and periodicity. (3) Parallel structure In the selection, there isnt any parallel structure except that the first sentence is com posed of two coordinate claus es.

(4) Cohesive device: In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: I is repeatedly used together with my; their is used in connection with my sons; that ladder is used to refer to newspaper work, and so on. (5) Structural and lexical f

ormality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used, for example, wholesome, constantly, success, hereafter, testify, steadily, otherwise, and others.

2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments: By following the original rigidly in terms of both vocabulary and structure, the translation has pro duced unsatisfactory results in that by placing immediately before

, the reader might be misled to understand th at but now I am not referring my first successes t o the wholesome training of sever newspaper wor k. is a mistrans lation of my sons will hereafter testify to their fath er, which should be understood as after my death , my sons will testify to their fatheras could be e videnced by the word was used in the subordinat e clause that follows. B) Translation 2:

Comments: The second translation has put right some of the mistakes in the first. However, has in essence not improv

ed on the corresponding previou s part at all. Nevertheless, some minor readjustments can be witn essed throughout in the present t ranslation. C) Translation 3:

Comments: The present translation has put right the remai ning mistake in Translation 2. In addition, it has r educed the first long sentence in Translation 2 int o a condensed short sentence. Besides, taking int o consideration of Chinese norms, the present tra nslation has employed such ready expressions as ; and others to subst

itute for the corresponding parts in the previous tr anslation; and ; and , are results of explicit transla tion. Consequently, the present translation is mor e readable, coherent and authentic. Original 33: Hence, gentlemen, under any circumstances, this company would have been exceptionally interesting and gratifying to me. But whereas I supposed that like the fairies pavilion in Arabian Nights, it would be but a mere handful, and I find it turn out, like the

same elastic pavilion, capable of comprehending a multitude, so much the more proud am I of the honor of being your guest; for you will readily believe that the more widely representative of the press in America my entertainers are, the more I must feel the good-will and the kindly sentiments towards me of the vast institution. 1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis:

(1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure The selection consists of two sentences, of which the first sentence is simple in structure while the second is a complex sentence, composed of an adverbial clause of concession which consists of a main

clause and an object clause, a main clause, consisting of two coordinate clauses, and an adverbial clause of consequence with an adverbial clause of reason after it, which in turn consists of a main clause and an adverbial clause of comparison in the pattern the more, the more. (2) Additional complicatio n The first sentence has a complicated beginning composed of an adverb, a vocative

and a prepositional phrase. The second sentence begins with an adverb followed by an adverbial clause, whose subject clause begins with a prepositional structure; in the second coordinate clause of the main clause of the sentence, there is a parenthesis embedded, that is, like the same elastic pavilion; and the order of the adverbial clause of consequence is partially inverted, and so is the order of the adverbial clause of comparison together with its main clause. And the first sentence is in subjunctive mood. (3) Notes

In the second sentence, but whereas I supposed that like the fairies pavilion in Arabian Nights means but in contrast to my supposition that . The pavilion in Arabian Nights refers to a small tent that can accommodate a small number of people. Still in the second sentence, it would be but a mere handful means it would only be a few; and and I find it turn out, like the same elastic pavilion, capable of comprehending a multitude could be rearranged in this way: and I find it turn out capable of comprehending a multitude like the same elastic pavilion.

Notes (continued) The backbone structure of But whereas I supposed that like the fairies pavilion in Arabian Nights, it would be but a mere handful, and I find it turn out, like the same elastic pavilion, capable of comprehending a multitude, so much the more proud am I of the honor of being your guest is but whereas I supposed that it would be , and I find it, so much the more proud am I of ; for you will readily believe.

(4) Paraphrase Based on the above analysis, we believe that it is unnecessary to paraphrase the first sentence a nd in the following, only the second sentence is p araphrased. Originally I supposed that like the fair ies pavilion in Arabian Nights, the gathering wo uld only consist of a small number of entertainers but I find out that it turns out to be, like the same elastic pavilion, capable of accommodating a gre at many. For this reason, I am much more proud of the honor of being your guest. The reason lies

within your ready belief that the more representa tives come from the press of America as my enter tainers, the more good-will and kind sentiments t owards me of the vast organization I must feel. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity

The two sentences in the selection are periodic in structure, for the first has a complicated beginning while the second begins with an adverb and an adverbial clause of contrast together with a prepositional phrase embedded as a parenthesis. (2) Structural complicatio n

The first is a simple sentence while the second is structurally complicated with multiple embeddings. (3) Parallel structure In the selection, parallel structures could be found, for example, interesting and gratifying; like the fairies pavilion and like the same elastic pavilion; and the

more, the more . (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: I is repeatedly used with me and my as partial repetitions; pavilion is repeated; the vast institution is used to stand for the press in America and this company.

(5) Structural and lexical f ormality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used, for example, gentlemen, circumstance, company, exceptionally, interesting, gratifying, suppose, pavilion, elastic, comprehending, multitude, representative, entertainer, sentiment, and so on.

2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments: The translation is, in some places, if not

all, a clumsy imitation of the original. For e xample, even in the translated context, in the first line and in the last are b eyond understanding. Actually, company h ere refers to those working for newspapers and institution means the private associati on of the working members of the press of New York. In addition, i s not well organized. B) Translation 2:

Comments:

The present translation has found solutio ns to all the problems discussed in the abov e comments. In addition, unexpected impro vements have also been made by using suc h ready Chinese expressions as ; ; ; , etc. However, this does no t necessarily imply that there is not any roo m for further improvement. C) Translation 3:

Comments:

The present translation has improved on the previous when such expressions are em ployed as ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , and others. Consequently, it can be regard ed as a piece of authentic Chinese writing if the reader is not informed of the fact that it is not the original but a translation.

Original 34: Gentlemen, I henceforth charge myself, not onl y here but on every suitable occasion whatsoever and wheresoever, to express my high and gratefu l sense of my second reception in America, and to bear my honest testimony to the national generos ity and magnanimity. Also, to declare how astoun ded I have been by the amazing changes that I ha ve seen around me on every side. Nor am I, belie ve me, so arrogant as to suppose that in five-andtwenty years there have been no changes in me, and that I had nothing to learn and no extreme im pressions to correct when I was here first.

1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (1) Sentence structure

The selection consists of three sentences, of which the first is a simple sentence; the second is actually an infinitive phrase with I henceforth charge myself omitted, but it consists of an object clause with an attributive clause embedded; the third is a complex sentence, composed of a main clause and two coordinate adverbial clauses of consequence, of which the second has an adverbial clause of time embedded. (2) Additional complication

The first sentence has not only here b ut on every suitable occasion whatsoever and wheresoever embedded as a parent hesis; the second is not a sentence but a n infinitive phrase coordinate with to exp ress my high and grateful sense in the first sentence, but it has obtained a sent ential status; and the third sentence is in verted and has believe me embedded as a parenthesis. (3) Notes

In the first sentence, I henceforth charge myself , not only here but on every suitable occasion wha tsoever and wheresoever, to express my high and grateful sense of my second reception in America, and to bear my honest testimony to the national g enerosity and magnanimity could be reduced to th e essentials like that: I charge myself to expr ess and to bear. In the third sentence, nor am I is used in connection to not only that goe s before it. Also in the same sentence, and that I had nothing to learn and no extreme impressions to correct when I was here first could be understo od as a whole parallel to that in five-and-twenty y

ears there have been no changes in me. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity

The selection consists of three sentences, of which the first is periodic in that it begins with a vocative and has a parenthesis embedded. The second can also be regarded as periodic for the beginning with also, and so is the third for the embedding of the parenthesis believe me. (2) Structural complication

All the sentences are structurally complicated to some extent. specifically, the first sentence has two coordinate infinitive phrases; the second sentence has an attributive clause embedded in the object clause; and the third sentence has two coordinate adverbial clauses of consequence. (3) Parallel structure Parallel structures are freque

ntly used, for example, not only here but on every suitable occa sion; whatsoever and wheresoe ver; to express, to bear and to declare; high and grateful; generosity and magnanimity; a nd that, and that . (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are frequently

used; I is repeatedly used together with me, my and myself as partial repetitions; national is used as a partial repetition for America; the word changes is repeated; I charge myself in the second sentence is omitted, and so on. (5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is for mal in that the sentences it contai

ns are grammatically complete an d free from colloquial structures. L exically, formal words and nominal izations are popularly used, for exa mple, whatsoever, wheresoever, re ception, generosity, magnanimity, astound, suppose, impression, etc. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments

C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments: The translation of the first two sen tences of the original can be regarde d as a good work, although and are not ve ry coherent in their context. The tran slation of the second, however, soun ds exotic, especially by putting at the end of the transl

ation. B) Translation 2:

Comments: The present translation has improv ed on the previous when the abovementioned problems are solved, alth ough such expressions as is still incongruous to some exte nt. Taking into account the Chinese n orms respecting the translation at ha nd, however, much is still left to be d esired.

C) Translation 3:

Comments: The present translation has turned to reorganizi ng and rewriting. For example, the first two senten ces in the original is now translated into one with t he emphatic expressions whatsoever and whereso ever deleted and inserted. In translating t he last sentence in the original, the clause , is seemin gly unjustifiably added but the ideas do exist betw een the lines of the original. However, by taking al l these measures, the translation sounds more rea

dable, coherent and hence authentic, since the re dundant information, though emphatic, is eliminat ed and the implied meaning is made explicit. Original 35: Gentlemen, the transition from my own feelings towards and interest in America to those of the mass of my country men seems to be natural one; but, whether or no, I make it with an express object. I was asked in this very city, about l ast Christmas time, whether an American was not at some disadvantage in England as a foreigner. The notion of an A merican being regarded in England as a foreigner at all, of

his ever being thought of or spoken of in that character, wa s so uncommonly incongruous and absurd to me, that my g ravity was, for the moment, quite overpowered. As soon as it was restored, I said that for years and years past I hoped I had had as many American friends and had received as ma ny American visitors as almost any Englishman living, and t hat my unvarying experience, fortified by theirs, was that it was enough in England to be an American to be received wi th readiest respect and recognition, anywhere. 1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis

A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure The selection consists of four sentences, of whi ch the first is a compound sentence, composed of two coordinate clauses; the second is a complex s

entence, composed of a main clause and an objec t clause; the third is again a complex sentence, c omposed of a main clause and an adverbial claus e of consequence; and the last is a complicated c omplex sentence, composed of an adverbial claus e of time and a main clause, which is in turn com posed of a main clause and two coordinate object clauses, of which the first has another object clau se further embedded and the second has a predic ative clause further embedded. (2) Additional complication

The first sentence begins with a vocative and has whether or no embedded as a parenthesis; the second sentence has a parenthesis embedded, that is, about last Christmas time; the third sentence has at least for the moment embedded as a parenthesis if of his ever being thought of or spoken of in that character is not counted as another; and the last sentence begins with an adverbial clause and has fortified by theirs embedded as a parenthesis.

(3) Notes In the first sentence, the transition from my ow n feelings towards and interest in America to thos e of the mass of my countrymen can be simplified to the transition from A to B, meaning changing fr om A into B. In the same sentence, whether or no could be understood as whether or not and make it means succeed in reaching. In the third sente nce the notion of an American being regarded in England as a foreigner at all, of his ever being tho ught of or spoken of in that character can be und erstood in this manner: the notion of an American

being regarded, the notion of his ever being tho ught of or the notion of his being spoken of, where in that character means as a foreigner. Notes (continued): Andso uncommonly incongruous and absurd to m e, that my gravity was, for the moment, quite overpow ered can be simplified to so that; the main claus e of the fourth sentence, I said that for years and year s past I hoped I had had as many American friends an d had received as many American visitors as almost a ny Englishman living, and that my unvarying experien

ce, fortified by theirs, can be simplified to I said that and that. In it was enough in England to be an Am erican to be received with readiest respect and recogn ition, anywhere in the last sentence, it is the formal su bject, and to be received with is the real subject, an d so the whole lot can be rewritten into to be received with was enough in England to be an American. (4) Paraphrase In the selection, it is unnecessary to paraphrase th e first two sentences and for easy understanding, the last two sentences could be roughly paraphrased as f

ollows: An American is regarded as a foreigner in Engl and, or is ever thought of or spoken of as such. This n otion sounds extremely incongruous and absurd to m e. Consequently, I felt so grave for the moment as to be overpowered. The moment I was restored to norm al, I said that for years and years in the past, I wished that I had had as many American friends and received as many American visitors as any living Englishman. I also said that to be received anywhere in England wit h readiest respect and recognition was enough. And t hat is my unvarying experience and that experience i s fortified by other Englishmens. B) Stylistic analysis:

(1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity All the sentences in the selection are periodic in structure for the reason that the first sentence begins with a

vocative and has a parenthesis embedded; the second sentence has a parenthesis embedded; the third sentence has at least one or at most two parentheses embedded; and the last sentence begins with an adverbial clause and has a parenthesis embedded. (2) Structural complication

All the four sentences are complicated in structure for the embeddings, though the first is a compound sentence. (3) Parallel structure Parallel structures are frequently used, for example, feelings towards and interest in; whether or no; of an American being regarded in England as a foreigner at all, of his ever being thought of or spoken of in that character; thought

of or spoken of; years and years; I said that and that; had had as many American friends and had received as many American visitors; and respect and recognition. (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are frequently used; those is used to substitute for feelings and interest;

American, England, foreigner and years are repeated; in that character is used in connection with foreigner; and so on. (5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are

popularly used, for example, incongruous, absurd, overpower, unvarying, fortify, and others. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments: On the whole, the above can be regarded as a word-for-word or clause-for-clause tran slation, for there are many expressions that sound unauthentic such as ; ; ; ; , and others. Howe ver, if we should accept the tolerable incoh erence, as Lu Xun once advocated, the tran

slation on the whole is acceptable. B) Translation 2:

Comments: Parts of the weak points as mentioned i n the above comments are, to a large exte nt, improved on when new expressions suc h as ; ; ; ; and others are used a s substitutes for the corresponding parts in the previous translation.

and still sound unauthen tic and incongruous in the context. C) Translation 3:

Comments: In the first two sentences of the present transla tion, minor adaptations can be witnessed. Howev er, from the third sentence on, drastic adaptation s are imposed such as ; ; ; ; ;

; , and others. All the adaptations may dev iate from the original differently. However, they a re justified by the implied meanings in the origina l and in the light of the context-triggered Chinese norms. Exercises: 31-35 Exercise 31:

Today, gentlemen, as I know that many among yo u are interested in the land, and as I feel that what is termed agricultural distress is at the present mome nt a topic too serious to be omitted from our consider ation, I shall say some words upon the subject of that agricultural distress, and particularly because in conn ection with it there have arisen in some quarters of t he country proposals, which have received a counten ance far beyond their deserts, to reverse or to compr omise the work which it took us one whole generatio n to achieve, and to revert to the mischievous, obstr uctive, and impoverishing system of protection. (William Ewart Glastone,

On Domestic and Foreign Affairs) Exercise 32: I beg leave to thank you for the extremely kind an d appreciative manner in which you have received t he toast of Science. It is the more grateful to me to h ear that toast proposed in an assembly of this kind, because I have noticed of late years a great and gro wing tendency among those who were once jestingly said to have been born in a pre-scientific age to look

upon science as an invading and aggressive force, w hich if it had its own way would oust from the univer se all other pursuits. I think there are many persons who look upon this new birth of our times as a sort o f monster rising out of the sea of modern thought wit h the purpose of devouring the Andromeda of art. (Thomas Henry Luxley, Science and Art) Exercise 33: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the Lolos Club, - One might start a great many principles and ideas which wo uld require to be illustrated and drawn out in order to pr

esent a picture of my feelings at the present moment. I am conscious that in my immediate vicinity there are pe ople who were great when I was little. I remember very well when I was unknown to anybody, how I was sent to report a lecture by my friend right opposite, Mr. George Alfred Townsend, and I remember the manner in which he said: Galileo said: The world moves round, and the world does move round, upon the platform of the Merc antile Hall in St. Louis one of the grandest things out. (Henry Morton Stanley, Through the Dark Continent) Exercise 34: Ladies and gentlemen,

I shall have the pleasure of speaking to you about certain traits of character of the people of my nation. One of the first traits I shall illustrate is their humor. We are, I h ope, a Christian people, but I am certain th at our Christianity has been tested a good many times by that often-repeated prover b of Sidney Smiths, that it takes a surgical operation to get a joke into a Scotchmans head. Exercise 34 (continued):

A recent writer, whom I cannot identify, and whose name I do not want to know, denies that there is anything in our humor that is light in touch, delicate and graceful. He asserts instead that there is much that is austere and awkward, tiresome, and unpleasant. Now each nation takes its own humor in its own way, some joyously, some seriously, but none more conscientiously than the Scotch. (John Watson, Scottish Humor)

Exercise 35: Friends, I cannot help thinking tonight of the many hundreds of meetings that have been held in this country in defense of the principle of womens enfranchisement. How many times have noble women poured forth their very soul in an appeal for political justice. How many times has such an appeal been made, and made to ears that were deaf and unheeding. It is well for us all to remember that we a re engaged in no new movement. There were those who came before us, pioneers of forty and fifty-six years ago, who began the agitation for woman suffrage. They worke d well, they worked devotedly, and yet, after all those ye

ars of hard work, women have not yet got the Parliament ary vote. (Miss Christabel Pankhurst, The Militant Suffragette) 36 40 Original 36: Hereupon, out of half-a-dozen people, suddenly spoke out two, one an American gentleman, with a cultivated taste for art, who, finding himself on

a certain Sunday outside the walls of a certain historical English castle, famous for its pictures, was refused admission there, according to the strict rules of the establishment on that day, but who, on merely representing that he was an American gentleman, on his travels, had, not to say the picture gallery, but the whole castle, placed at his immediate disposal. 1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis

A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure The selection consists of a single complex sentence, composed of a main clause and two coordinate attributive

clauses, of which the second has an object clause further embedded. (2) Additional complication The sentence begins with an adverb followed by a compound prepositional phrase; the main clause i s in inverted order, whose normal order should be: t wo suddenly spoke out; one an American gentlema n is an absolute nominal construction, whose senten tial version should be: one was an American gentle

man. In the sentence, the prepositional phrase at th e beginning, with a cultivated taste for art, famous f or its pictures, according to the strict rules of the es tablishment on that day, on merely representing th at, on his travels, and not to say the picture galler y, but the whole castle are parenthetic structures, al though the last one should structurally be the object of the pattern: have placed at ones disposal. (3) Notes Hereupon out of half-a-dozen people, suddenly spoke out two , means at this moment, two out of half-a-dozen suddenly sp

oke out; who, finding himself on a certain Sunday outside t he walls of a certain historical English castle, famous for its pict ures, was refused admission there, according to the strict rules of the establishment on that day, but who, on merely representi ng that he was an American gentleman, on his travels, had, not to say the picture gallery, but the whole castle, placed at his im mediate disposal can be reduced to the backbone structure like this: who was refused, but who had not only the picture gallery but also the whole castle placed at; the phrase on mer ely presenting that means as soon as he only told them that ; the phrase not to say means not to speak of, and the phrase not to say, butmeans not only but also ; in the last two li nes, had, not to say the picture gallery, but the whole castle, placed at his immediate disposal can be reduced to had not o

nly A but also B placed at his immediate disposal. (4) Paraphrase To reduce possible understanding barriers, we will paraphrase the selection as follows: Just at that moment, two people out of half a dozen spoke out. Of the two, one was an American gentleman. He said that on a certain Sunday he found himself outside a certain historical English castle, which is famous for its pictures. But he was not allowed to enter, for according to the strict rules, the castle would not open on

that day. However, he told them that he was an American and was traveling in England. Immediately, he was let in to see not only the picture gallery but also the whole castle. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity

The selection consists of a single complex sentence, periodic in structure for the beginning and the multiplication of parenthetic embeddings. (2) Structural complication The subject and the predicate of the main clause are inverted

and the sentence contains an absolute nominal construction. All these features point to the fact that the selection is structurally very complicated. (3) Parallel structure Parallel structures could be found though not frequently identifiable, for example, who, and who,; and not to

say the picture gallery, but the whole castle . (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures could be found; one and two are used in connection with half-a-dozen; American gentleman is used in connection with half-a-dozen people; walls, castle, establishment, pictures, admission, picture gallery are semantically related; castle,

picture and American gentleman are repeated; he and his are repeatedly used to refer to the American gentleman, and so on. (5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentence it contains is grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used,

for example, gentleman, cultivate, admission, establishment, represent, immediate, disposal, etc. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments:

In the above translation, some expressio ns sound quite exotic, for example, ; ; . If we say, the first two are understandable , the last one lies beyond understanding. In addition, some parts in the translation shoul d be fronted, for example, ; , and so on. And of course, the inverted version is transl ated into a normal version in accordance to Chinese norms.

B) Translation 2: Comments:

In the translation, all the wor ds and sentences are in authen tic Chinese except for some mi nor points such as ; and so on. And maybe th e sentence could be rearranged. C) Translation 3:

Comments:

The present translation is much improve d on the previous in that a great many auth entic expressions are employed as substitut es for the previous corresponding parts. Am ong them are ; ; ; ; ; and others. Consequently, the translati on is much more readable, coherent and au thentic, even sounding like a piece of Chine se writing, about what happened in a foreig n environment, though. Original 37:

The other was lady, who, being in London, and having a great desire to see the famous reading-room of British Museum, was assured by the English family with whom she stayed that it was unfortunately impossible, because the place was closed for a week, and she had only three days there. Upon that ladys going to the Museum, as she assured me, alone to the gate, self-introduced as an American lady, the gate flew open, as it were, magically. 1) Analysis of the original:

A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (1) Sentence structure The selection consists of two sentences, of

which the first is a complex sentence, composed of a main clause, an attributive clause, an object clause and an adverbial clause of reason, which is composed of two coordinate clauses, and there is an attributive clause embedded in the prepositional phrase by the English family . The second is also a complex sentence, composed of an adverbial clause of reason and a main clause with a parenthetic clause embedded near the end of the sentence. (2) Additional complication

Between the subject and the predicate of the first attributive clause in the first sentence, there is a parenthetic structure embedded; and the second sentence begins with a prepositional phrase and has as she assured me, alone to the gate, self-introduced as an American lady, and as it were embedded as parentheses. (3) Notes

Who, being in London, and having a great desire to see the famous reading-room of British Museum, was assured by the English family with whom she stayed that it was unfortunately impossible, because the place was closed for a week, and she had only three days there could be reduced into a backbone structure like this: who was assured that . B) Stylistic analysis:

(1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity The two sentences are both periodic in structure for the reason that the first sentence has a parenthetic structure

embedded while the second sentence begins with a prepositional phrase in addition to the embedding of a number of parentheses. (2) Structural complication The two sentences in the selection are grammatically complicated for their

complexity and the embedding of parentheses. (3) Parallel structure In the selection, parallel structures are used, for example, being in London, and having a great desire; and the place was closed for a week, and she had only three days there.

(4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are used; lady and Museum are repeated; she is repeatedly used to stand for lady, American lady or the lady; three days and a week are used in contrast; the famous reading-room is used as part of the British Museum, and so on.

(5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used, for example, assure, unfortunately, introduce, magically, etc., since all these words are

frequently used nowadays. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments A) Translation 1:

Comments: The first sentence of the transl

ation is well rendered. However, the second could be reorganized and the third should also go thro ugh the process of reorganizatio n. For example, could b e fronted; sou nds incongruous in the context. B) Translation 2:

Comments: The translation sounds much bette r now, except for perhaps the very la st clause, although other places coul d be further improved in accordance

with Chinese norms. For example, sounds abrupt; soun ds a little colloquial, and so on. C) Translation 3:

Comments: The translation is drastically different fro m the previous when ; ; ; ; ; ; are seemingly unjustifiably ins erted, when ; ; and others are substituted for th

e corresponding parts in the previous transl ation. Consequently, it sounds more like a p iece of writing than a translation. However, all the ideas could be found in the original, t hough some of them are between the lines. Original 38: Now, gentlemen, I refer to these tri fles as collateral assurance to you tha t the Englishmen who shall humbly st rive, as I hope to do, to be in England as faithful to America as to England h

erself, have no previous conceptions t o contend against. Points of differenc e there have been, points of differenc e there are, points of difference there probably always will be between the t wo great peoples. Original 38 (continued): But broadcast in England is sown the sentiment that those two peoples are essentially one, and that it rests with them jointly to uphold the great Anglo-Saxon race, to which our president has referred, and all its

great achievements before the world. And if I know anything of my countrymen and they give me credit for knowing something if I know anything of my countrymen, gentlemen, the English heart is stirred by the fluttering of those Stars and Stripes, as it is stirred by no other flag that flies except its own. 1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis:

(1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (1) Sentence structure The selection consists of four sent ences, of which the first is a complex sentence, composed of a main clause , and an appositive clause, which in t urn is composed of a main clause an d an attributive clause with a parenth

etic clause embedded. The second is a compound sentence, composed of t hree coordinate clauses. Sentence structure (continued) The third is a complex sentence, composed of a main clause and two coordinate appositive clauses, the second of which has an attributive clause embedded. The fourth is again a complex clause, composed of a conditional clause, which is then

repeated, and a main clause with an adverbial clause of manner embedded. (2) Additional complication The first sentence begins with an adverb and a vocative, and has a parenthetic clause embedded; in the third sentence, the great Anglo-Saxon race and all its great achievements before the world are in coordination;

and in the fourth sentence, between the two conditional clauses, there is a clause in between, that is, and they give me credit for knowing something. (3) Notes In the first sentence, the Englishmen who shall humbly strive, as I hope to do, to be in England a s faithful to America as to England herself, have no previous conceptions to contend against can be reduced into the backbone structure like this: the Englishmen have no previous conceptions

to contend against; in I refer to these trifles as co llateral assurance to you that, the that clause i s in apposition to assurance; in the third sentenc e, is sown means is sowing; the sentiment is follo wed by two appositive clauses: that these two pe oples, and that it rests with them; in it rests with them jointly to uphold, to uphold is the rea l subject and it the formal subject. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device

(5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity Three of the four sentences in the selection are periodic in that the first sentence begins with an adverb and a vocative, and has a parenthetic clause embedded; the third sentence has a parenthetic attributive clause embedded; and the fourth sentence begins with two conditional clauses

with a parenthetic clause embedded in between. (2) Structural complication 3 out of 4 are complex sent ences; and 3 out of 4 are peri odic sentences. (3) Parallel structure

Parallel structures are frequently used for instan ce, as faithful to America as to England herself; poi nts of difference there have been, points of differe nce there are, points of difference there probably a lways will be between the two great peoples; that t hose two peoples are essentially one, and that it re sts with them jointly to uphold; the great Anglo-S axon race,and all its great achievements; and th e English heart is stirred, as it is stirred . In the selection, some structures are repeated o r partially repeated, for example, points of differen

ce there have been, points of difference there are, points of difference there probably always will be ; and if I know anything of my countrymen. (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are frequently used; I, my, England, two peoples, countrymen, gentlemen and others are repeated; the English heart, the Englishmen and the great Anglo-Saxon

race are used as partial repetitions for England; Stars and Stripes are used as a partial repetition for America, and so on. (5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are

popularly used, for example, collateral, assurance, humbly, faithful, previous, conception, contend, broadcast, sentiment, essentially, and so on. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments

A) Translation 1:

Comments: The translation is fairly acceptable thou gh it is the result of following the original s trictly. In the translation process, ; ; , and others are fronted; is repeate d, and other readjustments are made. How ever, against the Chinese norms, the trans lation could be further improved. For exam

ple, how to translate the parenthetic struct ures in the original and where to place thei r translations are worth reconsideration. B) Translation 2:

Comments: Minor improvements have been made on the previous translation. For example, the parenthe tic structure is now fronted; and

is substituted for the previous transla tion. However, no other drastic improvement ca n be witnessed except for, perhaps, the very las t clause. In addition, where to put the other par enthetic structure ? Whethe r the repetition of is necessary in the new context? All these toget her with others are all worthy of reconsideratio n. C) Translation 3:

Comments:

Improvements are made all through the tran slation, though not very drastically. Such exam ples are ; ; ; and others. However, the parenthetic structure still remains where it was, an unavoi dable awkward placement if it is awkward at all . Consequently, the present translation become s closer to idiomatic Chinese writing with impro ved readability, coherence and authenticity. Original 39:

If I know my countrymen, in any and every relation towards America, they begin, not as Sir Anthony Absolute recommended that lovers should begin, with a little aversion, but with a great liking and a profound respect; and whatever the little sensitiveness of the moment, or the little official passion, or the little official policy now, or then, or here, or there, may be, take my word for it, that the first enduring, great, popular consideration in England is a generous construction of justice.

1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (1) Sentence structure

The selection consists of a single compound complex sentence, composed of two coordinate clauses, of which the first is composed of an adverbial clause of condition and a main clause with an adverbial clause of manner that follows, which in turn has an object clause further embedded; the second is composed of an adverbial clause of concession and a main clause, in the form of an imperative; and at the end of the second coordinate clause, there is a nominal clause in apposition to it immediately before it. (2) Additional complication

In if I know my countrymen, in any and every relation towards America, the first comma could be omitted; the saying not as Sir Anthony Absolute recommended that lovers should begin, with a little aversion, but with a great liking and a profound respect could be understood in its simplified way as not with but with; and in the last but one line, take my word for it, that could be understood as take my word for it that with the

comma in between omitted. B) Stylistic analysis: (1) Periodicity (2) Structural complication (3) Parallel structure (4) Cohesive device (5) Structural and lexical formality (1) Periodicity The sentence is periodic in

that the first coordinate clause begins with an adverbial clause of concession and the second coordinate clause begins with an adverbial clause of concession, in addition to the embedding of parenthetic structures. (2) Structural complication The sentence is very complicated in structure both for

the complexity and the embedded parentheses. (3) Parallel structure Parallel structures are frequently used, for example, any and every; not with, but with; a great linking and a profound respect; the little sensitiveness of the moment, or the little official passion, or the little official policy; now, or then; here, or there; and enduring, great and popular.

And the selection is stylistically characterized by the use of parentheses such as in any and every relation towards America; not as Sir Anthony Absolute recommended that lovers should begin, etc. (4) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel strictures are frequently used; My is

repeatedly used to refer to I; England is used in contrast with America; little and great are repeated, and so on. (5) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentence it contains is grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and

nominalizations are popularly used, for example, recommend, aversion, profound, respect, sensitiveness, passion, generous, construction and others. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments

A) Translation 1: .

Comments: The translation on the whole is fairly acceptable, though improvements could have been made throughout for greater readability and authenticity. However, in the translation, only some of the stylistic features are retained of the original. B) Translation 2:

. Comments:

Improvements are made when expressions such as the following are employed: ; ; ; ; , an d others. C) Translation 3:

. Comments: The present translation can be regard ed as a piece of rewriting rather than a t

ranslation, to some, if not all. For it is ch aracterized by substituting a Chinese ma in clause, a statement, for the if clause o f the original, by using such ready Chine se expressions as , by condensing complicated ideas in the orig inal into , and b y taking other measures. Original 40: Finally, gentlemen, and I say this subject to your co

rrection, I do believe that from the great majority of h onest minds on both sides, there cannot be absent th e conviction that it would be better for this globe to b e riven by an earthquake, fired by a comet, overrun b y an iceberg, and abandoned to the Arctic fox and be ar, than that it should present to spectacle of these t wo great nations, each of which has, in its own way a nd hour, striven so hard and so successfully for freedo m, ever again being arrayed the one against the othe r. Gentlemen, I cannot thank your President enough o r you enough for your kind reception of my health, an d of my poor remarks, but, believe me, I do thank you with utmost fervor of which my soul capable.

1) Analysis of the original: A) Grammatical analysis B) Stylistic analysis A) Grammatical analysis: (1) Sentence structure (2) Additional complication (3) Notes (4) Paraphrase (1) Sentence structure

The selection consists of two sentences, of which the first is a complex sentence, composed of a main clause and an object clause, which in turn contains a nominal clause in apposition to the nominal phrase the conviction. In the appositive clause, there is an adverbial clause of comparison, which in turn contains an attributive clause. The second is a compound sentence, composed of two coordinate clauses. (2) Additional complication

The first sentence begins with an adv erb, a vocative and a clause, and the cla use is coordinated with the adverb and t he vocative; in the sentence, in its own way and hour serves as a parenthesis; a nd also in it would be better for this glob e to be riven, it serves as the formal su bject while to be riven serves as the re al subject. The second sentence begins with a vocative and has believe me emb edded as a parenthesis.

(3) Notes In the first sentence, from the great majority of honest minds on both sides, there cannot be a bsent the conviction that could be understood as the conviction that cannot be absent fromth at; the backbone structure for it would be bette r for this globe to be riven by an earthquake, fired by a comet, overrun by an iceberg, and abandone d to the Arctic fox and bear, than that it should pr esent to spectacle of these two great nations, eac h of which has, in its own way and hour, striven s

o hard and so successfully for freedom, ever agai n being arrayed the one against the other would be it would be better for than that; and the qu otation is in subjunctive mood; Notes (continued): and the backbone structure of it should present to spectacle of these two great nations, each of which has, in its own way and hour, striven so hard and so successfully for freedom, ever again being arrayed the one against the other would be it should present to spectacle of these two great nations ever again being arrayed the one against the other, and in that structure, it is the

formal subject while ever again being arrayed the one against the other is the real subject; ever again being arrayed the one against the other, an absolute nominal construction, is equal to that ever again the one is arrayed against the other. (4) Paraphrase The selection is composed of two sentences if and I say this subject to your correction at the beginning of the sentence is not included. As revealed in the ab ove analysis, the object clause in the first sentence c ould be rearranged like this: the conviction cannot be

absent from the great majority of honest minds on bo th sides that it would be better for than that . And the appositive that clause could also be rearranged i n the following manner: The two great nations have s triven so hard and so successfully , each in its own way, though. If we should see that they would ever be arrayed again the one against the other, it would be better than to see this globe to be riven. Howev er, the structure of the second sentence is not as co mplicated. Paraphrase (continued):

For this reason, a paraphrase of the first senten ce shall be presented as follows: Finally, gentlem en, and this final point is presented for your corre ction. I really believe that in the honest minds of t he great majority on both sides, there must be su ch a conviction that if we should see that our two great nations should be arrayed again one agains t the other, it would be better for us to see that th is globe should be riven by an earthquake, fired b y a comet, overrun by an iceberg, and abandoned to the Arctic fox and bear. For the two great natio ns have striven so hard and so successfully for fre edom, though each in its own way and hour.

B) Stylistic analysis: (1) The overall stylistic features (2) Periodicity (3) Structural complication (4) Parallel structure (5) Cohesive device (6) Structural and lexical formality (1) The overall stylistic featu res: The selection presents some peculiar

stylistic features when parentheses are frequently employed as listed in the following: and I say this subject to your correction; in its own way and hour; gentlemen; believe me and so on. The fronting of the prepositional phrase from the great majority, the subjunctive mood, the sentence pattern of better than, etc. are also peculiar stylistic features. (2) Periodicity

The present selection consists of two sentences, and both of them are periodic sentences in that the first begins with an adverbial phrase, a vocative and a clause, and has a parenthetic structure embedded. The second sentence begins with a vocative and has a parenthetic structure embedded. (3) Structural complication

The structures of the two sentences are complicated, especially that of the first sentence. (4) Parallel structure Parallel structures are frequently used, for example, riven by an earthquake, fire d by a comet, overrun by an iceberg, and

abandoned to the Arctic fox and bear; wa y and hour; so hard and so successfully; t he one against the other; and of my healt h, and of my poor remarks. (5) Cohesive device In terms of cohesive device, examples could be found as follows: parallel structures are frequently used; I is repeatedly used

together with my; gentlemen, your and thank you are repeated; and so on. (6) Structural and lexical for mality Structurally, the selection is formal in that the sentences it contains are grammatically complete and free from colloquial structures. Lexically, formal words and nominalizations are popularly used, for example, finally,

subject, correction, believe, majority, absent, conviction, earthquake, abandon, spectacle, reception, remark, and others. 2) Staged translation: A) Translation 1 with comments B) Translation 2 with comments C) Translation 3 with comments

A) Translation 1:

Comments: The advantages of the translation lie in that the third sentence of the translation is properl y fronted, at the beginning of the fort h sentence is justifiably inserted and the last s entence is well worded. However, in the third sentence and in the fourth sentence of the translation should be fr onted, and such expressions as ;

; and sho uld be changed into something better. B) Translation 2:

Comments: Improvements are made concerned with the reorganization of the third and the four th sentence in the previous translation wit h some readjustments made of the neighb oring sentences. The greatest change lies i n the reorganization of the second and the third sentence, where

, is used as a unified patter n, though irrespective of the original struct ure. However, some clumsy expressions st ill remain there as they were. C) Translation 3:

Comments: Improvements are further made w hen the remaining clumsy expression s are substituted for and typically aut hentic Chinese expressions are used, for example,

; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercises 36-40 Exercise 36

I do not come here as an advocate, because whatever positi on the suffrage movement may occupy in the United States of America, in England it has passed beyond the realm of advoca cy and it has entered into the sphere of practical politics. It has become the subject of revolution and civil war, and so tonight I am not here to advocate woman suffrage. American suffragists can do that very well for themselves. I am here as a soldier wh o has temporarily left the field of battle in order to explain it seems strange it should have to be explained what civil war i s like when civil war is waged by women. I am not only here as a soldier temporarily absent from the field of battle: I am here and that, I think, is the strangest part of my coming I am he re as a person who, according to the law courts of my country, it has been decided, is of no value to the community at all; and

I am adjudged because of my life to be a dangerous person. (Emmeline Pankhurst, Militant Suffragists) Exercise 37 In the present crisis, it has not been possible to secure t he peace of Europe; because there has been little time, an d there has been a disposition at any rate in some quart ers on which I will not dwell to force things rapidly to an i ssue, at any rate, to the great risk of peace, and, as we no w know, the result of that is that the policy of peace, as fa r as the Great Powers are concerned, is in danger. I do not want to dwell on that, and to comment on it, and to say w

here the blame seems to lie, which Powers were most in f avor of peace, which were most disposed to risk or to end anger peace, because I would like the House to approach t his crisis in which we are now, from the point of view of Br itish interests, British honor, and British obligations, free fr om all passion as to why peace has not been preserved. (Sir Edward Grey, Englands Position) Exercise 38

There is no man in this room who has always regarded th e prospect of engaging in a great war with greater reluctan ce and with greater repugnance than I have done througho ut the whole of my political life. There is no man either insid e or outside this room more convinced that we could not ha ve avoided it without national dishonor. I am fully alive to th e fact that every nation that has been engaged in war has a lways invoked the sacred name of honor. Many a crime has been committed in its name; there are some being committ ed now. All the same, national honor is a reality, and any na tion that disregards it is doomed. Why is our honor as a cou ntry involved in this war? Because, in the first instance, we are bound by honorable obligations to defend the independ ence, the liberty, the integrity, of a small neighbor that has

always lived peaceably. (David Lloyd George, An Appeal to the Nation) Exercise 39 On this anniversary in every part of the world Am erican citizens meet together and renew, as it were, their vows of devotion to the great ideals which hav e animated them. All the world admires, and all the world sympathizes with the vast work of the great A merican Republic. All the world looks back upon the

one hundred forty-one years which have elapsed sin ce the Declaration of Independence and sees in that one hundred forty-one years an expansion in the wa y of population, in the way of wealth and of power, material and spiritual, which is unexampled in that period, and, as far as I know, in the history of the w orld. (Arthur James Balfour, The Fourth of July) Exercise 40 Today, as I read about the Peace, as I hoped, and pra y about the Peace, I thought of the almost countless gra

ves scattered in the center of Europe. Many of our childr en are lying there. It must be in the hearts of all of us to build a fair monument to those men who will never com e back to bless us with their smiles. Do they not want a grand and magnificent monument built for them so that the next generations, even if they forget their names, s hall never forget their sacrifice? That is what I want. I al most felt I heard the grass growing over them in a magn ificent, soothing harmony, and that simple soothing pea ce of the growing grass seemed to grow louder and mor e magnificent until the riot and distractive sound of the guns were stifled and stifled by it. (James Ramsay MacDonald, Peace)

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