Human Computer Interaction Research in the MIS Discipline
Human Computer Interaction Research in the MIS Discipline HCI Panel AMCIS 02 Dr. Jane M. Carey Definition of HCI Human Factors in IS (HCI) is the scientific study of the interaction between people, computers, and the work environment. The knowledge gained from this study is used to create information systems and work environments which help to make people more productive and more satisfied with their work life. (Beard & Peterson, 1988) Consensus definition from the HFIS Symposia series Mason & Mitroff (1983)-Organizational context Problem type MIS Relational Triad Leadership style of org
Human Characteristics Decision Making Environment Man/Machine Interface Cognitive style Psychological type Communication skills Informational needs User experience User attitude Hierarchical level of DM Uncertainty & risk Informational Attributes Scope ,Timeliness
Mode of presentation, Horizon, Accuracy Format, Value Huber, Management Science 1983 Cognitive Style as a basis for MIS and DSS designs: Much ado about nothing? This article had a dampening effect on studying human computer interaction due to the prestige of Management Science and the limited means available to measure cognitive style at the time At the time, most MIS researchers studying human/computer interaction used Myers/Briggs type indicator to measure CS Referent Disciplines for HCI MIS/Computer Science Human Factors Engineering Ergonomics
Management Theory Psychology Organizational Behavior Models of HCI HFIS Symposia Series (1986-1997) Organization Interface Specification Tools IS Professional Computer System/User Communicatio n (Documentatio n)
Human/ Computer Interaction End User Involvement Information Presentation USER A Model of HCI Long & Whitfield (1989) Real World Intermediary Representations People + Computers
+ Other Science Support Representations Generalize Analyze Acquisition Representation Synthesize Acquisition Representation Human Science Computer Science Particularize Other Science
Research Agenda for HCI Lewis (1990) 1. Understand user goals and preferences (interface design theory) 2. Broaden applied cognitive theory (problem representation) 3. Support innovation (technology to support interface design) 4. Credit assignment (measure the impact of interface design on performance) HCI Independent & Dependent Variables Independent Dependent User/Analyst Interface Characteristics
Performance 1. 1. Content 1. 2. Direct A. Training B. Experience C. Involvement 2. Form 2. Satisfaction 3. Decision Setting A. Task B. Management Level C. Uncertainty D. Timeliness
E. Structuredn 3. Presentation 3. Learning A. Ease B. Time 4. Media 4. System Responsiveness 5. Context 5. Speed of use Indirect A. Aptitude B. Attitude C. Decision Style
Decision Effectiveness A. Accuracy B. Timeliness C. Quality D. Confidence 6. Error rate Measurement Issues in HCI Newsted, Todd, & Zmud, 1997 Theories require constructs & constructs require measurement, therefore no theory without measurement Definitional concerns (conceptual ambiguity and conceptual overlap) Concerns with construct-context interaction (such as the tight construct-context linkage in task performance) Zmud & Boynton criteria for instrumentation Multiple-item scale Ability to find and use an instrument Description in refereed source Assessment of psychometric properties Classifying measures
Outcome versus process measures Perceptual versus behavioral measures Obtrusive versus non-obtrusive measures Qualitative versus Quantitative measures Measurement Issues in HCI Newsted, Todd, & Zmud, 1997 Instrument validation for experimentation Construct validation Manipulation & measurement Covariate measurement Experimenter effects Online data capture Conclusion HCI measures are improving, but have a long way to go
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