Human Growth and Development Eriksons 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Eriksons 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson (June 15, 1902 May 12, 1994) was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial
development of human beings Psychosocial=involving both psychological (mind) and social aspects Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages Eriksons 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Erikson identified 8 stages of development, the basic conflict or need at each stage, & ways to resolve the
conflict He believed that if an individual is not able to resolve a conflict at the appropriate stage, the individual will struggle with the same conflict later in life Infancy Stage of development: Infancy, Birth-1 year (oral-sensory) Basic conflict: Trust versus Mistrust Major life event: Feeding Ways to resolve conflict: Infant develops trust in self,
others, & the environment when the caregiver is responsive to basic needs & provides comfort. If needs arent met, infant becomes uncooperative & aggressive, & shows a decreased interest in the environment Toddler Stage of development: Toddler, 1-3 yrs (Muscular-Anal) Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt Major life event: Toilet training Ways to resolve conflict: Toddler learns to control while
mastering skills such as feeding, toileting, and dressing when caregivers provide reassurance but avoid overprotection. If needs arent met, toddler feels ashamed & doubts own abilities, which least to lack of self-confidence in later stages Preschool Stage of development: Preschool, 3-6yrs (Locomotor) Basic conflict: Initiative vs Guilt Major life event: Independence Ways to resolve conflict: Child begins to initiate activities in place
of just imitating activities; uses imagination to play; learns what is allowed & what isnt allowed to develop a conscience; caregivers must allow child to be responsible while providing reassurance; if needs not met, child feels guilty & thinks everything he does is wrong, which leads to a hesitancy to try new tasks in later stages School-Age Stage of development: School-Age, 6-12 yrs (Latency) Basic conflict: Industry vs Inferiority Major life event: School
Ways to resolve conflict: Child becomes productive by mastering learning & obtaining success; child learns to deal with academics, group activities, & friends when others show acceptance of actions & praise success; if needs arent met, child develops a sense of inferiority & incompetence, which hinders future relationships & the ability to deal with life events Adolescence Stage of development: Adolescence, 12-18 yrs Basic conflict: Identity vs Role Confusion
Major life event: Peer Ways to resolve conflict: Adolescent searches for selfidentity by making choices about occupations, sexual orientation, lifestyle, & adult role; relies on peer group for support & reassurance to create a self-image separate from parents; if needs arent met, adolescent experiences role confusion & loss of self-belief Young Adulthood Stage of development: Young Adulthood, 19-40 yrs Basic conflict: Intimacy vs Isolation
Major life event: Love relationships Ways to resolve conflict: Young adult learns to make a personal commitment to others & share life events with others; if self-identity is lacking, adult may fear relationships & isolate from others Middle Adulthood Stage of development: Middle Adulthood, 40-65 yrs Basic conflict: Generativity vs Stagnation Major life event: Parenting
Ways to resolve conflict: Adult seeks satisfaction & obtains success in life by using career, family, & civic interests to provide for others & the next generation; if adult doesnt deal with life issues, feels lack of purpose to life & sense of failure Older Adulthood Stage of development: Older Adulthood 65 yrs to death Basic conflict: Ego Integrity vs Despair Major life event: Reflection on and acceptance of life
Ways to resolve conflict: Adults reflects on life in a positive manner, feels fulfillment with his own life & accomplishments, deals with losses, & prepares for death; if fulfillment is not felt, adult feels despair about life & fear of death
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