room air conditioner ventilating fan ceiling fan a typical residential size furnace: uses natural gas, or fuel oil, or electricity to produce heat: a fan blows the heated air into a duct system that reaches throughout the entire house
round sheet metal ducts in a house air is blown, from the furnace, into the ducts. ducts become smaller as they get farther from the furnace, and branch off into individual spaces. ducts are either supply ducts, that bring air into a space,
or return ducts, that take air from the space back to the heating unit the systems components that run through the space above a ceiling (called the plenum) HVAC
The main purpose of commercial HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) systems is to provide the people working inside buildings with "conditioned" air so that they will have a comfortable and safe work environment. "Conditioned" air means that air is clean and odor-free, and the temperature, humidity, and movement of the air are within certain comfort ranges.
Many factors affect the way people respond to their work environment. Air quality is one of these factors. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has established standards which outline air quality for indoor comfort conditions that are acceptable
to 80% or more of a commercial building's occupants. Generally, these indoor comfort conditions, sometimes called the "comfort zone," are between 68 degrees F and 75 degrees F for winter and 73 degrees F to 79 degrees F during the summer. Both these temperature ranges are for room air at approximately 50% relative humidity and
moving at velocity of 30 feet per minute or slower. Heat naturally flows from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. In other words, heat travels from a warmer material to a cooler material. The unit of measurement used to describe the quantity of heat contained in a material
is a British thermal unit (Btu). Typical hvac components 1. Fan(s) to circulate the supply air (SA) and return air (RA). 2. Supply air ductwork in which the air flows from the supply fan to the conditioned space. 3. Air devices such as supply air outlets and return air inlets.
4. Return air path or ductwork in which the air flows back from the conditioned space to the mixed air chamber (plenum). 5. Outside air (OA) device such as an opening, louver or duct to allow for the entrance of outside air into the mixed air chamber. 6. Mixed air chamber to receive the return air and mix it with outside air. 7. Filter section(s) to remove dirt and dust particles
from the mixed air. 8. Heat exchanger(s) such as hot water coil(s), steam coil(s), refrigerant evaporator(s), or chilled water coil(s) to add heat to or remove heat from the circulated air. 9. Auxiliary heating devices such as natural gas furnace(s) or electric heating element(s). 10. Compressor(s) to compress the refrigerant vapor
and pump the refrigerant around the system. 11. Condenser(s) to remove heat from the refrigerant vapor and condense it to a liquid. 12. Fan(s) to circulate outside air across air-cooled condenser(s) 13. Pump(s) to circulate water through water-cooled condenser(s); condenser water pump (CWP);
and condenser water supply (CWS) and return (CWR). 14. Pump(s) to circulate hot water from the boiler(s) through the hot water coil(s) and back or to circulate chilled water from the chiller(s) through the chilled water coil(s) and back to the chiller(s). 15. For central systems, water or steam boiler(s) as a central heating source.
16. For central systems, water chiller(s) as a central cooling source. 17. For central systems, cooling tower(s) with watercooledcondenser(s). 18. Controls to start, stop, or regulate the flow of air, water, steam, refrigerant and electricity. Science:
heat is transferred in three possible ways Radiation: an energy source transfers energy in a direct line to a surface (feeling the heat of the sun's light on your skin) Conduction: direct contact with a surface of a
different temperature causes energy transfer (burning your finger when you touch a hot oven rack) Convection: energy transfer through fluid motion (hot air rises) condensation on window glass: the cold outside air cools the piece of glass; the warm inside air contacts the cold glass;
the moisture contained in the warm air drops out of the warm air as water/condensation very cold temperatures can cause warm air inside of a building to become ice on the cold piece of window glass friday, february 10, 2006: the dew point temperatures around the country
Heating devices include
gas or oil burning central furnace wood stove heat pump electric radiator solar panel radiant heating coils in floors, or ceilings (these may be electric, water filled, or air filled) Cooling methods/devices
include natural ventilation air movement: fans window air conditioner central air conditioning system massive materials that have a long 'thermal lag' time, (such as brick, concrete, stone)
Heat pump Vapor compression refrigeration cycle refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps each provide cooling through this process (vcrc) this process is a true modern miracle, and
it is based on the discovery that increased pressure creates heat. A refrigerant is a fluid which vaporizes (boils) at a low temperature. The refrigerant circulates through tubes ("refrigerant lines") that travel throughout the heat pump. At point A the refrigerant is a cold liquid -- colder
than the outdoor air. The refrigerant flows to the outdoor coil (point B). This coil is a "heat exchanger" with a large surface area to absorb heat from the air into the colder refrigerant. The heat added to the refrigerant causes the fluid to vaporize
At point C the refrigerant is a cool gas, having been warmed and vaporized by the outdoor air. I t is too cool to warm the house, so that's where the compressor (point D) comes in. The compressor raises the pressure of the gas. When that happens, the gas temperature rises. The indoor coil (point F) is where the refrigerant gives
up its heat to the indoor air. A fan blows air past the indoor coil to distribute heat to the house. This cools the refrigerant to the point where much of it condenses, forming a liquid. As it gets colder outside, the heat pump provides less heat. Yet the house needs more heat to keep comfortable. At some outdoor temperature it will be too cold for the
heat pump to provide all the heat the house needs. To make up the difference, heat pumps have a supplemental heating system - usually electric resistance coils Heat pump limitations
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