I. Introduction to Bonding IV Do Now: Write down these dates for the Science Fair Project: 1.By Friday (for bonus points) and Monday (at the latest) send me your Experimental Design (Procedure) and Background Information Slides 2.Your weeks for experimentation are: 10/31 11/05; 11/06 11/10 3.Due date for Data slide (a quiz grade) is 11/11/2016
4.Due date for Analysis, Conclusion, and Reference Slides are 11/18/2016 5.Your entire project (which is worth 5 grades (2 HW, 1 Quiz, 1 Lab, and 1 Test)) MUST be turned in prior to Thanksgiving Break! Lets start thinking How many ways can you combine the black pieces with the blue pieces? Student Answers:
Rapid Recall: What are the two things that elements can do with electrons? Think of several substances you interact with daily, list those that are compounds: A bonding party Think back to all you already know about elements (their trends, properties, etc.)see how many things you can spot that make sense in
the video Exit Card: What is a bond? What is a question you have about how elements bond? Do Now: Take the elements Aluminum (Al) and Sulfur (S) and determine the
number of valence electrons each has (use their electron configuration for this) Identify if each is a cation or anion (Cations have 1-3 VE and Anions have 5-7 VE) Put them together using puzzle pieces like yesterday! Congratulations, youve created Aluminum Sulfide! A. Vocabulary Chemical Bond
Q1: attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit bonds form in order to decrease potential energy (PE) increase stability A. Vocabulary
CHEMICAL FORMULA IONIC COVALENT Formula Unit
Molecular Formula NaCl CO2 A. What are the differences?
CHEMICAL FORMULA IONIC COVALENT Formula Unit Molecular
Formula NaCl CO2 A. Vocabulary COMPOUND
2 elements Binary Compound NaCl more than 2 elements Ternary Compound
NaNO3 A. Vocabulary ION 1 atom Monatomic Ion
Na + 2 or more atoms Polyatomic Ion
NO 3 Quick Write Create TWO questions for all the diagrams you just took down that begins with If I haveand How Dogs teaching Chemistry
See if these dogs can answer your questionsif not (dont worry) I will! Exit Card: Write down one thing from the video that I havent said in class today. Do Now: Ionic or Covalent? Hint: I (M-NM) and C (NM-NM)
HCl NaCl Mg3Al2 H2O2 Na(CH3OO) B. Types of Bonds IONIC COVALENT
Bond Formation e- are transferred from metal to nonmetal e- are shared between two nonmetals
Type of Structure crystal lattice true molecules Physical State
solid liquid or gas Melting Point high low
Solubility in Water yes usually not Electrical Conductivity
yes (solution or liquid) no Other Properties odorous
B. Types of Bonds METALLIC Bond Formation e- are delocalized among metal atoms Type of
Structure electron sea Physical State solid Melting
Point Solubility in Water Electrical Conductivity Other Properties very high no
Great Conductor of Electricity Lustrous (shiny) Crystal Lattice True Molecules Soluble in Water Electrons are Shared Electrons are in a sea (delocalized) Low Melting Point Pause for a Cause:
What are the different types of bonds? (3) If a compound with a high melting point, fails to dissolve in water it must consist of ______________ bonds What if if does dissolve in water? B. Types of Bonds RETURN
B. Types of Bonds RETURN B. Types of Bonds Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice RETURN
B. Types of Bonds Covalent Bonding - True Molecules Diatomic Molecule RETURN B. Types of Bonds Metallic Bonding - Electron Sea
RETURN C. Bond Polarity Most bonds are a blend of ionic and covalent characteristics. Difference in electronegativity determines bond type.
C. Bond Polarity Electronegativity Attraction an atom has for a shared pair of electrons. higher e-neg atom lower e-neg atom + C. Bond Polarity Electronegativity Trend (p. 151) Increases up and to the right.
C. Bond Polarity Nonpolar Covalent Bond e- are shared equally symmetrical e- density usually identical atoms C. Bond Polarity Polar Covalent Bond e- are shared unequally asymmetrical e- density
results in partial charges (dipole) + -
C. Bond Polarity Nonpolar Polar Ionic View Bonding Animations. C. Bond Polarity Examples:
3.0-0.9=2.1 Ionic B. Lewis Structures Octet Rule Most atoms form bonds in order to obtain 8 valence e Full energy level stability ~ Noble Gases Ne Exit Card:
Examine the following compounds and determine their bond type: 1.____________________ 2.____________________ 3.____________________ 4.Choose one compound above and draw the Lewis Dot structure of its atoms 5.Choose another compound and describe its properties Do Now:
Look at the following Lewis Dot Structures: Define a process you could use to create them! B. Lewis Structures Electron Dot Diagrams X
show valence e- as dots distribute dots like arrows in an orbital diagram 4 sides = 1 s-orbital, 3 p-orbitals EX: oxygen 2s 2p
O B. Lewis Structures Octet Rule Most atoms form bonds in order to obtain 8 valence e Full energy level stability ~ Noble Gases Ne Quick Write:
Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for Lithium Chloride (LiCl) Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2) Today A lab! Groups of 4 NO EATING THE MATERIALS Grade comes from correct explanation of what is happening in your bond (this will be modeled
momentarily)! Each group member must initial beside the models they designed! (So at least two/member.) Lets start! Sample: Ammonia I would first model the compound using my gum drops and toothpicks.
Then draw the Lewis Dot Structure: Covalent = share e- Dont Lose your handout! Give the lab handout to the most trusted (and most often present) member of your group! Do Now:
What is a polar covalent compound? Can you give an example of one? What is a non-polar covalent compound? Can you give an example? What is the Lewis dot structure for water? Quick Write: Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for Lithium Chloride (LiCl) Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2)
Today(for 20 minutes) Finish your lab! Draw all Lewis Dot Structures and each member must explain the two types of bonds that can be established between atoms in a paragraphinc. characteristics and Lewis Dot Structures. Each group member must initial beside the models they designed on your handout! (So at least
two/member.) Lets start! Look Back: Briefly read through your notes and write 3-4 questions in the margin of your paper beside those notes to help you better understand them now and better study them later! Remember you have a note-check tomorrow and an on-line quiz during which you may use your notes!
Please bring an electronic device tomorrow if possible! Do Now: 11/04/2016 https://www.quia.com/quiz/6069530.html Get out your notes and get ready to take the quiz on-line!
Any unauthorized web page viewing during the quizan automatic 0 that cannot be made up! On-Line Quiz: All normal testing guidelines apply. Do your best, use your notes. I will be walking around to check them as you work! Finish early? Feel free to browse the web, but not videos/music/games (i.e., nothing that makes noise (even if you have
headphones))! 10 minutesScience Fair/ Lab Work If your lab is not done, please complete it now and turn it inall groups require their lab handout and one paragraph per person! If you lab is done, spend this time working on other slides in your Science Fair project. Complete the Hypothesis slide, materials slide, etc.
Have a great weekend! Do Now: Consider our last lab and match the appropriate compounds with their name. Diatomic Hydrogen Gas 1.
8. _____________ Rapid Recall: What is a ternary compound? What is a binary compound? Name Your
Compound What rules did you come up with? Ionic Naming RULES: 1. Write down the name of the 1st element. 2. With binary compounds, change the second elements end to ide. 3. If you have a polyatomic ion, just write down its name.
4. Add roman numerals to show charge, if transition metal is present. Lets Complete Our Rules: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlRhLicNo8Q&edufilter=9YhzPZUq WXhfB3qxhI6G-Q&safe=active Ill stop for you to write down his rules.
Do Now: Use the naming rules from yesterday to name the following: 1. 2. 3. Science Fair Update This week: Turn in your Data Table Next week: By Friday, turn in entire
experiment! Write down this list: Lets play Kahoot! Winning duoearns 5 bonus points for their test! Find a partner! Do Now:
1. Get out all naming notes and any periodic table you have. 2. Discuss them with a person beside you. 3. Get ready for the bonus quiz! 4. Explain track backin order to find a transition metals charge. Bonus Quiz: Name the following:
Bonus Quiz Scoring: Switch papers with a person around you. Get a permanent marker/crayon to grade testyou only place a ____ check mark if the question is right and an X if the question is wrong. If you cheat for someone else or I suspect you change your own paperyou both forfeit the bonus! Bonus Quiz Answers:
Bonus Quiz Answers: Take a minute: Read through your notes for this past week. Generate a few questions you think, I will ask on the test tomorrow Test Question Review You may get to see up to 10 questions on tomorrows test. We will also discuss the answers!
Process: 1. I show and then you read the question to yourself. 2. Attempt to answer it alone. 3. Go over the question with the class. 4. Those not paying attention forfeit the right to experience this privilege. Test Question 1: What type of ions have names ending in ide?
Test Question 2: An ate or ite at the end of a compound name usually indicates that the compound contains: Test Question 3: What is the charge on the cation in the ionic compound sodium sulfide? Test Question 4: Which of the following ions contains the Mn +3
ion? Test Question 5: What is the correct way to show the charge of silver (II)? Test Question 6: The octet rule states that, in chemical compounds, atoms tend to have___________
Test Question 7: Which of the following shows the elements in order of increasing electronegativity? a. K, Ti, Ca, Li c. F, O, N, C, B b Li, Na, K, Rb .
d Sn, As, S, F . Test Question 8: Which of the following symbols represents isotopes of the same element? Test Question 9: How do the isotopes hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 differ?
Test Question 10: True/False. The periodic trend of first ionization energy measures how much energy is required to take all electrons away from an element in its outermost electron shell. Do Now: Consider the following named covalent
compounds: Carbon Monoxide Dihydrogen Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Dinitrogen Trioxide Create a list of rules for naming these compounds! Test Update
Listen for your name, if you passed youll hear it. If not, you MUST complete the exam again as a takehome test. You have until Fridayor your original grade stands! Extra Credit will only be added IF you complete the re-test and you PASS IT! This weeks projects: Complete the Science Fair Project (workday Wednesday) by Friday!
Find and summarize a scientific news article on how Chemistry is helping to make the world a better place: www.popsci.com https://www.scientificamerican.com/chemistry/ https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/ch emistry/ https://www.chemistryworld.com/news http://phys.org/chemistry-news/ Chemists
Tea: Article summary will be a lab grade; Your discussion a CW grade. Must summarize the article and answer the following questions: Why is the article important? What field is this article relevant to (medicine, environment, energy, etc.)? How is chemistry present in the field?
Is chemistry being used to change the world for the better/worse? How do you know? Your opinion of the article. Compounds vs Molecules A Compound is any substance composed of two or more DIFFERENT elements. A Molecule is any substance composed of two or more atoms COVALENTLY BONDED.
Types of Covalent Bonds Formed between two nonmetals in 14, 15, 16, and 17 Nonmetals have high electronegativity values Electrons are shared single bond shares one pair electrons HH double bond shares two pairs electrons OCO triple bond shares three pairs electrons NN
Diatomic Elements Gases that exist as diatomic molecules are H2, F2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2 They are simply given their elements name. Exist this way only when not in compounds Learning Check Use the name of the element to name the following diatomic molecules. H2
17) B2Si ______________________________ Exit Card: 1. P2O5 A) phosphorus oxide
B) phosphorus pentoxide C) diphosphorus pentoxide 2. Cl2O7 A) dichlorine heptoxide B) dichlorine oxide C) chlorine heptoxide 3.
Cl2 B) dichlorine C) dichloride A) chlorine Lets Complete Our Rules:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mlRhLicNo8Q&edufilter=9YhzPZUq WXhfB3qxhI6G-Q&safe=active Ill stop for you to write down his rules. Bond, Name Bonds Round 1 All students will have either an atom acting as a cation or an atom acting as an anion
The elements song will play and you will walk around until it stops, then locate a NEW partner (cation anion) so that youve formed a compound. (ID: I, PC, NPC) Form a name for your compound and be prepared to explain how you know! Bond, Name Bonds Round 2 With your compounds, now you will attempt to name AND create a
formula for your compound! Re-Group: So what naming rules have we IDd so far? Do you believe there are different types of naming rules? Why? One more video: Onto the real rules! Place a check mark next to rules you figured out intuitively
Write down new rules Be certain to include the different categories! C. Ionic Nomenclature Ionic Names Write the names of both ions, cation first. Change ending of monatomic ions to -ide. Polyatomic ions have special names. Stock System - Use Roman numerals to show the ions charge if more than one is possible. Overall charge must equal zero.
C. Ionic Nomenclature Consider the following: Does it contain a polyatomic ion? -ide, 2 elements no -ate, -ite, 3+ elements yes Does it contain a Roman numeral? Check the table for metals not in Groups 1 or 2.
No prefixes! C. Ionic Nomenclature Common Ion Charges 1+ 0 2+ 3+ NA 3- 2- 1-
Do Now Answer questions 6-10 on PAR 2 using your partners to assist you and be certain to justify your response! RECALL: This will be for a grade! Create: Your assigned Lewis Dot structures for:
Water Lithium Chloride Calcium Bromide Carbon Dioxide Diatomic Nitrogen
Naming and Formula Making! For the next couple of slides it will be your job to take ions and from them create formulasremember the criss-cross method (and the Lewis Dot Structures)and then name the resulting compounds! C. Ionic Nomenclature ___________________ K+ Cl
KCl ___________________ Mg2+ NO3 Mg(NO3)2
____________________ Cu2+ Cl CuCl2 Do Now Answer questions 11-15 on PAR 2 using your partners to assist you and
be certain to justify your response! RECALL: This will be for a grade! Homework: USA Test Prep Bonding #2DUE Friday! This week perfect your SF PPT and send it to me if youd like me to look over it.
Next Week: One Day in Media Center to work on it with partners and it is due next Wednesday! Quick Write: Generate a list of all topics weve studied thus far: Quick Write: Generate a list of all topics weve studied thus far: NOTE:
Tutoring today and tomorrow after school! Rate yourself: 1Desperately seeking help 2I need help almost always 3I could use some help 4I occasionally need help 5I can figure this stuff out on my own! Move to your appropriate row:
The people at your table (and you) will choose a worksheet (max of 2 copies per group) and on your OWN paper you will answer the questions. I will focus most of my efforts on the first row (7 minutes), then (6 minutes) for the second, 5 minutes for the third, and so on. If you need help BEFORE I get to your row, be a problem solver and find an answer! C. Molecular Nomenclature
Prefix System (binary compounds) 1. Less e-neg atom comes first. 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on first element.
3. Change the ending of the second element to -ide. C. Molecular Nomenclature PREFIX monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca-
NUMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 Do Now Answer questions 16-20 on PAR 2 using your partners to assist you and be certain to justify your response! RECALL: This will be for a grade! Homework:
USA Test Prep Bonding #2DUE Monday! You Lab today if you dont complete the data table! This week perfect your SF PPT and send it to me if youd like me to look over it. 7 days and counting until your semester exam! (Also that is the day your review is due!) Take 5Work Independently!
Answer the first five questions on the lab handout you may write on it, its yours! Transfer those responses to your gradecam answer sheetadd your gradecam ID Scan your sheet ASAP and choose the appropriate handout! A80% Mastery 100% Mastery I40% Mastery 60% Mastery B0% Mastery 20% Mastery
Find your partner: Find a partner that is on the same level as youB B, I I, and A A Sit at a table or lab bench with ONLY your partner Read through the remaining notes, fill in all needed blanks and be prepared to share your findings in 4 minutes or less! Do Now Answer questions 21-25 on PAR 2 using your partners to assist you and be certain to justify your response!
RECALL: This will be for a grade! Homework: USA Test Prep Bonding #2DUE Monday! This week perfect your SF PPT and send it to me if youd like me to look over it. 6 days and counting until your semester exam! (Also that is the day your review is due!)
Goal of the activity? Find the piece(s) that fit its complement and build compounds! Name them too! Its like a 2 for 1 Chemistry Lab! Raise your hand if you need assistance! MgF2 = Magnesium Flouride Finished with the lab?
Turn in your groups labstapled and include all papers in a single packet. Select naming sheets to complete and do sothat way you can work to drop your lowest HW or CW grade(s)! (2 is the max. number of grades that can be dropped) Exit Card: On a half-sheet of papershare with your partnersummarize what you have learned today and how you will apply it future interactions
with ions in Chemistry. Write 50 words or more! Do Now: What is the difference between naming ionic vs covalent compounds? What is similar when naming them? Homework: Continue creating your review!
3 days and counting until your semester exam! Extra Credit Needed? Bring pipe cleaners or big plastic cups and you will receive a free HW pass and/or +10 points. C. Molecular Nomenclature Prefix System (binary compounds) 1.
Less e-neg atom comes first. 2. Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on first element. 3.
Change the ending of the second element to -ide. C. Molecular Nomenclature PREFIX monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca- NUMBER
C. Molecular Nomenclature arsenic trichloride AsCl3 dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 tetraphosphorus decoxide P4O10 C. Molecular
Nomenclature The Seven Diatomic Elements Br2 I2 N2 Cl2 H2 O2 F2 H N O F Cl Br I
C. Ionic Nomenclature Ionic Formulas Write each ion, cation first. Dont show charges in the final formula. Overall charge must equal zero. If charges cancel, just write symbols. If not, use subscripts to balance charges. Use parentheses to show more than one polyatomic ion. Stock System - Roman numerals indicate the ions charge.
C. Ionic Nomenclature NaBr sodium bromide Na2CO3 sodium carbonate FeCl3 iron(III) chloride B. Acid Nomenclature A C ID S
s t a r t w i t h 'H ' 2 e le m e n t s 3 e le m e n t s h y d r o - p r e fix - ic e n d in g n o h y d r o - p r e fix
- a t e e n d in g becom es - ic e n d in g - it e e n d in g becom es - o u s e n d in g B. Acid Nomenclature HBr
Grab a partner and one of the sheets from the front of the class that you HAVE NOT attempted yet. Name the compounds and then complete as many of the formulas as possible! Exit Card: Choose one Cation II. Molecular Geometry
(p. 183 187) CH. 6 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE IV Do Now: CH4Draw the Lewis Dot Structure and determine what type of compound methane is
Best Class Competition 1st Place: 2nd Period with 69/75 pts 2nd Place: 4th Period with 58/75 pts 3rd Place: 3rd Period with 46/75 pts (20pts!) 4th Place: 6th Period with 40/75 pts Ice Cream Sign-Up Whole Milk1 gallon (3): Half and Half1/2gallon (6):
Sugar3 lbs (3): Toppings (6): Napkins (1): Plastic Bags (box of 50): Spoons (2): Metal Tins (2-4): Morris: Rock Salt, Ice, Lab Quests, A.Valence VSEPR
Theory Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Electron pairs orient themselves in order to minimize repulsive forces. A.TypesVSEPR Theory of e Pairs - Bonding pairs - form bonds
Lone pairs - nonbonding e- Lone pairs repel more strongly than bonding pairs!!! A.LoneVSEPR Theory pairs reduce the bond angle between atoms.
Bond Angle B. Determining Molecular Shape Draw the Lewis Diagram. Tally up e- pairs on central atom. double/triple bonds = ONE pair Shape is determined by the # of bonding pairs and lone pairs.
Know the 8 common shapes & their bond angles! C. Common Molecular Shapes 2 total 2 bond 0 lone
BeH2 LINEAR 180 C. Common Molecular Shapes 3 total 3 bond 0 lone
BF3 TRIGONAL PLANAR 120 C. Common Molecular Shapes 3 total
2 bond 1 lone SO2 BENT <120 C. Common Molecular
Shapes 4 total 4 bond 0 lone CH4 TETRAHEDRAL 109.5
C. Common Molecular Shapes 4 total 3 bond 1 lone NH3 TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107
C. Common Molecular Shapes 4 total 2 bond 2 lone H2O BENT
104.5 C. Common Molecular Shapes 5 total 5 bond 0 lone TRIGONAL
PCl5 BIPYRAMIDAL 120/90 C. Common Molecular Shapes 6 total 6 bond
IV A.Direction Dipole Moment of the polar bond in a molecule. Arrow points toward the more e-neg atom.
+ H Cl -
B. Determining Molecular Polarity Depends on: dipole moments molecular shape B. Determining Molecular Polarity Nonpolar Molecules Dipole moments are symmetrical and cancel out.
F BF3 B F F B. Determining Molecular
Polarity Polar Molecules Dipole moments are asymmetrical and dont cancel . H2O net O
dipole H H moment B. Determining Molecular Polarity
Therefore, polar molecules have... asymmetrical shape (lone pairs) or asymmetrical atoms H net CHCl3 dipole
Cl Cl Cl moment Do Now:
Choose any two ions from the periodic table and create a compound. Repeat with two different ions. Now using your poly atomic ion sheet, create one more compound by selecting a metal. Homework: Continue creating your review! SF PPT due by Wednesday! 2 days and counting until your semester exam!
Extra Credit Needed? Bring pipe cleaners or big plastic cups and you will receive a free HW pass and/or +10 points. Boys vs. Girls Competing for 5 points added to your semester exam One writer (all thinkers), writer changes with each question You can use any resource at your disposal! Lets Play! Bonds:
What type of bonds are there in FeNO? What type of bonds are there in CO2? What type of bonds are there in MgS? What type of bond involves two of the same kind of element and is characterized by almost no solubility and a low melting point? Bonds What type of bond creates compounds that have very high melting points and high conductivity? What type of bond is soluble? BONUS: Why is it soluble?
Describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Lewis Dot Structures: Draw the Lewis dot structure for: Li Fe (II) P I Draw CH4 ,a covalently bonded compound, as a Lewis
Dot Structure Draw a Lewis Dot Structure of an ionic bond and be able to explain what is shown in your drawing. Create Compounds: Combine oxygen and carbon to form a compound where you have one oxygen and one carbon Name that compound Combine Titanium +2 and Chlorine to form a compound.
Name that compound. Combine the elements potassium (K) and sulfate (______) to form a compound. Name that compound Name those compounds: HBr MnCl3
N2O5 Al2S3 SrO N2O H2SO4 BONUS: Tell me what naming system did you use. Make Compounds
Li and S Zr (III) and OH Co (II) and NO3 ____________ ___________ ___________ ____________ ________ are chosen by the
opposing team! Do Now: Choose any topic that we have studied so far this year and write a super succinct summary of it. Be sure to include an example. MANY people will be sharing, so it is in your best interest to have completed this! Homework:
Continue creating your review! SF PPT due by Thursday! 1 day and counting until your semester exam! Jeopardy: Choose your own team of four-five people. Generate a team name! We will take turns answering questions. If the answer is wrong from the team that is goingfirst team to hold up the correct answer steals the points.
You may ONLY use your notesno Googling! Exit Card: Set a goal score for the exam tomorrow: _______, then explain how you will work to ensure that goal score is reached. 44 multiple choice questions Be ready! Never Give Up!
Do Now: Study your reviews (if they exist) or your notes and ask your shoulder partners any last minute questions you have. Homework: Nada! (Unless you havent turned in your Science Fair Project then do that!)
Agenda: Last Minute Questions Explanation of after-test project Test Set-up your first Ornament! NOTE: Only one day left until Winter Break! Do Now: Send one person from your table to get everyone there a Mid-Year
Chem Survey. Homework: Nothing! Unless you havent turned in your Science Fair project OR you need to remediate this 9 weekswhich Ill talk to you about! Agenda: Check the status of your snowflake
Modify or complete your set-up Grab a page of notes to split amongst your group mates. Write a note of thanks/appreciation/ encouragement to your teachers. Our goalgive a note to everyone in the building! You must write one note to someone that is not listed on the board yet! Make a card for someone important to you! Eat Popcorn/ Drink Hot Chocolate (or Tea)!
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