IB Biology - City Schools

IB Biology - City Schools

IB Biology Chapter 3-Genetics _____________________________=science of how inherited info is passed fron one generation to the next by using genes and DNA Genetics

I.Genes What is a gene? Heritable factor that consists consists of DNA and influences a specific characteristic Heritable__________________________________________________ ______________________________ The estimated 21,000 genes we have are organized into chromosomes Passed on from

parent to offspring,and characteristic refers to genetic traits,such as eye color A. A gene is a particular locus on a chromosome Gene for a specific trait occupies a specific location-LOCUS Geneticists map out the locus of each sequence Of particular significance for research if they find a specific

sequence controls a heritable factor eg. They have found that a locus of a gene controls protein______________________that allows for color vision on chromosome #1.A mutation of this gene stops a person from making this protein properly,thus a person will not see colorachromatopsia being able to see color actually means 2 things 1-that person has DNA code for making color vision possible or 2-they not have the genetic code for that transducin

The locus is the specific position of a gene on a csome 2 copies of each gene in body-same gene @ same locus on other chromosome-one from mom and 1 from dad-not necessarily identical -genes come in different forms B. Alleles:versions of genes Alleles-variations/versions of genes-specific

form of gene,differing from other alleles by 1 or a few bases w/transducin, a single base pair sequence between most common allele(C at position 235) and the rare mutated allele(T @ the same position)-all the difference that decides whether you can see color allows for variants in traits Cystic fibrosis

difference between 2 alleles for a single trait is the difference that causes cystic fibrosis a gene called CFTR-on chromosome 7-plays key role in production of mucus standard version allows mucus-producing cells to function properly mutation of CFTR gene causes Cystic Fibrosisabnormally excessive qty of mucus in various organsesp. respiratory and digestive systems C.One base can make a difference-

Importance of every letter of genetic code be in proper place,one sm difference can be critical Gene-ABBCC11-determines whether-cerumen-ear wax-wet(amber) or dry-also flaky or grey-decided by gene on chromosome 16-G=dry ear wax (European and African)-A variant(wet) among Asians This can reveal a lot about how populations have migrated and reveal items relevant to health Same gene also involved with underarm sweat and breast milk-possible link to breast cancer

How new alleles are formed Look @ example p.117

RNA sequences from p.117: 1-GUG GAC CUG ACU CCU GAG GAG 2-GUG GAC CUG ACU CCU GUG GAG sequence 1-valine-histidine a)_________b)________c)_______d)_________-glutamic acid sequence 2-valine-histidine e)_________f)_________g)_______h)________glutamic acid use genetic code to solve the above this will change the structure of resulting protein-mutation

Mutations Random,rare change in genetic material 1 type involves change in DNA sequence,which should not happen if replication works,but such mistakes occur in natureeg.T may replace A-affects transcription-can be a positive or negative effect Are mutations good or bad for us? LRP5-gene that helps immune system make certain protein that acts as

a receptor on their surface/research indicates it is used by HIV to infect cells Those that have mutation of this gene cannot make this receptor protein and HIV CANNOT infect them-naturally immune---a rare mutation A mutation that increases chance for survival has a better chance for being passed on to next generation,whereas detrimental ones are less likely to be inherited-since they decrease chances for survival When mutation successfully passed on it becomes a new _______________-new version of original gene

We all have mutations-whether harmful,beneficial,or neutral depends on the gene and the environment in which you are required to survive allele A gene to help digestion We have mostly been hunter-gatherers and genes are adapted for this life We mostly had only drank milk-as mammals-at infancy,so adults have become lactose intolerant and still prevalent today(>50% of population)

However,past 10,000 yrs we have developed an agricultural based lifestyle-consuming milk as adults,and many such societies have shown an increase of those that tolerate lactose-increasing our evolved ability to survive harsh climatic change Read about gene therapy on p.120 Base substitution mutation Results in a single letter being changed Could change amino acid which may or may not be major effect

Sickle-cell disease(sickle-cell anemia) Mutation for gene that codes for hemoglobin on RBCs in humans(base substitution mutation) Gives different shape to molecule-curved sickle shape rather than biconcave disk 6th codon in sequence of hemoglobin is _____,rather than GAGinstead of glutamic acid,valine instead hemoglobin will have different properties(valine has a different shape and properties) symptoms--________________________-O2 cannot be carried as well by sickle-shaped RBCs

the different hemoglobin also tends to crystallize w/in blood cellsso less flexible-get stuck in capillaries-slowing or stopping blood flow-great pain GTG Weakness,fatigue,shortness of breath The advantages of sickle cell disease resistant to malaria infection

caused by ________________mosquito carrying______________________. attacks RBCs-high fever ,chills,possible death we carry 2 genes for RBC shape-standard shaped RBC higher chance of getting malaria people w/ 1 gene for sickle shape and 1 normal have____________________both shapes in their bloodstream and usually do not have sickle-cell disease Anopheles

Plasmodium Sickle-cell trait have better resistance to malaria because_____________________________. insufficient amounts of ____________ in sickle cells cause Plasmodium to die people w/ sickle cell disease have highest resistance to malaria

K Of chemical imbalances that make the survival of Plasmodium in blood more difficult D. A genome

although we have mapped many genes,b there remains much mapping yet to do and many sequences for which we do not know function Sequencing DNA scientists have highly specialized sequencers to locate and ID bases complete set of any organisms base sequence is its ____________________. billions of bases yet found in any typical cell in your body the complete genomes of some organism have been found-egDrosophila melanogaster and Esherichia coli,because used so

much in bio labs genome Summary of Sanger

__________________technique to completing a genome: 1-Once DNA is obtained,copied and copies of fragments made_________________ 2-To determine sequence-_________________________ attaches to one copy of 1st fragment(well call it fragment 1).It will start to add free nucleotides by ____________________________ 2 kinds of nucleotides added 3-Some nucleotides standard,but some special dideoxynucleotide triphosphates(ddNTP labeled ddA,ddT,ddC,ddG-figure 3.7-p.123)-added as

DNA chain terminators-means that ______________________________________-previously marked w/florescent markers to ID.Chain termination may happen all way to end of fragment 1-but usually it stops before the end-happens on each of many copies of fragment 1 A DNA polymerase A primer sequence enzyme is added to help The principle of

start the process When 1 is reached,the elongation of the strand is stopped complementary base pairing Sanger Technique contd 4-result is a series of new strands(maybe dozens of bases

long,some a few less,some w/ all the bases of fragment 1) 5-ready for sequencing:multiple chains of varying lengths(ea w/florescent marked end) put in order from longest to shortest-done by using __________________________________. 6__________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Gel electrophoresis

To recognize ea letter,laser activates florescent markers on nucleotides as they go through the process.A sensor hooked up to a computer analyzes the wavelength of light and determines whether A,T,C,G Sanger contd 7-process repeated many times-for A.T,G,and Cto ensure no errors(there will be many copies fragment 1 so that can

be checked) 8-when fragment 1 is done,the lab technicians must process fragment 2,3,etcuntil all fragments of original sequence processed 9-Now need to put all sequenced fragments of code together-When original sequence was chopped up-mixed up and out of order.now knowing sequence,we will know their order---basically lining up any overlapping segments until all match

since this technique developed many ways have been developed to analyze ea fragment only 1x-so dont have to make multiple copies-reduces time and cost Be sure to see p.123!

Human Genome Project 1990 this cooperative task was began to catalogue all the bases in human DNA 2003-declared goal reached now the work is to determine which sequences are genes and which are not human genome shows locus of any gene on any 1 of 23 prs

of chromosomes before the project,< 100 loci for genetic diseases known,after-> 1400 known---now 1000s and increase by comparing genetic makeup around the world,it tells a lot about ancestries ,migrations,and mixing of genes in populations over time Using DNA to make medicines steps: 1-find beneficial molecules that are produced naturally in

healthy people 2-find out which gene controls synthesis of desired molecule 3-copy that gene and use instructions to synthesize molecule in a lab 4-________________________________________ eg.-genes controlling aging-think about ethical and financial implications Distribute the beneficial therapeutic protein as a new medical treatment

Can human genes be patented? 2013-US supreme court decided on case AMP(Association for Molecular Pathology v. biotech company(Myraid Genetics) Myriad had patent on BRCA genes(breast or ovarian cancer)-AMP felt BRCA gene sequences should be available freely for diagnostic purposes-Myriad said since the genes occur naturally-since found in nature all genes connected to each other but scientifically accessed so can be patented---plaintiff said this made it impossible to get 2nd

opinion.Supreme court said unconstitutional to patent DNA sequence found in nature II. Chromosomes A. The chromosome in prokaryotes single,long continuous,circular thread in nucleoid region only 1 csome because only 1 parent Some prokaryotes also have plasmids but eukaryotes do not Escherichia coli and others have small loops of DNA that

are extra copies of some of the genetic material=plamsids not connected to main csome replicate independently of csomal DNA not reqd by cell under normal conditions,but can help cell adapt in unusual circumstances also found in Archae used in genetic engineering not in eukaryotes

C. Eukaryote chromosomes usually DNA in form of csomes info for cells existence not visible when cell is not dividingchromatin @ this point.Chromatin made of________________________. unfolded DNA in electron microscope looks like string of beads-Ea of the beads being a ____________________________ Nucleosome consists of __________________________________

Strands of DNA and proteins called histones nucleosome 2 molecules of each of 4 different histones DNA wraps 2x around 8 protein molecules DNA attracted to histones

because______________________________________ between the nucleosomes is single strand of DNA There is often a 5th type of histone attached to the linking string of DNA near ea nuclesome.5th histone leads to more wrapping_____________- of DNA and finally to a highly condensed or supecoiled chromosomes when DNA is wrapped around histones and even further wrapped it is _______________________________________________.So,wrapping or packaging regulates transcription-allowing only certain areas of DNA to be involved in making proteins

DNA is negatively charged and histones (+) packaging In elaborate structures,it is inaccessible to

transcription enzymes D.Multiple chromosomes E.Homologous chromosomes: the same genes but not always the same alleles humans have 23 pairs of homologous csomes-homologous means _____________________________________ Similar in shape

and size & means that the 2 chromosomes carry the same genes There are 2 csomes because 1 from each parent,but not identical because alleles for genes can differ locus contains different bands in picture(see color on ppt) showing 1 allele from mom and 1 from dad

the csomes pictured are doubled because of replication-They only look like this when ready to divide-2 sister chromatids connected @ ________________________ and after division will be 2 separate identical csomes centromere F. Diploid and haploid cells _____________________-describes a nucleus w/csomes

organized into prs homologous csomes most in human body diploid w/23 sets from ea parent,ie. 46 total gametes are ________________ and contain 1 csome from each pair adult animal cells rarely haploid-exception male bee,wasp,and ant haploid usually only gametes are haploid diploid

Sex cells n -_____________________________________ for a human egg,n=23 __________________ are fertilized eggs and are 2n,2n=46 in humans Represents haploid # and refers to # sets of csomes that a nucleus

can have G. Chromosome number: a defining feature usually # of csomes is a characteristic feature of the cells of a species(exception-RBCs) and some anomalies, such as Downs Syndrome Caenorhabditis elegans-worm well studied-genome sequenced in 1998(6 csomes---n=3)

H. Karyograms and karyotypes

__________________-representation of csomes in a cell arranged in standard format-in order by size and shape-shape depending mostly on position of centromere a karyogram shows a persons __________________-specific number and appearance of csomes in his or her cells cells obtained from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are grown in culture and karyogram made by the following steps: 1-cells stained and prepared on slide for examination under light microscope 2-photomicrograph images are obtained of csomes during mitotic

metaphase 3-images are cut out and separated-w/scissors or by computer 4-images of ea pair placed in order by size and position of centromeres.Generally,by decreasing length(except sex csomes in maleXY) karyogram I. Sex determination 23rd pr sex csomes x longer than y w/many more genes/only pr of csomes w/different sizes

and shapes female=XX- each gamete will have 1 x male=Xy and gametes get x and get y therefore 50% chance of boy or girl offspring non sex csomes are called _________________________________________-.Humans have 22 pr of autosomes if a trait or gene is described as autosomal,its on prs 1-22 when a gene is more common in 1 gender,good chance it is sex-linkedeither on y or x

autosomes Autoradiography technique in which radiation from a substance is captured on photographic film or by camera sensor autoradiograms are exposed to radiation coming off of substance itself DNA describe as taking its own pictures-used to get images of DNA strands so length can be measured ____________________________-produced by injecting radioactive materials into DNA samples that will expose the film faster-such materials called

______________________________ in measuring lengths of DNA strands,the DNA forming during replication is given a radioactive form of thymidine,which is ______________________________________________________. radioactive form added in the experiment is called 3H-thymidine(3 is radioactive isotope of H)-used as radio marker to keep track of where thymidine molecules are-which leaves traces on photographic film _________________(1862) used this technique to demo that a bacteriums csome is made of a single circle of DNA replicated by being unzipped-He called the images theta structures

Cairns Technique Radio markers A component of a DNA nucleotide made up of a pentose sugar bonded to thymine John Cairns

IV. Inheritance A.Mendels experiments with pea plants Who was Gregor Mendel ? (1865)-monk published results on pea plants and how they passed on [email protected] that time genes were not yet known-He used term-factor-DNA not discovered Questions he had: How can I be sure I will get smooth peas and not rough ones?

How can I be sure the resulting plants will be short or tall? How can I be sure to obtain only flowers of a certain color? Key Terminology Genotype-_____________-eg-Bb,GG Phenotype-characteristics or traits of an organism-eghair color Dominant allele-an allele w/same effect on phenotype whether homozygous or heterozygous-eg- Aa with trait from A expressed-a is masked-not transcribed or

translated Recessive allele-an allele w/ effect on phenotype only if homozygous,eg-aa showing recessive trait because no dominant allele to mask it The symbolic representation of the pr of alleles an organisms has,usually shown by 2 letters Co-dominant alleles_____________________________________ eg-curly x straight producing degrees between 2 traits-both

alleles influence ________________-particular position on homologous csomes of a gene-ea gene has a specific place on a specific pr. of csomes Prs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when in a heterozygous Locus

Homozygous-having 2 identical alleles of a gene-eg-AA,aa Heterozygous-having 2 different alleles of a gene-due o paternal allele is different from maternal oneeg-Aa Carrier-____________________________________________ eg-Aa-carrier for albinism- but has pigmented skin,thus ancestor must have been albino and offspring might be _________________-testing suspected heterozygote plant or

animal by combining w/known homozygous recessive-Since recessive allele can be masked-it is often impossible to tell if homozygous or heterozygous dominant unless offspring shows recessive trait Test cross An individual who has a recessive allele of a gene that does not have an

effect on phenotype B.Gametes only have 1 allele of each gene Constructing a Punnett grid -used to show how the alleles of parents are split between gametes and how new combinations of alleles can show up/ shows all possible combinations in a mono hybrid crossparents have different alleles and only shows 1 trait C. The two alleles of each gene separate

tracing inheritance using albinism as example/to set up Punnett grid: 1-Choose letter to show alleles/capital-domiant and lower caserecessive(A and a)/do not mix letters(like a P and an A)

2-Determine parents genotypes(homozygous dominant heterozygous,or homozygous recessive) 3-Determine gametes parent could produce 4-Draw a Punnett grid 5-Work out the chances of each genotype and phenotype occurring -ea grid shows 1 of 2 possible statistics-ea square 25% - the probable proportions only work for large #s of offspring Big letter goes before small in heterozygous

D. Fusion of gametes The results should be referred to as 50% chance in humans whereas 50% offspring in plants,which produce much more offspring -each offspring result of gamete fusing-make zygote deduce phenotype from genotypes----eg Aanormal pigmentation/aa-albino E. Dominant alleles and co-dominant alleles

Short or tall pea plants Mendel crossed purebred tall w/ purebred short(purebred-known to be all tall or all short)-question was would he get all tall,some tall ,both,or all short took months to confirm-but we can predict in seconds w/grid-Because tall dominant over short F1(1st filial) shows results to cross F2- %chance of tall/25% chance of short.the talls have differing

genotypes In a real experiment,unlikely exact results---due to chanceif there are hundreds of results---will be close to predicted 75%chance of tall/25% chance of short.the talls have differing genotypes In a real experiment,unlikely exact results--due to chanceif there are hundreds of results---will be close to predicted Test cross

If a plant breeder needed to know if a specific tall plant from F2 is a purebred tall---They would do a test cross---test 1 in question w/ 1 whose genotype is knownIf they get a mix of tall and shortthe tall is heterozygous(if crossed w/tt),but if all are tall then homozygous Possible,but unlikely is that that 1 gene never passed onunlikely esp w/many offspring Multiple alleles

sometimes 3 or more alleles for same geneeg.ABO blood typing Blood Type: an example of multiple alleles ABO blood type system has 4 possible phenotypes:____________/3 alleles of a gene gene represented by letter I(I and i) and superscripts used to show 3 alleles 6 genotypes give rise to 4 phenotypes A,B,AB,and

O 6 genotypes The heterozygous shows____________________-neither allele is masked and blood type is AB codominance Autosomal genetic diseases in humans

Autosomal recessive diseases-on 1st 22 prs of csomes-not sex csome albinism,cystic fibrosis,phenylketonuria(PKU),sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait ,Tay Sachs, thalassemia Genetic diseases are rare even most common 1 in 2000 Diseases caused by sex-linked genes or codominant alleles

Genes carried on sex chromosome because y much smaller than x, fewer locifewer genes often a gene on x, has nothing to pair up with on y-esp. if found @ extremity of x Sex linkage sex-linked-_________________often affect 1 sex more than the other-eg-colorblindness and hemophilia color-blindness__________________________ Any trait having gene

locus on X or Y Inability to distinguish between certain colors-often green and red-those colors will look the same Hemophilia _____________________________ Blood does not clot properlytreated w/ injections

The pattern of inheritance with sex-linked genes Carriers of sex-linked traits-rare in most human populations worldwide-so recessive case very unusual-so few women have these traits males either have or do not will not be carriers more sex-linked traits-___________________

Duchene Muscular dystrophy , wt-eyed fruit flies , calico/tortoiseshell cats Some possible causes of mutations,genetic diseases and cancer -in principle-DNA not to be modified and code should be preserved,but radiation and carcinogens can modify code and cause disease Other causes of cancer and disease

mutagenic chemicals-eg.benzene radiation many regulated by government standards not all people follow recommendations repeated exposure DNA and radiation eg-Marie Curie-leukemia victims of atomic bombs

When radiation hits DNA molecule,may_______________.This causes a mutation may be benign or harmful nuclear power plants-Chernobyl(1986),Fukushima(2011)radioactive material leaked out ecologists studying these sites w/ varying results dome of cement @ Chernobyl as possible deterrent from leaking radiation knock out 1 or more base pairs-out of place-modifying genetic codecauses a mutation-benign or

harmful Genetic modification and biotechnology A.Exploring DNA

genetic techniques that enable scientists to explore and manipulate DNA: copying DNA in a lab-______________ using DNA to reveal its owners id-DNA profiling __________________________________

-_cutting and pasting genes to make new organisms-gene transfer cloning cells and animals new hopes for treatments and vaccines for diseases creating new plants for farmers freeing those wrongfully imprisoned gene transfer and cloning sparked debates-re-manipulation of nature,cost and profiteering ,ethics of human clones PCR Mapping DNA by finding where

every A,T,C,G is-gene sequencing,inc.Human Genome Project Gel electrophoresis separate fragments of DNA to id origin enzymes used to____________________ -DNA fragments placed into small wells(holes) in gel, aligned @ one end gel exposed to electric current-(+ ) on one side and

(-) on other __________________do not move easily, getting stuck close to [email protected] beginning Chop up the long filaments of DNA into varying sizes of fragments The biggest,heaviest ,and least charged particles Gel electrophoresis contd ____________________pass through gel to other side w/little

problem intermediate particles distributed-in between leave a banded pattern-in the end-see photo gel electrophoresis can stop there or a hybridization probe can be added.A probe for sickle cells,(SEE EXAMPLE IN BOOK) a known sequence of complementary DNA sequence that binds w/ a DNA strand in the gel, presenting The smallest, least massive, and most charged

particles gene sought Autoradiogram above PCR:how to make lots of copies of DNA PCR:how to make lots of copies of DNA Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)

PCR=lab technique using a machine called a thermocycler that ________________/is used to solve problem of how to get enough DNA to be able to analyze it-CSI and other sampling sources typically have a limited quantity of cells/PCR accomplished in a few hrs to analyze-usually by gel electrophoresis Takes a very small quantity of DNA and copies all nucleic acids in it to make millions of copies

of the DNA D. DNA profiling process of matching an unknown sample of DNA with a known sample of DNA to see if they correspond also called DNA fingerprinting significance of identical fragments and similar fragments

Applications of DNA profiling paternity suits suspects and crime scene blood and semen use gel electrophoresis used in ecosystems-to clarify relationshipssocial relationships,migrating patterns,nesting

habits,evolution by indicating common ancestry How DNA profiles are analyzed similarities may indicate family relationships technique perfected so that rather minute quantities of samples yield adequate data Gene modification :gene transfer between species

Gene transfer technique of taking gene out of one organism(donor-eg. a fish) and placing in another (host-eg.-a tomato) the above example was done to make tomatoes more resistant to cold and frost since DNA based on universal code it is possible to________ One species genes into another genetic

makeup all known organisms use the bases A,T,C,G to code for proteins-so transferred DNA codes for same polypeptide chain in host as it did in donorbased on same amino acids-eg.same proteins used by fish to resist arctic waters are used by tomatoes to be resistant to cold eg.-Bt born,genetically engineered to produce toxins that kill the bugs that attack it/the gene(and name) came from ____________________________,which has ability to

produce a protein fatal to larvae of crop-eating pests consider questions and problems with gene modificationsee p.161 Bacillus thuringiensis Clones cutting,copying,and pasting genes cutting and pasting DNA scissors used are ____________ called endonucleases,which find and recognize specific sequence of base pairs along DNA molecule

some can target____________ Restriction enzymes Sequences that are sets of 4 base pairs,others locate 6 pairs cutting and pasting DNA-contd

endonucleases cut DNA at specified points if both beginning and of a gene are cut out,gene is_____________________ for pasting genes,the enzyme is _________________________-recognizes parts of base sequences that are supposed to link togethercalled__________________ and attaches them Released and can be removed from donor

organism Sticky ends DNA ligase Copying DNA(DNA cloning) more complex-because_________ yeast can used,but most popular is _____________ like other bacteria,most of genetic info for E. coli is on a single csome,but some is

found inlamids-small circles of DNA in cytoplasm A host cell is needed in addition to the cutting and pasting enzymes as described E.coli DNA cloning using E.coli contd

like other bacteria,most of genetic info for E. coli is on a single csome,but some is found in plasmids-small circles of DNA in cytoplasm to copy a gene-it must be ___________________ To do this,plasmid removed from host cell and cut open using restriction endonuclease gene to be copied is placed inside open plasmidcalled_______________ gene is pasted into plasmid using DNA ligase plasmid now called recombinant plasmid and be used as a

vector-tool to intro new gene into organisms genetic makeup Glued into plasmid Gene splicing see also p.162drawing is simplified

final step- for copying(or cloning) the gene________________________________________accomplished by putting bacterium into a bioreactor-vat of nutritious [email protected] warm temp host cell makes copies of gene as it reproduces and gene is now in its genetic makeup-modified E. coli expresses gene and synthesizes whatever protein the gene codes for. process been used to get E.coli to make human insulin The vector is now placed inside host bacterium and bacterium given ideal conditions to grow

and proliferate GMOs GMO-artificial genetic change made to organism using techniques of genetic engineering(gene transfer or recombinant DNA) main reason is to be competitive in food market also to teach bacterium to produce medically

useful proteins ,as w/insulin Transgenic plants simplest kind of GM food is one in which undesirable gene HAS BEEN REMOVED,sometimes more desirable in its place,or just intro a new gene-so then ,no DNA removed ultimate end result is either organism no longer shows undesired trait or shows a new desired trait 1st commercial example Flavr Savr tomato(1994-sold in USA)modified to delay ripening and rotting,so stay fresh longer company lost a lot of $ on this

another species tomato modified to be more tolerant to salinityso-they proposed-would help solve world hunger GM rice made to produce beta carotene-so to help the consumers not be deficient in vitamin A Transgenic animals eg,for medical treatment w/ hemopihila ,victims lack a clotting factor like factor IX-can be produced in GM sheep that secrete through milk(proposed) other implications

Natural methods of cloning certain plants-like strawberries,send out horizontal structures to allow a new strawberry plant to grow nearby-exact genetic copy of 1st plant-w/o meiosis or fertilization potato grown from an original planted advantage to plant of ease of avoiding pollen route-but if one potato susceptible to blight,then all clones will be(re-Ireland 19th century)

rare among animals-except some invertebrates-eg.Hydra vulgaris-budding/hydra can also sexually reproduce Animals cloned from embryos clone=group of genetical id organisms,or grp of cells artificially derived from 1 parent results from a lab technique in farming-occurred for decades in regenerating plant material or in vitro fertilization (naturally in humans as id twins)

1st evidence of attempt (1890)-Hans Dreisch_______________________________________________his intent was not to create clones-serendipity-re-sea urchin emryos w/correct lab equipment-we can separate cells from a growing embryo and place in uterus of an animal-remember embryonic cells are undifferentiated --so not remarkable cloning-artificial twins w/sea urchins-He separated cells from a single sea urchin emryo and grew 2 id embryos See handout on history of cloning and artificial

twinning Animals cloned from adult cells Clones and cloning previously only possible from fertilized egg-after much dividing, specialize into muscle ,etcit was thought after differentiation ,could not clone.but HELLO DOLLY!!!!

Cloning using a differentiated animal cell 1996-Ian Wilmut-Dolly the sheep-1st such clone ____________________ An unfertilized egg collected from another sheep and its nucleus removed using electrical current,egg cell and nucleus from cultured somatic cell fused new cell developed in vitro in a a similar way to a zygote,and started to form embryo embryo placed in surrogate womb mother sheep

dolly born-clone of original donor sheep From original sheep to be clonedsomatic cell from udder was cultured and collected-Its nucleus was removed! this is _______________________cloningbecause makes entire individual technique is__________________ Reproductive cloning

Sometimes called SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER Cloning using undifferentiated cells to make copies of cells called _____________________________________ cells referred to as embryonic stem cells/involves stem cell research Therapeutic cloning-aim is to develop

cells that have not gone through differentiation- Ethical issues surrounding therapeutic cloning problem arises because starts w/ making a human embryo has lead to major breakthroughs/aims: skin to repair burn new heart muscle

new kidney tissue

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