Dept Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and
University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal
Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto,
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska
Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Institution for Health Sciences, Department of Public
Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall,
Department of Public Health, Protestant University of
Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany
and Department for medical Psychology and Medical
Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston
University and St George's, University of London,
London, United Kingdom
Division of Psychology, Department of Social Sciences,
Mid Sweden University, stersund, Sweden
Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Department of Sociology, National School of Public
Health Athens, Athens, Greece
International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH),
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Departmental Section of Psychiatry and Psychological
Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
This work was supported by the
Executive Agency for Health and
20081310] and by the
European cities represented in the study
The effect of intimate partner violence (IPV)
on Health-related Quality of Life has been
extensively studied in female victims.
However, though males are also frequent
victims of IPV no such information is
To test in a sample of the European general
presence of gender
differences on how IPV impacts healthrelated quality of life.
Random samples of non-institutionalized
adult (18-64 years) men (n=1646) and
women (n=2233), residing in 8 European
cities (Granada, Gent, Porto, Ostersund,
Stuttgart, London, Athens and Budapest)
were evaluated. Violent acts assessed by
the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales were
coded to provide past year prevalence for
each type of violence (psychological,
physical, sexual coercion and injury). When
all items were answered with 0 (This has
never happened), participants were coded
as non-cases, and as a case otherwise. A
variable was coded to express the severity
level (as described by the original scale
author in minor and severe acts) for all
types of violent sustained in the past year,
and used as independent variable: no
violence, minor acts, severe acts.
The eight original dimensions of the SF-36
were coded and t-scored to range from 100
to zero (mean=50, standard deviation=10).
component summary (PCS-36) scores were
derived from the eight scales of the SF-36
using principal components analysis with
varimax rotation. Higher scores represent
better health-related quality-of-life.
General linear models were computed to
estimate marginal means of summary
components extracted from the SF-36 by
violence severity and to test sex
interactions. Models were adjusted for
country, age and education. Differences in
the impact of IPV on the SF-36 summary
component scores (Mental
were expressed as unstandardized betas
(Standard Error) according to gender.
General Linear Model for summary components of the SF-36 by
violence severity in the past year
1.146 (0.50) 1.263 (0.53)
-0.530 (0.62)ns 1.186 (0.62) ns
0.940 (0.50) ns 1.199 (0.53)
-0.567 (0.63) 1.193 (0.64) ns
-0.100 (0.48) 0.735 (0.50) ns
-1.230 (0.61) 0.431 (0.60) ns
ns= non-significant; Model 1: adjusted
-1.049 for country;
-1.293Model 2: adjusted
to child abuse.
Model 3for country,
-0.917 (0.65) 0.732 (0.64) ns
Portuguese Foundation for
Science and Technology:
Mean score and 95% confidence intervals for the eight SF-36 dimensions according to violence severity among
men and women.
Intimate partner violence influences health-related quality of life in men and women, the
impact being more pronounced in the Mental Health of women.
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