iklili - Kingston University

iklili - Kingston University

Evidence for a gender effect in the impact of intimate partner

Porto, 5-8 September 2012

Epidemiology for a
fair and healthy

violence victimization on health-related quality of life

Costa D



Soares J3,4,
Lindert J5,
Sundin O7,
Toth O8,
Ioannidi-Kapolo E9,
Degomme O10,
Cervilla J11,
Barros H1,2.
*[email protected]


Dept Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and
Public Health
University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal
Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto,


Porto, Portugal

Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska
Institute, Stockholm, Sweden


Institution for Health Sciences, Department of Public
Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall,


Department of Public Health, Protestant University of

Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany
and Department for medical Psychology and Medical
Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston
University and St George's, University of London,
London, United Kingdom


Division of Psychology, Department of Social Sciences,
Mid Sweden University, stersund, Sweden


Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Budapest, Hungary

Department of Sociology, National School of Public
Health Athens, Athens, Greece


International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH),
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium


Departmental Section of Psychiatry and Psychological
Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

This work was supported by the
Executive Agency for Health and
Consumers European
Commission [contract:
20081310] and by the


European cities represented in the study

The effect of intimate partner violence (IPV)
on Health-related Quality of Life has been
extensively studied in female victims.
However, though males are also frequent
victims of IPV no such information is

Sample size:


Granada: 138
Gent: 245
Porto: 632
Stuttgart: 546
London: 571
Athens: 548
Budapest: 604

To test in a sample of the European general
population the
presence of gender
differences on how IPV impacts healthrelated quality of life.

Random samples of non-institutionalized
adult (18-64 years) men (n=1646) and
women (n=2233), residing in 8 European
cities (Granada, Gent, Porto, Ostersund,
Stuttgart, London, Athens and Budapest)
were evaluated. Violent acts assessed by
the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales were
coded to provide past year prevalence for
each type of violence (psychological,
physical, sexual coercion and injury). When
all items were answered with 0 (This has
never happened), participants were coded
as non-cases, and as a case otherwise. A
variable was coded to express the severity
level (as described by the original scale
author in minor and severe acts) for all
types of violent sustained in the past year,
and used as independent variable: no
violence, minor acts, severe acts.
The eight original dimensions of the SF-36
were coded and t-scored to range from 100
to zero (mean=50, standard deviation=10).
component summary (PCS-36) scores were
derived from the eight scales of the SF-36
using principal components analysis with
varimax rotation. Higher scores represent
better health-related quality-of-life.
General linear models were computed to
estimate marginal means of summary
components extracted from the SF-36 by
violence severity and to test sex
interactions. Models were adjusted for
country, age and education. Differences in
the impact of IPV on the SF-36 summary
component scores (Mental
and Physical)
were expressed as unstandardized betas
(Standard Error) according to gender.

General Linear Model for summary components of the SF-36 by
violence severity in the past year
Mental Health

for sex

Physical Health

for sex

Beta (SE)
Beta (SE)
Beta (SE)
Beta (SE)
<0.001 Ref Ref <0.001 No violence -1.525 -1.574 1.146 (0.50) 1.263 (0.53) (0.49) (0.54) Model 0 Minor -5.672 -2.994 -0.530 (0.62)ns 1.186 (0.62) ns (0.62) (0.62) Severe Ref Ref <0.001 Ref Ref <0.001 No violence -1.485 -1.563 0.940 (0.50) ns 1.199 (0.53) (0.50) (0.54) Model 1 Minor -5.915 -3.051 -0.567 (0.63) 1.193 (0.64) ns ns (0.63) (0.64) Severe Ref Ref <0.001 Ref Ref <0.001 No violence -1.210 -1.622 -0.100 (0.48) 0.735 (0.50) ns ns (0.51) (0.54) Model 2 Minor -5.511 -2.924 -1.230 (0.61) 0.431 (0.60) ns (0.64) (0.65) Severe Ref Ref <0.001 Ref Ref <0.001 No violence ns ns= non-significant; Model 1: adjusted for country, and (0.52) education; Model 3: -1.049 for country; -1.293Model 2: adjusted 0.076 (0.50) nsage 0.787 Adjusted age, education and exposure to child abuse. (0.51) (0.55) Model 3for country, Minor -4.182 -1.772 -0.917 (0.65) 0.732 (0.64) ns ns (0.66) (0.68) Severe Women Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology: SFRH/BD/66388/2009 Mean score and 95% confidence intervals for the eight SF-36 dimensions according to violence severity among men and women. CONCLUSION Intimate partner violence influences health-related quality of life in men and women, the impact being more pronounced in the Mental Health of women.

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