Immersive Visualization and Analysis of Ground Penetrating ...

Immersive Visualization and Analysis of Ground Penetrating ...

Immersive Visualization and Analysis of By Ground Penetrating Radar Data Matthew Sgambati 1 of 84 Committee Dr. Daniel Coming Dr. Frederick C. Harris, Jr. Dr. Nicholas Lancaster 2 of 84 Overview Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 3 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes

Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Sand Dunes 4 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass

Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Sand Dunes 5 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Sand Dunes 6 of 84 Background Sand Dunes Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality

Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Shapes Crescentic Linear Star Dome Parabolic Transverse Reversing 7 of 84 Background

Sand Dunes Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Types Subaqueous Lithified Coastal

Desert 8 of 84 Background Sand Dunes Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Forms Simple Compound Complex 9 of 84 Background Sand Dunes Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation

Results Conclusion Future Work Dune 7 in the Namib desert 10 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Ground Penetrating Radar 11 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Ground Penetrating Radar

12 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Ground Penetrating Radar 13 of 84 Background

Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Brunton Compass 14 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground

Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Brunton Compass 15 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering

Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Brunton Compass 16 of 84 Background Volume Rendering Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering

Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Display of data sampled in three dimensions 17 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality

Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Volume Rendering 18 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software

Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Volume Rendering 19 of 84 Background Volume Rendering Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project

Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Methodologies 20 of 84 Indirect Direct Algorithm categories Object-order Image-order Hybrid Background Indirect Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Iso-surfaces 21 of 84 Background Indirect

Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 22 of 84 Assumptions Iso-surfaces exist Rendered within a reasonable degree of accuracy

Complexity is an issue Background Direct Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

23 of 84 Requirement Every sample point is mapped to an opacity and color Techniques Ray Casting Splatting Shear-Warp Texture Mapping Hardware Accelerated Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality

Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Ray Casting 24 of 84 Image-order algorithm Produces some of the highest quality images Very computationally expensive Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering

Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Ray Casting 25 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Splatting 26 of 84 Object-order algorithm Less computationally expensive than Ray Casting Throw paint balls onto a surface to obtain an image Background Splatting Background Sand Dunes

Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 27 of 84 Maps every voxel to the viewing plane Footprint Reconstruction Kernel Speed Precompute footprints

Issue Reconstruction Kernel selection Too larger results in a blurry image Too small results in gaps in the image Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation

Results Conclusion Future Work Splatting 28 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Shear-Warp Hybrid algorithm Fastest purely software-based algorithm 29 of 84 Background Shear-Warp Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification

and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 30 of 84 Sheared object space Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Shear-Warp 31 of 84 Background Shear-Warp Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion

Future Work 32 of 84 Speed Run-length encoding Issues Run-length encoding One for each axis, 3 x memory consumption Interpolation is per slice Aliasing Staircasing Background Texture Mapping Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 33 of 84 Uses Graphics Hardware

Texture Mapping Interpolation Types 2D-texture mapping 3D-texture mapping Background 2D-Texture Mapping Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion

Future Work 34 of 84 Splits data into axisaligned slices Composited in back-tofront order Background 2D-Texture Mapping Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation

Results Conclusion Future Work 35 of 84 Advantages Simplicity Takes advantage of graphics hardware (Bilinear interpolation) Disadvantages Slices created for each axis, 3 x memory consumption Flickering Aliasing occurs when magnified Background 3D-Texture Mapping Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 36 of 84 Stores data as a 3Dtexture Creates viewport aligned slices Background 3D-Texture Mapping Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh 37 of 84 The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Advantages Overcomes disadvantages of 2D-texture mapping

Takes advantage of graphics hardware (Trilinear interpolation) Background 3D-Texture Mapping Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh 38 of 84 The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results

Conclusion Future Work Disadvantages Bricking mechanism required for large data sets Limited by bandwidth between system memory and graphics hardware Brick size Too large wont fit into graphics hardwares memory cache Too small increases memory footprint and number of intersection tests Background Hardware Accelerated Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 39 of 84 Uses Programmable Pipeline instead of the Fixed Functionality Pipeline Background Virtual Reality

Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Notion of mental immersion through feedback

Visual Haptic Olfactory Auditory Depth Cues Monoscopic Stereoscopic 40 of 84 Background Virtual Reality Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 41 of 84 Stereo Vision Active Passive Stereoscopic Displays Fishtank Head Mounted Display Projection-based Input Devices Toolkits

Background Depth Cues Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 42 of 84 Monoscopic

Provide information from only one eye Information Interposition Size Linear perspective Motion parallax Background Depth Cues Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 43 of 84 Stereoscopic Provide information from two eyes Images are different perspectives of the same location Provides spatial information Obtained from the parallax between objects in the image Motion

Same as motion parallax Background Stereo Vision Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 44 of 84

Active 1 Projector with 120Hz refresh rate (60Hz each eye) Synchronized signals between projector and glasses Background Stereo Vision Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process

Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 45 of 84 Passive 2 Projectors (60Hz refresh rate) Polarized filters Background Stereoscopic Displays Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality

Toirt-Samhlaigh 46 of 84 The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Types Fishtank Head Mounted Display Projection-based Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering

Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Stereoscopic Displays 47 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Stereoscopic Displays 48 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process

Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Stereoscopic Displays 49 of 84 Background Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Input Devices 50 of 84 Background Toolkits Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

51 of 84 Designed to help users deal with VR systems Specialized hardware Specialized devices Unique environments Examples FreeVR VR Juggler Virtual reality user interface (Vrui) Hydra Background Vrui Background

Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 52 of 84 VR development toolkit written by Oliver Kreylos Goal is to shield developer from a particular configuration of a VR environment

Display abstraction Distribution abstraction Input abstraction Background Toirt-Samhlaigh Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

53 of 84 Volume rendering library Patrick OLeary 3D-texture mapping, hardware accelerated DVR type of algorithm Slice-based rendering Heavily integrated with Vrui Background Toirt-Samhlaigh Background Sand Dunes Ground Penetrating Radar and Brunton Compass

Volume Rendering Virtual Reality Toirt-Samhlaigh The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 54 of 84 Provides many features Transfer functions Directional lighting Volume manipulation Color maps Tools, such as clipping plane tool

Modifiable slice factor Load several data types The Project Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 55 of 84 Create a program capable of visualizing GPR data in an IVE and create tools to assist in the analysis of the GPR data This was done by taking Toirt-Samhlaigh and performing enhancements and expansions to the Software Specification and Design Process Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process

Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Software Specification 56 of 84 Requirements Functional Nonfunctional Software Specification and Design Process

Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Requirements 57 of 84 Functional The program shall be able to load GPR data in SEG Y revision 1 format.

The program shall allow the user to turn the data visualization on and off. The program shall allow the user to change the orientation and position of the data. The program shall allow the user to take dip and strike measurements. The program shall allow the Software Specification and Design Process Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process

Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Requirements 58 of 84 Nonfunctional The program shall maintain interactive frame rates. The program shall written in C/C++. The program shall use a hardware accelerated, texture mapping DVR algorithm for its rendering. The program shall use VRUI and Toirt- Samhlaigh for its prototype application. The program's rendering algorithm shall use OpenGL.

Software Specification and Design Process Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Use Cases 59 of 84 Software

Specification and Design Process Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work System Overview 60 of 84 Software Specification and Design Process

Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Toirt-Samhlaigh 61 of 84 Software Specification and Design Process Background The Project

Software Specification and Design Process Requirements Use Cases System Overview Iterative Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Iterative Design Process 62 of 84 Conducted with a researcher at DRI

Valuable feedback Valuable learning experience Implementation Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 63 of 84 SEG Y file loader Toirt-Samhlaigh tools tested Modified Slicing Tool Handle scaling of GPR data Double as a clipping tool Added Topographic correction to SEG Y file loader Surface Visualization

Implementation Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 64 of 84 Two tools created Distance Measurement Tool Brunton Compass Tool GUIs were created as needed Save/Load Functionality Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process

Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Topographic Correction 65 of 84 Store values read in from a file into a 2D grid structure x-coordinate, y-coordinate, elevation Samples taken at regular intervals, plus at the peaks Performed linear interpolation Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion

Future Work Topographic Correction 66 of 84 Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Topographic Correction 67 of 84 Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Surface Visualization 68 of 84 Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Distance Measurement Tool 69 of 84 Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Brunton Compass Tool 70 of 84 Implementati on Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Brunton Compass Tool 71 of 84 Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

72 of 84 Videos Volume orientation and position Directional lighting Color Maps Slice Tool 1D Transfer Function Surface Visualization Distance Measurement Tool Brunton Compass Tool Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

Volume Orientation and Position 73 of 84 Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Directional Lighting 74 of 84 Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Color Maps 75 of 84

Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Slice Tool 76 of 84 Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 1D Transfer Function 77 of 84 Results Background

The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Surface Visualization 78 of 84 Results Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Distance Measurement Tool 79 of 84 Results Background The Project Software

Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work Brunton Compass Tool 80 of 84 Conclusion Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 81 of 84 Background The Project Software Specification Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work

and Future Work Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 82 of 84 Improve User Friendliness File selection menu Change the scale of the data Change the loaded data set Tools

Custom shaped viewing tool Layer peeling tool Auto subsurface generating tool Load more GPR file formats and different types of data Future Work Background The Project Software Specification and Design Process Implementation Results Conclusion Future Work 83 of 84 Have more than one volume loaded at a time Perform automatic or semi- automatic segmentation of the data into layers Clipping Plane issue Replace Toirt-Samhlaigh Implements newer DVR algorithms Takes better advantage of

Questio ns Thank you for coming Demo at 2:00 p.m. 84 of 84

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