B cell response Macrophage and helper T cell involvement with initiating a B cell response: B cell response When specific B cells are activated, they multiply ome cells become memory cells, stored in case of ubsequent infection
Different B cell Antigen fits with clones this B cell Many plasma cells Some memory cells Making antibodies Immunological memory from vaccines
Vaccines introduce antigen (dead or weakened) to induce production of memory B & T cells, antibodies Memory cells are activated on real exposure to bacteria, virus. Antibodies already present to label Lung cancer vaccination Vaccines and the quest to
eliminate infectious disease What about T cells? T cells recognize virus-infected or cancerous body cells (cell-mediated) When triggered, T cells w/specific self-antigen multiply. Killer T cells contact and release chemicals to kill the cells with the self-antigen marker
What triggers T cells? Macrophages wear what they eat (in this case, self marker plus antigen from pathogen, or self markers on cancerous cells) Helper T cells are triggered and activate killer T cells and memory T cells Self marker + antigen
MHC protein Antigen Foreign microbe Body cell Processed antigen Antigen-presenting cell
Helper T-cell activation and the B and T cells formed as a result How Killer T-cells kill body cells Virus Protein coat has antigen Virus invades
host cell Host cell How Killer T-cells kill body cells Foreign viral antigen Self-antigen Viral antigen is displayed on surface of host cell with selfantigen
Virus invaded host cell How Killer T-cells kill body cells Killer T cell Killer T cell recognizes and binds with a specific foreign
antigen complex Antigen complex Host cell with virus How Killer T-cells kill body cells Killer T cell releases chemicals
that destroy cell Helper T cells Helper T cells do not kill cells, but amplify effects of other WBCs: Enhance production of T and B cells, make chemotaxins for phagocytes Master switch for immune response
T-lymphocyte Sowhat are these self markers? The MHC is a set of genes that code for glycoproteins on cell membranes and mark cells as self Sowhat are these self markers?
Matching MHC markers is important when transplanting organs Combining non-specific and adaptive immune response At first: phagocytes, histamine release, Bacterial infection:
inflammatory response Inflammation brings phagocytes, plasma proteins (complement system, clotting proteins) Bacteria antigen stimulates helper T cells, B cells get activated: antibodies Bacteria get labeled w/antibodies, killed by complement, macrophages, killer cells. This slide is just another way to organize things Combining non-specific and adaptive immune response
Viral infection: Virus inside body cells do not trigger macrophages, B-cells, or complement. Virus-infected or cancerous cells release interferon, signaling neighboring cells and attracting natural killer cells, macrophages, complement. Virus out in the open can be attacked. Self-antigen combination triggers T-helpers,
which help stimulate killer T cells (takes days) and attract macrophages to the area. This slide is just another way to organize things Blood groups ABO blood types are named by antigens on the surface of RBCs: A, B, AB, or O (neither antigen). People acquire antibodies for the blood antigens they do not
have on their RBCs. Blood type O : universal donor (no antigens). Blood type AB : universal recipient (no antibodies) Allergies: adaptive immunity gone wrong Reactivity to a harmless substance in environment
Common triggers: pollen, molds, bee stings, dust, fur, mites, penicillin Allergies: adaptive immunity gone wrong Hives - allergens on skin Hay fever - allergens in nasal passages Asthma - allergens in airway Allergies: why in some people and not
others? IgE antibodies Allergens Specific B cell clones Allergies involve a particular type of antibody IgE antibodies IgE antibodies trigger mast cells and
basophils to produce histamine and other chemicals at the site of the Anaphylactic shock Systemic anaphylaxis- when large amounts of histamine and inflammatory signals are released all at once to blood. Widespread dilation - hypotension. Airway constriction. Victim can die within minutes. Often due to penicillin, bee venom.
How does the immune system react differently for different allergies? Skin: Besides IgE response, can be a Tcell response to substance (ex: urushiol oil) Airway: besides histamine, leukotrienes are released airway constricted Gut: traditional food allergies are IgE
(egg, milk, wheat, nuts, shellfish, etc.) Histamine dilation, leukotriene constriction. What do allergy medications do? They generally reduce the histamine signal They can be bronchodilators, reduce leukotrienes, decongestants (constrict
capillaries), injectable epinephrine, anti IgE Corticosteroids inhibit expression of cytokines and other signals of inflammation Development of tolerance Tolerance of substances develops early via clonal deletion of specific lymphocytes
Central tolerance: B and T cells that respond to self-antigen are destroyed Error often results in autoimmune disease Peripheral tolerance: regulatory cells inhibit response to environmental antigens Error often results in allergies Allergies can have late onset, even in Hygiene hypothesis Keeping a childs environment too clean may prevent proper development of
immune system Recent study: Exposing high-risk infants to peanuts reduced later allergies by 80% What are autoimmune diseases? Immune system wrongly attacks body
cells, often caused by production of autoantibodies Rheumatoid arthritis autoantibodies attach to joints and induce inflammation & attack by complement, and WBCs A few immune related disorders:
Diabetes Type I Crohns Disease Multiple Sclerosis Pernicious anemia
Addisons disease Lupus Triggering of autoimmune disease AI diseases often have an environmental trigger, those with certain genotypes can be more susceptible to it A trigger can be an infection w/antigen that is molecularly similar to markers on body cells
Possible environmental agents: silica, mercury, nitrates in drinking water, groundwater pollutants, drugs, many Respiratory system External vs. cellular respiration Respiratory system Airway: from nasal passages down to trachea,
bronchioles and alveoli. The trachea and bronchi are reinforced with cartilage Larynx (voicebox) has vocal cords Bronchioles can dilate and constrict Respiratory system Smooth muscle
Transmural pressure gradient lungs will always expand to fill pleural cavity Increasing cavity volume, air enters If lung pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, air enters the lungs.
Inspiration and expiration: how we change chest volume What determines airflow? F= P R same equation as blood flow! Major determinant of resistance is radius
of bronchioles Disease can increase resistance (asthma, bronchitis) Surface tension at alveoli Surface tension whenever water layer meets air water molecules are attracted to each other.
Surface tension along the lining of alveoli resists expansion of alveoli. Surfactant reduces surface tension. Gas exchange and partial pressure gradients
Air is a mixture of gases Nitrogen is 79% of air. Its partial pressure: 0.79 x 760 = 600.4 Alveoli Capillaries PO2 100 40 PCO2 40 46 Hemoglobin saturation
Most O2 is carried by Hb some is dissolved in plasmaOxygen saturation curv and determines partial pressure Hb saturation is high where PO2 is high (lungs). Saturation remains high even PO2 is 60 Small decrease in PO2 makes Hb unload much
Shifting the curve Increase in CO2 from tissue shifts the saturation curve to the right Increased acidity (H+, carbonic acid) and temperature has the same effect - Bohr effect
Most O2 carried on hemoglobi A teensy bit of O2 is dissolved in plasma Chemoreceptors sense O2 dissolved in blood Carotid and aortic
bodies send info to the medulla PO2 and PCO2 and H+ can be detected O2 saturation is not detected Spirometry Measures airflow and volume of inspiration and expiration
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