Impacts of cover crop diversification on attraction ...

Impacts of cover crop diversification on attraction ...

Impacts of cover crop diversification on attraction, dispersal, and pest suppression by generalist predators. Jermaine Hinds, James Hagler, and Mary Barbercheck The Pennsylvania State University Natural Enemies Provisioning by plants Insectary plants provision natural enemies (Lundgren, 2009). Natural enemies shown to prefer specific resource plants and differentially benefit from different host plants (Hogg et al. 2011; Vatalla et al., 2006). Insectary mixtures with complementary resources may support more natural enemies. Research Question Can plant-based resources promote natural enemy abundance and promote pest suppression?

Can mixtures enhance these effects? Do natural enemies necessarily disperse into nearby crop and contribute to pest suppression? Objectives: Evaluate potential of two plant species to support natural enemies by assessing: Resource availability Natural enemy abundance Predation Dispersal Buckwheat (BW) (Fagopyrum esculenum) Biculture (MX) Sampling Methods Cowpea (CP) (Vigna unguiculata) Weedy Fallow (WF) Resource abundance increases in time. Cowpea EFN representation poor in mixture Mean Density of Buckwheat Inflorescences Per 0.25m2

Mean Density of Cowpea EFNs Per 0.25m2 Mean # Inflorescences 700 * 600 * 500 W F 400 B W 300 CP 200 * 100 0 2 3

4 5 6 Weeks after planting 7 Mean Number of EFNs 800 250 200 * 150 W F B W CP 100 50 0 2 3 4

5 Weeks after planting 6 7 Mean # of O. insidiosus * Mean # of C. maculata 1.4 1.2 1 WF BW 0.8 CP 0.6 MX 0.4 0.2 0 4 5 6

Weeks after planting 7 Mean # of O. Insidiosus M e a n # C . m a cu la ta C. maculata and O. insidiosus more abundant where buckwheat is present. Cowpea not attractive 14 * 12 10 WF * 8 BW CP 6 MX 4 2 0 4

5 6 Weeks after planting 7 P ro p o rtio n o f E g g s A tta ck e d Combined predation lower in borders compared to crop plot and similar across treatments Sentinel egg predation * 1 Border 0.9 * Corn * 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1 0 WF BW Treatment CP MX Natural enemies disperse from cover crop into main crop C. maculata Dispersal O. insidiosu s Dispersal C. maculata Predatio n O. insidiosu s Predatio n Positive Marks

22 15 15 37 Total 1052 1292 1052 1292 Percentage Marked 2.09% 1.16% 0.99% 2.86% Findings Can plant-based resources promote natural enemy abundance in

insectary strips? C. maculata and Orius spp. greater in presence of buckwheat Natural enemies not abundant in cowpea Can mixture further support natural enemies? Does insectary strip enhance predation? Not apparent. Biculture again, dominated by buckwheat Predation levels similar across treatments, but lower in border compared to crop Do natural enemies disperse into nearby crop and contribute to pest suppression? C. maculata and O. insidiosus move into adjacent crop C. maculata and O. insidiosus predation on protein marked sentinel prey Acknowledgements

USDA NIFA-OREI Program USDA ALARC Cover Crop Cocktails Research Group James Hagler & Scott Machtley NE-SARE Graduate Student Grant Bunton-Waller Fellowship Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Lloyd. E. Adams Memorial Award International Association of Black Entomologists Russell E. Larson Ag Research Center Staff Photo Credits: Jermaine Hinds

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