Imperialism: Europe Reaches Out - Ms. Anderson's Classes!
Imperialism: Europe Reaches Out S. Anderson In this unit, you will learn about the spread of European imperialism in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. You will also learn how, through the spread of imperialism, European ideas and practices had a far-reaching
impact on the rest of the world. European Imperialism Imperialism refers to the political and economic control of one area or country by another. In ancient times, countries like Persia and Rome built large empires by conquering their neighbors. In the 15th century, European nations developed the first overseas empires in the Americas. In the 19th century, the European Great Powers suddenly acquired vast colonial empires in
Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. European Imperialism European countries had invested great efforts building colonial empires in the Americas from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The independence of the United States and Latin America had therefore represented a great setback for European imperialism. European rulers questioned the value of colonies if they would suddenly declare independence just when they became valuable to the mother
country. Even so, imperialism never totally died out, even in the early 19th century. It continued in India, South Africa, the East Indies, and several other places. The British Raj (Reign) in India During the 18th century, the British had defeated France and many local rulers to extend their control throughout much of the Indian subcontinent. British rule brought many changes. Some older customs, like the suicide of widows
when their husbands died, were stamped out. The first railway in India was built in 1853. Muslims and Hindus lived peacefully together. European missionaries spread Christianity. British schools and colleges opened. English became the language of the government. Despite the benefits brought by the British, many Indians were still upset by this challenge to their traditional ways. India Under British Rule
The Sepoy Mutiny (1857) The British were able to control India because Indians were divided among themselves. The British had better weapons and used trained Indian soldiers, known as sepoys. In 1857, a large number of sepoys rebelled. The rebellion quickly spread, but the British crushed the revolt using loyal Indian soldiers. After the mutiny, the British government took over formal control of India and abolished the East India Company. India officially became a British possession. Queen Victoria of
England became the Empress of India. The Impact of British Rule During two centuries of British rule, many aspects of Indian life changed: Government: The British provided a single system of law and government, unifying India. They provided jobs, increased educational opportunities, and introduced English as a unifying language. Economic: The British built roads, bridges, and railroads and set up telegraph wires. However, Indias
cottage industries, in which products were made by people in their homes, were hurt by competition with British manufactured goods. The Impact of British Rule, contd Health: The British built hospitals, introduced new medicines, and provided famine relief. At the same time, health care improvements led to a population explosion without a similar increase in economic opportunities. Social: Indians were looked down upon by the
British and their culture was treated as inferior to European culture. Indian workers provided the British with inexpensive labor working for long hours, often under terrible conditions. Other British Colonies Britain also held several other colonies outside of India. It took Cape Colony, on the tip of South Africa, from Holland, as well as several islands in the West Indies. They also continued to hold onto Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, and Singapore. Other European Colonies At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, France regained some of its colonies in the West Indies, as well as some trading posts on the coast of West Africa and India. In the 1830s, France conquered Algeria in North Africa. The French also intervened in Indochina in the 1860s. Meanwhile, the Dutch continued to rule over the Dutch East Indies, Spain held onto its few remaining colonial possessions
in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The New Imperialism At the end of the 18th century, imperialism appeared to be on the decline. Britain had lost most of its colonies in America, and Spain and Portugal had lost most of Latin America. A hundred years later, the world witnessed a new wave of imperialism. From 1880 to 1900, almost every corner of the Earth came to be claimed by European powers. Africa, for example, was suddenly
divided up like a cake to be eaten by hungry European powers. The Causes of New Imperialism Why did European imperialism suddenly revive? New technological developments, based on the Industrial Revolution, made the New Imperialism possible. The steamboat made it possible to go upstream, reaching the interior of Africa and other places previously too difficult to reach. The telegram made it possible to
communicate with new settlements deep in the interior regions of Africa and Asia. Later, imperial powers built railroads to ship goods and raw materials to and from their colonies. New medicines, like quinine to treat malaria and antiseptics, and a better understanding of disease made it possible to explore the tropics with less risk. Military technology like rifles could be used to The Causes of New Imperialism, contd There were many motives for imperialism. New
countries such as Belgium, Germany, and Italy sought colonial empires of their own to establish their power on the world stage. Even older colonial powers like France and Britain joined the scramble for colonies. Britain seized control of Egypt to protect the Suez Canal, which provided the shortest route from Britain to India. The Causes of New Imperialism, contd European powers were also anxious to preserve the balance of power between themselves. European powers also hoped to obtain natural resources and
markets to sell their goods. Finally, imperialists such as Rudyard Kipling spoke of the White Mans Burden the duty of Europeans to spread their cultures to areas of Africa and Asia. In some places imperialists met with fierce local resistance. The British fought wars in the Sudan, South Africa,
and elsewhere to gain Reasons for Renewed Interest in Imperialism Technology. New technology such as steamships, rifles, telegraphs, and better medicines made it possible to penetrate deeply into Africa, Asia, and the Pacific nations for the first time. Economic Motives. European industries needed raw materials to keep their factories busy. Industrialists sought new
markets in which to sell their manufactured goods. Reasons for Renewed Interest in Imperialism Political Motives. Europeans wished to acquire colonies to demonstrate their power. European countries also sought to preserve the balance of power among themselves. When one country obtained a new colony, others felt it necessary to do the same. Social Motives. Many Europeans believed in Social Darwinism
the theory that some societies were more successful because their cultures were superior. Other Europeans wanted to spread Christianity. The Scramble for Africa In 1870, Europeans still controlled very little actual territory in Africa. France had acquired Algeria in the northwest in the 1830s, and Britain controlled South Africa. Otherwise, European activity was mainly limited to coastal trading ports. Communities in the interior of sub-Saharan Africa still remained
isolated. They represented an immense diversity of cultures with many different types of political structures. The Scramble for Africa, contd. Over the next 20 years, this picture changed dramatically. European powers engaged in a Scramble for Africa (1870-1890), during
which most of Africa came under their control. In the 1850s and 1860s, European explorers mapped out the interior of Africa for the first time. The Scramble for Africa, contd. In the early 1880s, a local revolt threatened European use of the Suez
Canal. This canal, completed by French engineers in 1869, provided the shortest route from Europe to East Africa, India, and East Asia. It became the lifeline between Britain and its colony in India. The British quickly moved to put down the revolt and take over Egypt. Next, British troops took over the Sudan. The Scramble for Africa, contd.
Other powers France, Italy, Germany, and Belgium eyed British actions jealously. They wanted parts of Africa for themselves. Diamonds and gold and other valuable resources were also discovered in Africa in the late 19th century. In 1884, at the Berlin Conference, Bismarck and other European leaders divided up the remaining parts of Africa. By 1890, only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberia remained independent. (Morocco was under French influence).
Major Imperial Powers The major European powers with colonies in Africa were Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, and Italy. The French acquired much of Central Africa and Northwest Africa above the Sahara. King Leopold II of Belgium ruled the Congo in the center of Africa as his private estate. He treated the natives harshly, killing millions to increase production on his rubber plantations.
Major Imperial Powers, contd The British established colonies in West Africa, along almost the whole length of East Africa from Egypt to South Africa. Cecil Rhodes, a leading British imperialist, planned to build a railway down the eastern side of Africa from Cairo in Egypt to Capetown, South
Africa. Germany took Tanganyike, Cameroon, Togo, and Southwest Africa. The Legacy of Imperialism in Africa Before the arrival of European imperialists, boundaries in Africa were loosely defined. They reflected territories inhabited and controlled by different ethnic and tribal groups. In their Scramble for Africa, European powers paid no attention at all to existing tribal boundaries.
Wherever possible, they established mining operations or cultivated cash crops to be sold to Europe. Native Africans were used as cheap workforce. Europeans also introduced advanced Western technology and ideas. Imperialism thus had both positive and negative effects on Africa. The Legacy of Imperialism in Africa Positive Effects: European medicine and improved nutrition increased the life-span of Africans. This led
to an explosion in the population. Europeans introduced modern transportation and communications, such as telegraphs, railroads, and telephones. A small minority of Africans received improved education and greater economic opportunities. Some served as administrators or in the army. The Legacy of Imperialism in Africa Negative Effects:
European domination led to an erosion of traditional African values and destroyed many existing social relationships. African peoples were treated as inferior to Europeans. Native peoples were forced to work long hours for low pay under horrible conditions. Europeans divided Africa artificially, ignoring tribal, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. This had led to continuing tribal conflicts in many African nations. Informal Imperialism
Even areas where they did not establish direct rule, European powers often dominated an areas economy. Historians refer to this as informal imperialism. The European Powers and China In China, European powers faced a different situation than India or Africa. For thousands of years, China had been united under its powerful emperors. Nevertheless, China had remained isolated from the world. By the 1830s, it lacked the
military technology it needed to oppose Western imperialism. The European Powers and China Western nations showed an interest in China because its huge population offered a potential market for European manufactured goods. It also possessed valuable raw materials and produced local goods sought by Europeans. In China, European powers therefore developed a system of informal imperialism. Chinas local rulers
remained in power, but they become subject to foreign pressure. The Opium Wars (1839 1842) In the 1800s, Great Britain began selling opium in China to obtain money to buy tea. The government of china tried to stop this practice by sentencing Chinese opium dealers to death. The British reacted by declaring war. With their superior gunboats, the British were able to fire on Chinese coastal towns. China was defeated and forced to
continue the sale of opium. contd This damaged the Chinese economy and created chaos and political instability in China. China was also forced to open several treaty ports, giving the British new trading privileges. The British established several spheres of influence -- areas of China
under their exclusive economic control. A flood of cheap British textiles hurt Chinese industry. Other European countries soon followed the British example, demanding their own spheres of influence in China. The Opium Wars (1839 1842), contd Increasing European interference was extremely unpopular in China and weakened the prestige of
the ruling Qing (or Manchu) Dynasty. The defeat of the Chinese army in the Opium Wars proved to the Chinese that they were no longer the Heavenly Middle Kingdom. Millions of Chinese were killed when Chinas rulers put down the Taiping Rebellion (1850 1864) with European help. Americas Open Door Policy Fearing it would be shut out of Chinas profitable trade, the United States proposed equal trading rights for all nations in China in 1899.
Boxer Rebellion (1899 1900) A Chinese group, calling themselves the Boxers, rebelled against the spread of foreign influence in China. Hundreds of foreigners living in Chinese cities were killed during riots led by the Boxers and their supporters. An international force, composed of troops from foreign powers finally crushed the Boxer rebellion. Boxer Rebellion (1899 1900),
contd The United States played a key role in suppressing the rebellion because of the large number of U.S. ships and troops in the nearby Philippines. However, the United States sought to preserve China as an independent country. American policy prevented European powers from further dividing up China, and kept it open to trade with all nations. The Opening of Japan Another Asian country to face Westerners in the late
19th century was Japan. Fearing foreign influences, Japans rulers had cut Japan off from European trade in 1639. Japanese citizens were forbidden to travel to other countries, and foreigners were banned from Japan, except for one Dutch outpost. The United States Opens Japan In 1853, the United States government sent a naval squadron commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan. In addition to requesting better treatment for
shipwrecked sailors, the Americans sought to develop new markets and establish a port where their ships to China could stop to obtain supplies. Fearing the example of what happened to China, Japanese opened their doors to American trade. Within a few years, the British, Russian, and Dutch negotiated similarly favorable treaties. Commodore Perry arrives in Japan
The Meiji Restoration (1868 1912) The Japanese samurai and daimyos (nobles) criticized the Shogun, the Japanese ruler, for opening Japan to the West. Under this criticism, the Shogunate collapsed. The Japanese emperor, who had been a mere puppet for over a thousand years, was suddenly restored to power. The Meiji Restoration (1868 1912), contd Emperor Meiji, the new ruler, was convinced that
Japan had to adopt Western ways if it was to escape future domination by the Western powers. He sent scholars to other countries to learn advanced technologies and foreign customs, and received visits from foreign ministers. Steamboats and railroads were built and a new constitution decreed. Japan became the first
non-Western country to successfully copy and Latin America Although Spain had lost most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th century, it kept control over Cuba, Puerto Rico, and a few other islands in the Caribbean. Cubans rebelled against the harsh conditions of its sugar cane workers in the 1890s. A Spanish army was sent to Cuba to crush the rebellion with brutal force. Many Americans were sympathetic to the plight of the Cuban rebels.
Latin America, contd In 1898, the battleship U.S.S. Maine was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor, killing 250 American sailors. The United States declared war and quickly defeated Spain. As a result of the Spanish-American War, America acquired its first colonies Puerto Rico in the Caribbean and Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. Cuba became independent in name, but fell under American influence.
Latin America, contd Americans also annexed Hawaii as part of their new colonial empire. Many Americans opposed taking colonies, but others argued it was necessary to copy the imperial powers of Europe. Latin America, contd Meanwhile, the independent nations of Latin America in Mexico, Central America, and South America became dependent on both Great Britain and the United States for their trade and economic prosperity. Latin American elites
studied in Europe and sold their cash crops there. Britain invested heavily in Latin America. Although no longer colonies, Latin America became part of a system of informal, or economic, imperialism. Sometimes military strong men, known as Caudillos, were needed to keep order while maintaining trading ties with Europe. Latin America, contd The Panama Canal The operation of informal imperialism was
especially illustrated in the case of Columbia. American ships that sought to travel between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Oceans had to go 16,000 miles around the Southern tip of South America. The United States sought easier access between these two oceans by building a canal across the narrow isthmus of Panama. This would cut the length and time of the journey. But Panama was still a part of Columbia. The government of Columbia asked a high price for permission to build the canal.
Panama Canal Latin America, contd American President Theodore Roosevelt encouraged Panamanian rebels to declare their independence from Columbia in 1904. Roosevelt protected the rebels, who gave rights to the Panama Canal Zone a ten-mile strip of jungle through the center of Panama to the United States on advantageous terms. The United States then applied advanced technologies to dig the canal, which took ten years to complete. Protection of the canal became an important strategic priority for the
United States. On the basis of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) and its need to protect the Panama Canal, American Presidents repeatedly sent armed forces to intervene in the Caribbean area in the early 20th century.
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