Imperialism in Southeast Asia & Africa

Imperialism in Southeast Asia & Africa


Old: European nations wanted to set up trading posts where they could conduct business and missionary activities New: European nations wanted total control over huge amounts of foreign territory WHITE MANS BURDEN Argument Europeans had the moral

responsibility to civilize primitive people and bring Christianity to the heathen masses GREAT BRITAIN Founded Singapore (City of the Lion) in 1819 which became a major port for ships coming to and from China Next the British took over Burma To

protect its possessions in India Wanted an overland route into China SINGAPORE & BURMA FRANCE

Forced Vietnam to accept French protection from the British in 1857 Protectorate: a political unit that depends on another government for its protection Vietnamese Empire becomes a French protectorate in 1884 Extend protection to neighboring Cambodia, Laos, Annam, & Tonkin Becomes known as Union of French Indochina

FRENCH INDOCHINA THAILAND The only independent country in Southeast Asia Kings promoted Western learning & maintained good relationships with

European powers Britain & France agreed to keep Thailand as an independent buffer b/t their possessions WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY BUFFER? See how Thailand is right between British controlled Burma and the countries that make up French Indochina? That is what a buffer is something, anything that creates space b/t two things.

DIRECT VS. INDIRECT RULE Indirect Rule: local rulers kept their positions of authority and status in the new colonial government Easier access to natural resources Less effect on local culture Lowered the cost of colonial government

Direct Rule: local rulers are removed from power and replaced with officials from the mother country HUMANITARIAN, HUH? Many Westerners feared native people gaining political rights even teaching them about representative government & democracy

Colonial powers did NOT want colonists to develop their own industries, only continue to supply the raw materials that fuel industry in the mother country and buy those products ECONOMIC LIFE UNDER COLONIAL RULE

Materials Exported: teak wood, rubber, spices, tea, coffee, palm oil, tin, sugar Plantation agriculture native peasants worked as laborers on plantations owned by colonial elites Wages were kept low to maximize profits Conditions were poor and led to many deaths BENEFITS OF COLONIAL RULE

Beginnings of modern economic systems Built roads, railroads, communication networks, and other pieces of infrastructure that were good for everyone Development of an entrepreneurial class because of the potential for exporting

desirable goods and raw materials RESISTANCE TO COLONIAL RULE Many were most unhappy about being ruled by Western powers Most frequent revolts came from peasants, who were furious they were

pushed off of their land to create plantations Eventually an intellectual middle class develops educated in Western ideas that pushes for native rights, then independence Section 2 EMPIRE BUILDING IN AFRICA West Africa

B/t 1880-1900 European rivals had nearly all of Africa under their control By 1890 the slave trade that affected W. Africa for so long was nearly gone Now Euros were interested in trading manufactured goods for natural resources

European govts began to push for permanent settlements along the coast Europeans in Africa 18851914 North Africa

Muhammad Ali created a separate Egyptian state in 1805 and implemented reforms to bring Egypt into the modern world Europeans became interested in Egypt b/c they wanted to build a canal connecting the Red and Mediterranean Seas The Suez Canal was completed in 1867 1875 Britain bought Egypts share of the canal saw it as their lifeline to India Italy was defeated by Ethiopia in its

Central Africa Explorers from the West went into the dense tropical jungles They encouraged European

governments to send settlers to the Congo River Basin Belgium was the one country to seize the moment and claim vast stretches of Central Africa Belgium = area south of the Congo River France = area north of the Congo River The Congo River East Africa

Intense competition b/t Germany and Great Britain for colonies here Most of East Africa had not yet been claimed by European powers Berlin Conference, 1884 Settle claims in East Africa b/t Portugal, Belgium, Germany, Great Britain NO AFRICAN delegates were present!!

South Africa Boers (Afrikaners) descendents of the original Dutch settlers in South Africa

Believed white supremacy was ordained by God & forced natives onto reservations Britain took control of all of S. Africa after defeating the Boers in the Boer War Formed the Union of South Africa in 1910 where only whites could vote System of government sponsored segregation in South Africa becomes Colonial Powers

The only independent land left in Africa in 1914 was Liberia Mostly tried to employ indirect rule, but in reality it was still foreign officials making the decisions w/local leaders enforcing them Others (France) used direct rule Countries with African Possessions Netherlands,

Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Spain Vocabulary Annex: to incorporate new nearby territory into an existing political unit Indigenous: native to a region can be used to describe many things (people, plants, animals, etc.)

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