Implications of Natural Gas Interchangability for California ...
IMPLICATIONS OF NATURAL GAS INTERCHANGABILITY FOR CALIFORNIA GAS CUSTOMERS Industrial and Commercial Burners GTI lead Appliances LBNL lead David Rue, GTI, August 9, 2005 Interchangeability is Defined As The ability to substitute one gaseous fuel for another in a combustion application without materially changing operational safety or performance and without materially increasing air pollutant emissions Source NGC+ Working Group on Interchangeability White Paper presented to FERC, Feb. 2005 What Needs to be Learned?
Application Concern Appliances Millions of Studies made, unregulated units results must be compared Testing of old, maladjusted, new units, emissions Commercial/ Industrial Burners
Widest range of use, efficiency, emissions Extensive testing Engines and Boilers Knock, Mobile engines Review mobile efficiency, studied, others engine data and emissions, stable not yet addressed testing combustion
Turbines/ Microturbines Efficiency, emissions, turbine life Non-combustion Added process Uses cost, plant modification Status Not yet addressed
Need FL study with full- Collect turbine scale turbines, maker data and DOE project? testing Not yet addressed Market analysis and data collection Industrial and Commercial Burners Often much high capacity than appliance burners Much more tightly controlled air/fuel ratio is in range where small differences change performance
Burners are always part of a combustion system Quest for efficiency and low emissions produces burner types sensitive to fuel gas changes Interchangeability indices will be different from those relevant to appliance burners Industrial Burner Interchangeability Commercial and industrial combustion systems to be evaluated Most process sensitivity with changing flame conditions tightest emissions regulations will be identified Greatest concern with stable operation Effects of fuel changes will be measured for Operating characteristics gases, blending, switching, air/fuel ratio, turn down. Performance characteristics flame length and shape, flame temperature, heat flux, flame stability, etc.
Regulatory characteristics emissions, opacity, air quality, etc. Project Tasks 1 Planning for Industrial and Commercial Burner Interchangeability Study 2 Organization of Study Activities 3 Laboratory Equipment Set-Up 4
Industrial/Commercial Burner and Control System In-Furnace Testing 5 Industrial/Commercial Burner and Control System Chamber Testing 6 Exposure Testing 7 Analysis and Modeling Task 1
The objective is to prepare for industrial and commercial burner interchangeability studies emphasizing burners of importance in California Work period 3 months Start date by Sept. 1, 2005 Participants GTI . Task 1 Activities Literature review burner studies, protocols, indices proposed, etc. Review of industrial burners and control systems in common use Review previous listing including SoCalGas Discuss with major burner makers Protocol selection, modification, and development
Natural gas, LNG, unconventional gas ranges of composition and heating value for testing Protocols Gas preparation, metering, blending, etc. Test procedures for burner operating conditions, test order, gas switching, control system operation, etc. Monitoring procedures to track flame characteristics and heat transfer Means to track emissions including NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, particulates, and trace species Collecting Information Gas data collected from gas industry sources, LNG suppliers, blending calculations Summarize and document available techniques
for monitoring combustion equipment, suggest modifications as needed Monitoring procedures selected from available methods, then listed, modifications proposed as needed List standard emissions data collection methods and equipment that can be used Final Product From Task 1 Final report containing Literature review on industrial burner interchangeability Burners and combustion systems with proposed sensitivity to interchangeability and prevalence in California Protocols and suggested modifications documented and ranked by proposed priority Natural gases, LNGs, and unconventional gases
described along with basis for choices Tasks 2 Through 7 Oversight committee of sponsors and experts will be formed Task 2 will review Task 1 report and finalize ranking of burners, protocols, and gases, Select tests and test methods Define reporting needs Tasks 3-5 will involve testing and reporting Task 6 will focus on exposure testing and will include validation by LBNL Task 7 will involve analysis and modeling of industrial burners relative to interchangeability
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