Improved Sanitation

Improved Sanitation

Improved Sanitation Safe disposal of waste Provision of clean drinking and washing water Isolation and Quarantine Isolation of cases (e.g., SARS) Quarantine of exposed individuals (e.g., yellow fever, SARS)

Improved Standard of Living (1) Less crowding decreases respiratory spread (e.g., TB) Better quality of food (fresh and uncontaminated decreases gastrointestinal diseases) Year-round access to vegetables and fruit (eliminates vitamin deficiency diseases such as beri beri)

Improved Standard of Living (2) Refrigeration allows fewer preserved foods (salted or chemically modified), which may reduce some cancers Improved nutrition Better education Reduced poverty Objectives of Vaccination

Prevent infection Prevent disease Prevent transmission Requirements for a Vaccine Must be safe Should be easy to administer Must elicit a protective immune response Must stimulate both humoral and cellular immunity

Must protect against all variants of the agent Must provide long-lasting immunity Must be practical to produce, target, transport and administer Sociopolitical Considerations Cost of development federal government and/or private industry? Responsibility for liability federal government, industry, or insurance

companies? Priorities for funding and distribution of vaccine Appropriateness of vaccine for target population(s) Primary Issues for Vaccine Evaluation Availability to appropriate target population(s) (covert vs. overt) Cost Liability

Evaluation/testing procedures (animal models?) Level of efficacy against infection Level of efficacy against transmissibility Level of efficacy against clinical disease Societal (Behavior Change) Theory of behavior change Popular opinion leader model Community intervention

Legislative change Stages of Behavior Change Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation Popular Opinion Leader Model

(targeting of natural leaders in a social group) Gay bars Markets in Fuzhou, China Dormitories in St. Petersburg, Russia Community Intervention Getting the community to accept responsibility and implement change Changing community norms (e.g., smoking, Yunnan drug intervention)

Legislative Change Requires political will To be effective, also requires enforcement (e.g., smoking prohibition, seat belt laws, maximum highway speeds, safety regulations, pollution laws) Requires constant vigilance (e.g., repeal of motorcycle helmet laws, weakening pollution laws, and environmental

protection) Evaluation of Intervention Strategies Some logical interventions are unsuccessful Continuation of ineffective interventions prevents implementation of other interventions, and wastes money and personnel

Elements of evaluation Elements of Intervention Are the appropriate risk groups and areas targeted? Is the intervention strategy culturally/economically appropriate for the specific risk group/area? Was the intervention acceptable? Was the necessary level of effectiveness achieved? How is the effectiveness of the intervention strategies measured?

Is the existing public health system and community structure a part of the intervention scheme? Is the strategy cost-effective? Key Elements for Successful Intervention

Mobilization of political will and commitment Good surveillance

Learn and adapt from past experiences Unified national planning Multisectoral response Rapid implementation Focused intervention; e.g., involved, marginalized and high-risk groups Access to intervention tools; e.g. condoms, testing, drugs Early education Community involvement Reduce barriers to intervention Restrictive cultural norms

Stigmatization

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