Indigenous Peoples Harry Anthony Patrinos April 2009 Motivation Recent research for Latin America finds: 28 million indigenous peoples higher poverty rates among indigenous little to no improvement in poverty rates over time despite national gains improvements in health and education gap remains, though in some cases narrowing (Hall & Patrinos 2006) No comparative work across other
regions, though some data exist Who are Indigenous Peoples? World Bank (OP 4.10): Because of the varied and changing contexts in which Indigenous Peoples live and because there is no universally accepted definition of Indigenous Peoples, this policy does not define the term. Indigenous Peoples may be referred to in different countries by such terms as "indigenous ethnic minorities," "aboriginals," "hill tribes," "minority nationalities," "scheduled tribes," or "tribal groups. the term Indigenous Peoples is used in a generic sense to refer to a distinct, vulnerable, social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees: (a) self-identification (b) collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats (c) customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions (d) an indigenous language,
Who are Indigenous Peoples? UN Permanent Forum: self-identification National governments: debate often over who is & is not indigenous Indigenous peoples: some feel strong identity as belonging to individual group (e.g. Quechua, Navaho, Adivasi); some disavow it as a means to pass into larger society, or as a means of survival (Maya in Guatemala) Becoming Indigenous Joining together under a common identity as indigenous peoples is relatively new phenomena Born of common differences, with tremendous variety in individual & group characteristics Best seen as political identity & social movement Four Rs of the indigenous movement: demands for
representation, recognition, resources, rights. (Levi & Maybury-Lewis 2009) How Many Indigenous Globally? Some Rough Estimates: More than 5,000 different groups living in more than 70 countries (IFAD) Approximately 250-350 million worldwide, 5% of worlds population (IWGIA) How Many Indigenous? Identity Right to self-identify Measurement issue Common measures include: Language (native tongue, ability to speak) Self-identification Geographic concentration (location, perception)
Data availability INDIGENOUS POPULATION ESTIMATES Indigenous Population (millions) China South Asia Former Soviet Union Southeast Asia South America Africa Central America/Mexico Arabia USA/Canada Japan/Pacific Islands Australia/New Zealand Greenland/Scandinavia
91.0 60.0 28.0 26.5 16.0 14.2 12.7 5.0 2.7 0.8 0.6 0.1 257.6 Source: Stephens et al. 2005 in the Lancet, based on David Maybury-Lewis, Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups and the state, 2002 Indigenous Population (millions)
China South Asia Former Soviet Union Southeast Asia South America Africa Central America/Mexico Arabia USA/Canada Japan/Pacific Islands Australia/New Zealand Greenland/Scandinavia 105.2 94.9 0.4 29.8 19.5 22.0
19.1 15.4 3.3 0.0 0.5 0.1 310.2 Source: Compiled from IWGIA (2008)International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, The Indigenous World 2008 Indigenous Population (millions) China South Asia Former Soviet Union Southeast Asia South America Africa Central America/Mexico
296.4 Sources: Our estimates (China, India, Latin America) supplemented by Stephens & IWGIA Percent Indigenous by Country/Region China 36 South Asia 32 Southeast Asia 10 Africa
7 Arabia 5 Mexico/Central America 4 South America 4 USA/Canada 1 Indigenous Peoples of
Latin America, circa 1491 Estimates of population vary from low of 8 million to high of 113 million 1976 (geographer William Denevan) "consensus count" of 54 million Death toll of 80% at end of 16th century (recovered only in 19th century) Maya population estimated at 6 million, which is same as at end of 15th century Indigenous far more widespread than previously believed, much more advanced Indigenous population of Latin America (% indigenous) 62.0 Bolivia
Guatemala 41.7 Peru 17.0 Panama 8.3 El Salvador 8.0 Mexico 7.5
Argentina 0.9 Brazil 0.4 Uruguay 0.0 Indigenous population of Latin America (millions) 7.28 Mexico Peru
3.75 3.48 Guatemala Bolivia 3.14 Ecuador 0.74 Brazil 0.73 Chile
0.69 Colombia 0.54 El Salvador 0.50 Argentina 0.35 Venezuela 0.35 Panama
0.19 Paraguay 0.09 Nicaragua 0.07 Costa Rica 0.06 Honduras 0.05
Guyana 0.04 Belize 0.00 Uruguay 0.00 Indigenous Poverty as Proportion of Total Income Poverty Results Latin America Income Poverty Trends, Latin
America Income Poverty Trends, Latin America Improve Data Collection Efforts Include identification questions for cultural diversity But more than a single question Standardize questions Add special survey modules Also do separate surveys And supplements to national census Regular identification questions in household & labor force surveys Harry Anthony Patrinos
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