Induction Motor Vector Control.

Induction Motor Vector Control.

Induction Motor Vector Control. Group F Group Members and Responsibilities Justin Barwick (EE) Control System (Design) Control System Implementation (Secondary) Chris Guido (CpE) Control System (Implementation) User Interface Merritt Robbins (EE) Power System (High

Voltage) Will Santos (EE) Power System (Low Voltage) Motivation Electric motors are an already enormous, ever - expanding industry ~45% of the worlds electricity (Waide, 2011) [1] AC induction motors offer performance benefits vs DC motors Efficiency Reliability Simplicity Electric transportation systems

Tesla Motors Variable - speed industrial applications Machine tools HVAC Goals / Objectives Implement Field Oriented Control (FOC) Design high voltage power system (325V DC bus) Low voltage DC bus regulation 15V, 8.5, 4V, 3.6V, 3.3V Implement two embedded processors Divide computation to improve performance

High voltage Isolated Measurements Phase voltage, current Temperature Overall Block Diagram Design Approach Mathematical Modeling Numerical Calculation Schematic Capture KiCad EDA suite Power System Separate high voltage and low voltage boards High efficiency focus

General Design Decisions Motor Selection Reliance Electric HP, 230V/460V fan cooled Power Output Specification Dont trip the breaker Subsystem Block Diagrams Space Vector Modulation Represent three-phase currents in a rotating reference frame Alpha-beta-zero transform Direct-quadrature-zero transform d-axis control rotor flux linkage

q-axis control motor torque Machine Equation Used to recover voltage values in alpha-beta-zero domain Allows for mapping along inverter states Calculation of rotor speed Inverter State Mapping Inverter State Phase C Activity Phase B

Activity Phase A Activity 000 Inactive Inactive Inactive 001

Inactive Inactive Active 010 Inactive Active Inactive 011

Inactive Active Active 100 Active Inactive Inactive

101 Active Inactive Active 110 Active Active Inactive

111 Active Active Active PWM Generation Zero-sequence transition pulses Projection time durations PWM Generation I/O Peripheral

Algorithm Algorithm for gathering inputs from sensors Data will only be read in if the sensor data Display Algorithm Algorithm driving the LCD display Updating on a constant basis Two view modes Just determines which parameters will be displayed on LCD

PWM Algorithm Software implementation of Pulse Width Modulation generation Synchronous Rectifier Gate Driver Part Number IR1167 Manufacturer International Rectifier Input Voltage

12 ~20V T_on / T_off 40ns / 60ns Maximum Drain Sense Voltage 200V Package 8 - SOIC (Standard)

Cost $2.70 (1 qty) Emulated ideal diode with a MOSFET Senses V_DS and drives gate accordingly Easy package to work with Trimmable turn off threshold Synchronous Rectifier Switches (MOSFET) Part Number TK62N60X Manufacturer

Vishay / SIliconix Rated V_DS 400V Rated I_D 10A R_DS (ON) 300 mOhm

Package TO-247 Cost $2.70 (1 qty) Low cost for 400V rating 0.3 Ohms * 0.4A^2 = 0.048W Common Package 10V Gate charge DC Link Capacitor Part Number

C4DEFPQ6380A8TK Manufacturer Kemet Rated Voltage 400V Capacitance (tol.) 380uF (10%) Package

Chassis Mount Cost $89.00 (1 qty) Film Capacitor Small Size Extremely High Ripple Non polar Power Inverter Gate Driver Part Number

FAN7190M_F085 Manufacturer Fairchild High Side Voltage 650V Minimum Pulse Width 80ns Package

8 - SOIC (Standard) Cost $1.62 (1 qty) Low cost Standard package High and low side in one chip Logic level inputs Capable of driving around 0.2 - 99.8% duty cycle at 20 kHz switching frequency Power Inverter Switch (IGBT)

Part Number FGA5065ADF Manufacturer Fairchild Ratec V_C 650V Cont. I_C 50A (100A pulses)

Package TO - 3PN Cost $4.79 (1 qty) Small package Extremely high current rating Low losses Current Transformer Part Number

CR8348-2000-F Manufacturer CR Magnetics Inc. Frequency Range 20Hz ~ 200kHz Self isolates eliminating the need for isolation amplifiers Current Rating

50A Decently sized package Turns Ratio 1:2000 Perfect frequency range for our application Package 24x11mm Thru-Hole

Cost $7.05 (1 qty) High turns ratio for low power sensing Rotary Encoder Part Number HEDR-55L2-BY09 Manufacturer Broadcom / Avago

Cycles per Revolution 3600 Channels 3 (A,B,I) Package Shaft Mounted (8mm) Cost $51.00 (1 qty)

Very high resolution Three channels indicate position, direction of rotation, and when each full revolution is completed. Tolerant of high temperatures (100C) General Purpose Op-Amp Part Number OPA2170 Manufacturer Texas Instruments

Input Voltage +/- 1.35V ~ 18V (2.7 ~ 36V) High Current per channel GbP 1.2MHz Low input current Bias Current (max)

15pA Input Offset Voltage (max) +/- 1.8mV Package 8 - VSSOP Dual Op-Amp, single supply package Low Cost

Small but relatively easily soldered package Measurement Op_Amp Part Number MAX4238ASA+ Manufacturer Maxim Input Voltage 2.7V ~ 5.5V

GbP 1MHz Bias Current (max) 1pA Input Offset Voltage (max) 0.1uV Package

8 - SOIC (standard) Cost $1.30 (1 qty) Extremely low input bias and offset Ideal for motor voltage sensing Slightly lower specs in all other areas than OPA2170 Bigger package but worth it for the bias and offset. MSP430 Microcontroller

Purpose Collect inputs from sensors Drive LCD Display Selection Criteria Low Cost Low Power Easily programmable Large number of GPIO pins Manufacturer Texas Instruments Part Number

MSP430F5529IPN I/O Pins 63 Clock Speed 25MHz Main Memory Size 128KB Power Supply

1.8V to 3.6V Price $8.06 Piccolo Microcontroller Purpose Drives the inverter Implements PWM algorithm to control the motor Selection Criteria

High clock speed Enhanced Control Peripherals 4 ePWM Channels 7 ADC Channels with 13-bit resolution Manufacturer Texas Instruments Part Number TMS320F28027FPTQ I/O Pins

Up to 22 Clock Speed 60MHz Main Memory Size 64KB Power Supply 3.3V

Price $11.11 LCD Display Purpose Display information to user Selection Criteria Large screen real-estate Manufacturer Crystalfontz

Part Number CFAX1286U-NFH Power Required 8.5V InstaSPIN-FOC TI Software designed for threephase motor systems Built-in motor parameter

identification FAST Software Encoder High flux signal for applications and stable monitoring High accuracy flux-angle estimation Mechanical, electrical, and slip speed estimations Accurate rotor shaft torque signal for monitoring Software Tools

controlSUITE Set of software infrastructure and tools Provides datasheets, libraries, and other resources for specific devices MotorWare Provide additional support for InstaSPIN-FOCTM technologies Modular support for all components (MCU, Power Electronics, Control System and Techniques) Enables object oriented software design Issues Isolation of High voltage - What is safe? Mathematical Complexity Measurement Identification / Accuracy Budget and Financing

Carey Family Donation ~ $500.00 Self financed Current Progress Power System Design: 96% Mathematical Modeling Research: 90% Control System Design Low Voltage Regulation Regulator Design Considerations Efficiency/Power Dissipation Application (Switching Regulation or Linear Regulation) Switching Regulator Selection: Texas Instruments TPS54560

Linear Technology LTC 3649 Linear Voltage Regulation Linear Technology LT3008 Full Wave Schottky Bridge Rectifier Purpose Provides the main DC bus for the Low Voltage Electronics Design Considerations Diode Type (Schottky) Low Vf Good Conduction Characteristics Smoothing Capacitance NXP

Manufacturer DC Forward Current 3A Forward Voltage 540 mV Package SOD-123

Price $0.54 Switching Regulator IC Considerations Losses Switching loss, gate drive loss, and supply current losses are negligible Conduction loss provides largest contribution to total power dissipation Power and Efficiency Characterization Switching Regulator Max Power Dissipation

Efficiency Price TPS54560 1.02 W 85%-90% $5.65 LTC3649

1.82 W 85%-90% $12.31 15V Output Switching Regulation TPS54560 Purpose Provides the 15V Rails referenced to DC_Link- for the Inverter Provides 4V LV DC Rail for other regulator loads Selection Criteria Low Power Dissipation High Efficiency at normal loads

PCB Layout Considerations Frequency Dependent Elements Catch Diode/Inductor Need to be close to SW pin Manufacturer Texas Instruments Part Number TPS54560 Power Required

20V Switching Frequency 100 kHz-2MHz Output Current (Max) 5A Package HSOP(8) Efficiency

85%-90% Price $5.65 Switching Regulator Catch Diode Selection Purpose Reverse Polarity Protection Selection Criteria Peak Reverse Voltage Conduction Loss Minimal (1.5W at worst) Low Vf Low Reverse Power Dissipation

Manufacturer NXP Part Number PMEG4030ER Peak Reverse Voltage 40V Peak Output Current

3A Package SOD-123 Price $0.41 LT3008 Linear Voltage Regulator Purpose Supply the 8.5V, 3.6V, and 3.3V LV DC Rails Design Considerations Set I_adj with R1

Setting R2 determines Vout Low Dropout Manufacturer Linear Technology Dropout Voltage 300mV Quiescent Current 3 microamps

Package TSOT-23 Price $1.46 Works Cited [1] Waide, Paul, Brunner, Conrad U., et al.: Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems. International Energy Agency Working Paper, Energy Efficiency Series, Paris 2011

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