Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution What was the Industrial Revolution? The Industrial Replacement

of animal/human Revolution: power by harnessed forms of natural energy Steam Electricity & Oil Nuclear Power Making of goods by machines in factories Accompanied by

Urbanization New class structure Slow but steady rise in standard of living Mass consumption of goods Why Did Industrialization Begin in Great Britain?

Industri al Great Britain Why Britain? Highly productive & innovative

farmers (Agricultural Revolution) National bank (supplied credit) Substantial natural & mineral resources (coal & iron) Plentiful rivers & well-developed system of canals Stable political life (after 1688) Mobile labor force (due to enclosure)

Colonial empire (wealth + markets) Patent System William Rosen (historian) From Cottage to Factory Enclosed Fields:

Cottage Industry supplemental income The Putting Out System Innovations in Weaving & Spinning: Kays flying shuttle

Cromptons spinning mule Hargreavess spinning jenny Arkwrights water frame James Watts Steam Engine 1782 (

The Most Important Invention of the Industrial Revolution ! Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 1 ton 1800 of coal 50, 000

miners 200, 000 1850 30 tons miners 300 1880 million tons 250 1914 million tons

500, 000 miners 1, 200, 000 miners British Pig Iron Production Cartwrights Power

Loom Moved the workers from the cottage to the factory ! The Impact of the Railroad The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12-14 hour day.

Dangerous conditions. Mind-numbing monotony. Textile Factory Workers in England 1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers

1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers 1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers

Textile Factory Workers in England Child Labor in the Factories Labor in the Mines Child hurriers Woman

hurriers Young Coal Miners Young Coal Miners Industrial England: "Workshop of the World"

That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900 Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851

Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits Crystal Palace: British Ingenuity on Display

Industrialization on the Continent Industrialization By 1850 Railroads on the Continent

State ownership of some industries. Industrialization on the ) RRs Belgium & most of Germany. Tariffs Continent National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes.

) ) ) Socit Gnral & Banque de Belgique (Belgium) Crdit Mobilier (France) Darmstadt Bank (Germany) Companies required to register with

the government & publish annual budgets. New legislation to: ) ) Establish limited liability. Create rules for the formation of corporations. Postal system

The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution New Industrial Social Bourgeoisie Order Nouveau Riche Industrialists, Professionals, & White-collar

workers 15% of pop; 27% of wealth Old Landed Aristocracy & Wealthiest Industrial Families 5% of pop; 33% of wealth

Proletariat Skilled & Semi-skilled workers in cities & rural areas 80% of pop; 40% of wealth Reactions to & New Ways of Thinking

About Industrialization Thomas Malthus Population growth will outpace the food supply. War, disease, or famine could control population. The poor should have

less children. Food supply will then keep up with population. David Ricardo Iron Law of Wages. When wages are high, workers have more

children. More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. The Romantics: William Blake William Wordsworth

Lamented the loss of the rural lifestyle Protested against the conditions of the urban poor The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill

The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net. The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists

People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. Chartism: The Peoples

Charter V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett. V Goal achieve political democracy V Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832.

Votes for all men. Equal electoral districts. Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners. Payment for Members of

Parliament. Annual general elections. The secret ballot. Responses to the new Industrial Revolution The Luddites: 18111816 Attacks on the frames [power looms].

Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] V Trade Union BecameMovement legal in 1824 (after repeal of Combination Acts) V New associations formed by skilled

laborers in # of new industries V Served two purposes Preserve workers position by limited entry into their trade Gain benefits from employers V Willing to strike to obtain goals

V National trade unions attempted but ultimately failed k k Government Parliament forbids the employment

Response of pauper children (1802) Sadler Commission to look into working conditions Factory Act [1833] limited working hours of children in factories; est. minimum age of 9. k Other important labor acts

Mines Act [1842] women & boys under 10 prohibited from working in mines Ten Hour Act [1847] limited workday for women & children k Government Response Reform Bill [1832]

Broadens the vote for the cities Industrial middle-class now represented k New Poor Law [1834] indoor relief. Est. poor workhouses. Assumption that poor were responsible k

for their condition Families separated, forced to work & fed dreadful food Public Health Law [1846] Based on 1842 report by Edwin Chadwick

Created national health board Gave cities authority to build sanitary British Reform Bills

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