THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Student Handouts, Inc. Key Terms:
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Student Handouts, Inc. Key Terms: Industrial Revolution, factors of production, factory system, labor union, mass production, interchangeable parts, assembly line, socialism, Karl Marx, communism, standard of living, Henry Ford, Bessemer Process Guiding Questions: Why did the IR begin in England? How did the IR change daily life (work and at home)?What are some of the innovations during this time? How did society change? Main Idea: The Industrial Revolution is a
time of great change that spurred economic, political, and social THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different agriculture and technology were not much changed in 2000+ years The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically
More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history What was the Industrial Revolution? The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from human labor to machines The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered farreaching changes to industrialized societies The Industrial Revolution
New energy sources were developed to power the new machinery water, steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene) Increased use of metals and minerals Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc. The Industrial Revolution Transportation improved Ships Wooden ships Iron ships Steel ships Wind-powered sails Steam-powered boilers Trains
Automobiles Communication improved Telegraph Telephone Radio Developments Mass production of goods Development of factory system of production Rural-to-urban migration Development of capitalism
Development and growth of new socioeconomic classes Commitment developing technologies Background of the Industrial Revolution Commercial Revolution (Exploration and Colonization) 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries Europeans expanded their power through colonies in the Americas and Asia Increased trade and commerce Guild system could not meet the demands. Scientific Revolution 17th and 18th centuries Discoveries of Boyle, Lavoisier, Newton, etc. Intellectual Revolution (Enlightenment)
17th and 18th centuries Writings of Locke, Voltaire, etc. Why the Industrial Revolution Started in England No concrete start date; Marked by gradual, slow changes; after 1750 these changes were noticeable first in England Capital for investing in the means of production Colonies and Markets for manufactured goods Raw materials for production Workers
Merchant marine Geography Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Spinning machine Need to speed up weaving Power loom created Textiles-First industry to be industrialized Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Power loom Increased demand for raw cotton Invention of the cotton gin
Necessity Is the Mother of Invention Cotton gin Demands for stronger iron Improvements in iron smelting and the development of steel (Bessemer process) Development of Steam Engines Early water power involved mills built over fast-moving streams and rivers Not enough rivers to provide the power needed to meet growing demand Rivers and streams might be far removed from raw materials, workers, and markets Mother Nature-Rivers are prone to flooding and drying
Steam Engines By 1800, steam engines were replacing water wheels as sources of power for factories Factories relocated near raw materials, workers, and ports Cities grew around the factories built near central Englands coal and iron mines Manchester, Liverpool Transportation Revolution Thomas Telford Robert Fulton (American)
Steamboat (1807) Sped water transportation and John McAdam (British) Macadamized roads (18101830) Improved roads Gottlieb Daimler (German) Gasoline engine (1885) Led to the invention of the automobile
George Stephenson (English) Locomotive (1825) Fast land transport of people and goods Rudolf Diesel (German) Diesel engine (1892) Cheaper fuel Orville and Wilbur Wright (American) Airplane (1903)
Air transport Communications Revolution Samuel F.B. Morse (American) Telegraph (1844) Rapid communicatio n across continents Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) Wireless telegraph, an early form of the radio (1895)
No wires needed for sending Alexander Graham Bell (American) Cyrus W. Field (American) Telephone (1876) Human speech heard across continents Atlantic cable (1866) United States and Europe connected by
cable Vladimir Lee de Forest Zworykin (American) (American) Radio tube (1907) Radio broadcasts could be sent around the world Television (1925) Simultaneous audio and visual broadcast
THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION The Agricultural Revolution Agricultural methods had not changed much since the Middle Ages Tools hoe, sickle, wooden plow Three-field system farmers left 1/3 of the land fallow each year to restore fertility to the soil Open-field system unfenced farms with few improvements made to the land No significant surplus only enough
food was made to feed the population Agriculture and Industry The Industrial Revolution brought machinery to farms The use of farm machinery meant that fewer farm workers were needed Displaced farm workers moved to the cities to find work in factories This is called rural-to-urban migration Growing populations in urban cities required farmers to grow more crops Food to eat Raw materials (like cotton) for textile factories
Agricultural Innovators Jethro Tull (English) Seed drill: Planted seeds in straight rows as opposed to scattering them over a field Horse-drawn cultivation: Loosened the soil and eliminated weeds Lord Townshend (English) Crop rotation:
Ended the three-field system by illustrating how planting different crops in the same field each year kept the soil from becoming exhausted Robert Bakewell (English) Stock breeding: First to scientifically breed farm animals for
increased production of, and better quality, beef, milk, wool, etc. Arthur Young (English) Agricultural writer: Popularized new farming methods and machinery Justus von Liebig (German) Fertilizers: Invented fertilizers to
enrich exhausted soil, which increased the amount of available farmland Agricultural Machinery Eli Whitney Cotton gin (1793) Increased cotton production Cyrus McCormick Mechanical reaper (1834) Increased wheat production Other important inventions: Horse-drawn hay rake, threshing machine, steel plow Steam engines, gasoline and diesel engines, and electric motors were added to farm machinery as these types of engines were invented. The Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions complemented one another. Developments and needs in one created developments and
needs in the other. Agricultural Science Agriculture becomes science. Farmers and governments invested in agricultural research Established agricultural schools, societies, and experimental stations Progress in agriculture Pesticides, stock breeding, new foods, food preservation, new farming techniques and irrigation methods, frozen foods Result Today, in the industrialized world, much more food is
grown by far fewer farmers than was grown 200 years ago (or is grown today in the non-industrialized world) THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The First and Second Industrial Revolutions The first, or old, Industrial Revolution took place between about 1750 and 1870 Took place in England, the United States, Belgium, and France Saw fundamental changes in agriculture, the development of factories, and rural-to-urban migration The second Industrial Revolution took place between
about 1870 and 1960 Saw the spread of the Industrial Revolution to places such as Germany, Japan, and Russia Electricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes Mass production, particularly of consumer goods Use of electrical power saw electronics enter the marketplace (electric lights, radios, fans, television sets) Transportation Railroads Industrialized nations first laid track in their own countries, then in their colonies and other areas under their political influence Russia Trans-Siberian railroad (1891-1905) Germany Berlin-to-Baghdad railroad across Europe to the Middle East Great Britain Cape-to-Cairo railroad vertically across Africa
Canals Suez Canal (1869) provided access to the Indian Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea without the need to sail around Africa Kiel Canal (1896) North Sea connected to the Baltic Sea Panama Canal (1914) provided access from one side of the Americas to the other without the need to sail around the tip of South America Transportation Automobiles Charles Goodyear vulcanized rubber, 1839 Gottlieb Daimler gasoline engine, 1885 Henry Ford assembly line, 1908-1915 Airplanes Orville and Wilbur Wright airplane, 1903
Charles Lindbergh first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, 1927 20th-century growth of commercial aviation THE RESULTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Economi c Changes Expansion of world trade Factory system Mass production of goods Industrial capitalism Increased standard of living Unemployment
Political Changes Decline of landed aristocracy Growth and expansion of democracy Increased government involvement in society Increased power of industrialized nations Nationalism and imperialism stimulated Rise to power of businesspeople
Social Changes Development and growth of cities Improved status and earning power of women Increase in leisure time Population increases Problems economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc. Science and research stimulated Results of the Industrial Revolution Economic Changes:
Expansion of World Trade Increased production meant that industrialized nations produced more than could be consumed internally Sought new foreign markets Bought many raw materials from foreign markets New iron, steam-powered ships, along with other technological advances, made international trade (and travel) cheaper, safer, and more efficient Economic Changes: Expansion of World Trade Free Trade and Tariffs
Free trade trade without barriers or tariffs was initially used As nations competed for markets, protective tariffs were put in place to limit foreign competition within an industrialized nation and its colonies Motivation was to protect businesses in the home country and colonies, but this often meant people in the home country or colonies paid inflated prices for goods Economic Changes: Factory System Possible Due to Standardized Parts
Before the late 1700s, each part of an item (like a musket) was made individually by a single person, with each part made to fit the whole Standardized, or interchangeable, parts were created en masse to make a lot of duplicate products (such as hundreds of muskets) Economic Changes: Factory System Perfected , Assembly Line, Mass Production Developed by Henry Ford between 1908
and 1915 Brought the work to the worker instead of the worker to the work, saving time. Product moves along a conveyor belt, with each worker contributing labor along the way to create the finished product. Worker specializes in one part, repetitive. Manufacture=workers no longer own means of production. Mass production meant more items were produced at lower costs Economic Changes: Industrial Capitalism and the Working Class Pre-Industrial Revolution rural families did not rely solely on wages for sustenance Owned their own farms or gardens where they raised most of their own food Made their own clothing
Unemployment was rare Industrialization destroyed workers independence Workers in cities did not have the means to grow their own food or make their own clothing Workers relied entirely upon their employers for wages and livelihood. with which they bought everything they needed Economic Changes: Industrial Capitalism The financial investments required to run large industries brought about modern capitalism.
Capital wealth that is used to produce more wealth Entrepreneur person who starts a business to make a profit Capitalist person who invests his or her money in a business to make a profit Corporation company owned by stockholders who have purchased shares of stock Actual running of the company left to hired managers rather than to the stockholders As industries grew and small business operations faded into obscurity, the relationship between workers and business owners disintegrated Economic Changes: Industrial Capitalisms Problems
Small manufacturers cannot compete with large corporations Consumers must buy from large corporations Workers have had to fight for decent wages and working conditions Large corporations can influence the government!!! Economic Changes: Increased Standard of Living Mass production made manufactured goods less expensive, so more people could afford them (Middle Class) Standard of living wasnt raised for everyone factories paid low
wages, and many immigrants and rural-to-urban migrants lived poorer lives than their parents and grandparents had lived Economic Changes: Unemployment Overproduction Also called under-consumption Mass production anticipates demand if goods dont sell, a manufacturer produces less and lays off workers Recession Overproduction across many industries with widespread lay-offs
Depression Long-lasting recession Political Changes: Decline of Landed Aristocracy Before the Industrial Revolution power was in the hands of the landed aristocracy and monarchs Landed aristocracy refers to lords, dukes, etc., who owned the land Although vassalage was gone by the 18th century, the working relationship between lords and peasants remained the same Wealth was based on agriculture, which meant that those who owned the most land were the wealthiest Industrial Revolution factories became more valuable than land Wealth of the aristocracy dwindled
Growing middle class, with wealth based in industry, wanted more political power Political Changes: Growth and Expansion of Democracy The middle class grew during the Industrial Revolution and gain more rights. The working class effectively began with the Industrial Revolution The working class fought for rights in the workplace The working class demanded and earned a voice in government
Political Changes: Increased Government Involvement in Society Government actions to help workers Legalization of unions Established minimum wage Standards for working conditions Forms of social security Government actions to help consumers Regulation and inspection of goods and foodstuffs Government actions to help businesses Laws to stop or limit monopolies Some governments took control of vital industries Political Changes: Nationalism
and Imperialism Stimulated Increased production meant an increased need for raw materials Industrialized nations expanded their colonial empires and spheres of influence in their search for more raw materials Worldwide scramble for colonies Fought the peoples in the lands they controlled Fought one another for colonies and spheres of influence Social Changes: Development and Growth of Cities Paris
London 18th century 18th century 600,000 people 500,000 people Circa 1900 Circa 1900 over 2,714,000 over 6,200,000 in the Paris in the London urban area urban area Circa 2000 Circa 2000 over 11,000,000 over 7,100,000 in the Paris in the London Rural-to-urban migrants people who left the countryside to
urban area urban area live in cities A sign of an industrialized nation is that a large proportion of Social Changes: Improved Status and Earning Power of Women Initially, factory owners hired women and children because they worked for lower wages This brought many women, otherwise impoverished, to cities to work in factories Governments limited the work of children and, at times, of women Women gained economic power and independence Before industrialization, it was almost impossible for a
woman to remain single and live on her own Factories and urban centers attracted women in large numbers Women fought for and eventually gained political rights Social Changes: Increase in Leisure Time Labor-saving devices invented and produced Vacuum cleaners Washing machines Refrigerators Entrepreneurs and inventors developed new forms of entertainment Moving pictures Amusement parks
Birth of the weekend Traditionally, Western nations had Sunday (the Christian day of rest) as the only day off from work Saturday was added (after the struggles of Jewish labor unionists) to accommodate the religious observances of Jewish factory workers (whose Sabbath, or Shabbat, runs from Friday at sundown to Saturday at sundown) Social Changes: Population Increases Agricultur al Revolution Lower food prices People ate
more More healthy babies were born Europe 1750 144,000,000 1900 325,000,000 Englan d 1750 - 11,000,000 1900 - 30,000,000 Increased food
productio n Population skyrockete d Many people immigrated to industrialized countries Numerous nationalities to the United States Irish to Manchester and Liverpool in England Population growth in industrialized nations required growing even more food Social Changes: Problems Monotony of assembly lines and
factory life Loss of craftsmanship in manufactured goods War became more deadly as weapons became more technologically advanced and were mass produced Economic insecurity workers relied entirely on their jobs for sustenance Social Changes: Science and Research Stimulated Scientific and technological discoveries became profitable instead of simply beneficial
Companies and governments were willing to invest in research and development Patent law Came into its modern form under Englands Queen Anne (reigned 1702-1714) Inventors have the exclusive right to produce their new inventions for a period of time THE LABOR MOVEMENT Changing Employee-Employer Relationships Domestic system Workers and employers knew each other personally Workers could aspire to become employers
Factory system Workers no longer owned the means of production (machinery) Employers no longer knew workers personally Factories often run by managers paid by the corporation Relationships between employers and employees grew strained Problems of the Factory System Factories were crowded, dark, and dirty Workers toiled from dawn to dusk Young children worked with dangerous
machinery Employment of women and children put men out of work Women and children were paid less for the same work Technological unemployment workers lost their jobs as their labor was replaced by machines Poor Living Conditions Factories driven solely by profit Businesses largely immune to problems of workers Factory (also company or mill) towns Towns built by employers around factories to house
workers Workers charged higher prices than normal for rent, groceries, etc. Workers often became indebted to their employers Created a type of forced servitude as workers had to stay on at their jobs to pay their debts Considered paternalistic by workers Some employers had workers interests at heart But workers wanted to control their own lives Workers were unsatisfied both inside and outside the factories Rise of Labor Unions Before labor unions, workers bargained individually individual bargaining
Before factories, a worker could bargain for better wages and working conditions by arguing his or her particular skills But in factories, work is routine and one worker can easily replace another With labor unions, workers bargained together as a group, or collective collective bargaining Organized groups of workers elected leaders to bargain on their behalf Used tools (such as strikes) to gain rights Weapons Used by Unions and Employers Weapons Used by Employers
At-will employment Blacklists Company unions Individual bargaining Injunctions Laws that limit union activities Lockouts Open shops Outsourcing Relocation Right-to-work laws
Threat of foreign competition Weapons Used by Unions Boycotts Check-offs Closed shops Collective bargaining
Direct political action Favorable labor legislation Feather-bedding Lobbying Picketing Sabotage Strikes Union label Union shops Legal Protections for Workers Limited hours for women Later equal pay for equal work Eventual end to child labor Schools and requirements for school attendance grew as children were
removed from the workforce Health and safety codes Minimum wage Legalization of unions Karl Marx Louis Blanc THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT AND SOCIALISM Cooperatives Growth of cooperatives Spread to other industries banking,
building, insurance, printing, etc. By 1900 20% of Great Britains population had joined a cooperative Concept spread internationally Socialism Socialists viewed the capitalist system as inherently wrong Belief that capitalism is designed to create poverty and poor working conditions because of its end goal of earning maximum profits for investors Socialism government owns the means of production Belief that if the government (the people) owns the means of production, these factories and
industries will function in the public (as opposed to private) interest Karl Marx (1818-1883) German socialist (communist) philosopher Forced to leave Prussia for articles attacking the Prussian government Relocated to France where he was considered too radical Wrote Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels (1848) Relocated to England where he lived out the rest of his life Wrote Das Kapital the bible of socialism (1867)
Religion is the opiate of the people. Belief that religion is designed to keep people submissive to those in power by promising them that their reward is in heaven Industrial wealth leads to the concentration of wealth among fewer and fewer capitalists, while the living and working conditions of the proletariat grow worse. The proletariat will eventually rebel and create a socialist state. Inevitability of Socialism Economic Interpretation of History Economic changes lead to historical changes. Historically, the wealthy classes have held all power.
Class Struggle History has been a struggle between the rich and the poor. In the Industrial Revolution, the struggle is between the capitalists (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (workers). Surplus Value Workers produce all wealth but receive only enough to survive. Surplus value (profit) of the workers labor goes to the capitalists. Marxism Communism Soviet-backed Communism Russian communism
Bolsheviks (Communists or Reds) won the Russian civil war against the Whites Worlds first socialist/communist state Comintern Communist International Founded in Russia (Soviet Union) in 1919 Sought to spread worldwide communist revolution Disbanded during World War II Cominform Communist Information Bureau Founded in Soviet Union in 1947 Disbanded in 1956 as part of de-Stalinization Soviet Union (and later China) spread communism through satellite states and via proxy wars during the Cold War
Syndicalists and Anarchists Syndicalism and anarchism enjoyed popularity during the late 1800s and early 1900s Syndicalism Businesses and distribution of income managed by trade unions Unions exist separate from the state as opposed to being part of the state Anarchism Belief that all governments are bad for the people Advocates direct action to remove all forms of government Various individual ideologies for post-government societal organization
Social Catholic Movement Opposed to the atheism of socialism Yet also opposed to uncontrolled capitalism Pope Leo XIII Advocated Catholic socialism in 1891 through his support of workers associations Pope Pius XI 1931 condoned Catholic socialism while condemning communism Stated that workers should share in the profits and management of industry
Followed by like-minded Protestant organizations Numerous Christian-based socialist political parties still active in Europe
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