Health Informatics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Short Course for Health Information System Professionals Information Systems for Health: Computer Software Computer Software Learning Objectives Define computer software and major software types Describe application software classification and provide examples, including those focused on healthcare 2
Software Set of instructions that direct a computer to perform specific tasks or operations Three major types: o System software Operating system Utility programs o Programming software o Application software 3
System Software Directly operates the computer hardware Provides a platform for running application software 4 Programming Software Provides software developers with a programming environment to create, debug, and maintain other programs
5 Application Software End-user programs enable users to accomplish specific tasks 6 Software Components Code Programming statements and instructions that make a program work o Example: .exe file run by a user to install a program
7 Software Components Files Set of computer instructions o If the instructions are compiled, these files become a software program Data stored on disk and used by a program o .docx files used by Microsoft Word o .pdf files read by Adobe Reader 8
Software Components Database Stores and retrieves data o Example: Electronic medical records (EMRs) store data in a database 9 Application Software Categories Business
Home and personal use Science and mathematics Graphics and multimedia Communications Artificial intelligence (AI) Healthcare 10 Business and Home Software Word Processing Produces documents Powerful features
Examples: o Microsoft Word o Auto-correct o OpenOffice Writer o Spell-check o Corel WordPerfect o Grammar-check o Google Docs
o Mail merge o Tracking changes o Tables o Templates o Web page development (software Microsoft) 11 Business and Home Software Spreadsheet
Organizes data into columns and rows Performs calculations on the data Calculates using formulas and functions Can generate graphs and charts of data Examples: o Microsoft Excel o Corel Quattro Pro o Google Docs o Apache OpenOffice Calc
(software Microsoft) 12 Business and Home Software Presentation Creates visual aids for presentations Developed as a series of slides Can include images, tables, graphs
Can include animations, automatic transitions Examples: o Microsoft PowerPoint o OpenOffice Impress o Apple Keynote (software Microsoft) 13 Business and Home Software Project Management
Plans and schedules events, resources, and costs of a project Keeps track of deadlines and deliverables Examples o Microsoft Project o FastTrack Schedule 10 o SEER-SEM (Galorath 2017) 14
Science and Mathematics Software Number-crunching software Runs models and works with large amounts of data Examples: o IBM SPSS Statistics o Gretl o Matlab o Mathematica (Cottrell & Lucchetti, n.d.) 15
Graphics and Multimedia Software Desktop Publishing Professional software used to produce high-quality print documents such as textbooks, brochures, and catalogs Assists with layout, colors, and graphics Produces high-resolution output that is suitable for printing Examples: o Adobe PageMaker, Adobe FrameMaker, Microsoft Publisher, Scribus
16 Desktop Publishing Example (Chiefmanyrabbitguteat, 2008, GNU GPL) (Chiefmanyrabbitguteat, 2008) 17 Graphics and Multimedia Software Images, Photos, Paint Professional image-editing, photo-editing, and paint software o Image-editing software adds the ability to modify
existing images and pictures Photo-editing software is a type of image editing software that allows users to edit and customize digital photographs Examples: Adobe Photoshop, GIMP, Inkscape o Paint software allows graphic artists to draw pictures and shapes 18 Image Editing Example (Rotkevich, K., Inkscape. 2007, GNU GPL and Free Art License)
(Rotkevich & Inkscape, 2007) 19 Graphics and Multimedia Software Video Editing Modify a video segment called a clip Delete, reorder, add special effects to clips Examples o Adobe Premiere Elements
o Pinnacle Studio o OpenShot Video Editor (JonOomp, 2009) 20 Communication Software Many different types o E-mail o Instant messaging o File transfer protocol o Web browsers o VoIP o Blogs o Wikis
(Fenn, 2009) 21 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Uses computing to approximate human intelligence Involves: o Reasoning and deduction o Knowledge representation and retrieval o Natural language processing o Perception o Learning o Planning o Motion
22 AI Applications Expert systems Voice recognition Robots E-mail spam filtering Video games
Automated online help (Raysonho, 2011) 23 Healthcare Software Electronic health records (EHRs) and EMRs Health information systems Expert systems, decision support systems Medical office management systems Patient registries Imaging Telemedicine
24 Examples of EHRs Epics EpicCare EHR system o http://www.epic.com/software General Electrics Centricity EMR system o http://www3.gehealthcare.com/en/products/categories/ healthcare_it/electronic_medical_records/centricity_em r U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs: Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VistA) o https://www.data.va.gov/dataset/veterans-health-infor
mation-systems-and-technology-architecture-vista 25 VistA Record Example (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, n.d.) 26 Expert Systems Imitate the decision-making process of a human expert IBM Watson can be used for decision making in healthcare
DxPlain (Massachusetts General Hospital) provides diagnosis support and disease reference MYCIN (Stanford) provided support for bacteria identification and antibiotic recommendations 27 Medical Office Management Systems (Miller, 2009) Medical Imaging
(Alchueyr, 2010) 29 Telemedicine Clinical medicine in which consultations and procedures are managed remotely (Mco44, 2008) 30 Microsoft Windows Versus Mac OS X Strengths of MS Windows
o Most applications available for MS Windows o Large variety of hardware that runs MS Windows Weaknesses of MS Windows o Poor reliability o Vulnerable security Strengths of Mac OS X o User friendly o Reliable o Secure
Weaknesses of Mac OS X o Limited application software availability 31 Computer Software Summary Software makes computers useful Types of software o System software
o Application software o Program software Application software is vast and varied In healthcare, application software is common and used for variety of purposes 32 Computer Software References Barnett, G. O., Cimino, J. J., Hupp, J. A., & Hoffer, E. P. (1987). Dxplain: An evolving diagnostic support system. JAMA, 258(1), 67-74. Evans, A., Martin, K., & Poatsey, M. A. (2010). Chapter 4: Application Software: Programs That Let You Work and Play. In: Technology in Action: Complete. 7th
ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Gretl. (2011, October 17). Retrieved from http://gretl.sourceforge.net/. IBM Systems and Technology Group. Watson - A System Designed for Answers. (2011). Armonk, NY: IBM. Retrieved from http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/engines/assets/9442_Watson_A_System_ White_Paper_POW03061-USEN-00_Final_Feb10_11.pdf . Inkscape. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://inkscape.org/ Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2010). Chapter 5: Application software. In Understanding computers today and tomorrow.12th ed. Boston, MA: Course Technology. 33 Computer Software
References Mozilla Thunderbird wiki. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://wiki.mozilla.org/Thunderbird:Home Mycin. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycin OpenOffice.org: The Free and Open Productivity Suite. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.openoffice.org/ Scribus. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.scribus.net/ SEER-SEM. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.galorath.com/index.php/products/software/C5/ Shelley, G. B., & Vermaat, M.E. (2010). Chapter 3: Application software. In Discovering computers 2011: Introductory. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Course Technology. OpenShot. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.openshotvideo.com/ 34
Computer Software References Images Microsoft Word screenshot image. Microsoft [software]. Copyright Microsoft. Microsoft Excel screenshot image. Microsoft [software]. Copyright Microsoft. Microsoft PowerPoint screenshot image. Microsoft [software]. Copyright Microsoft. Galorath. (2017). SEER-SEM SEER for IT. Retrieved from http://galorath.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/seer-it-screenshot6-large.jpg. Copyright Galorath. Cottrell, A., & Lucchetti, R. (n.d.). Gretl screenshot image. Retrieved from http://gretl.sourceforge.net/gretl_screen.html. Licensed under the GNU General Public License. Scribus screenshot. User: Chiefmanyrabbitguteat. (2008). Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scribus-1.3-Linux.png. Licensed under the GNU General Public License. 35 Computer Software References Images Rotkevich, K. [art] & Inkscape [software]. (2007). Inkscape screenshot. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inkscape_0.46.png. Licensed under the GNU General Public License and Free Art License. JonOomp. (2009, June 19). OpenShot Video Editor screenshot. Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Screenshot_of_OpenShot.png. Licensed under the GNU General Public License. Fenn, J. (2009, December 22). Thunderbird 3.0 unter Mac OS X. Retrieved from
https://www.flickr.com/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License. Raysonho. (2011, April 7). IBM Watson image. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:IBMWatson.jpg. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. 36 Computer Software References Images U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (n.d.). VistA screenshot showing lab result values graphed over time for a particular patient. Retrieved from https://www.va.gov/health/imaging/overview.asp. Public domain. Miller, B. (2009, November 28). Screenshot of the OpenEMR scheduling
calendar. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OpenEMR-Calendar.jpg . Licensed under the GNU General Public License. Alchueyr, T. (2010, January 30). InVesalius medical imaging software screenshot. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Invesalius3_promed0446.png. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Mco44. (2008, February 19). CT viewer chest Keosys. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CT_viewer_Chest_Keosys.JPG. Public domain. 37 This material was developed by Oregon Health & Science University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number 90WT0001.
This presentation was produced with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the terms of MEASURE Evaluation cooperative agreement AID-OAA-L14-00004. MEASURE Evaluation is implemented by the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with ICF International; John Snow, Inc.; Management Sciences for Health; Palladium; and Tulane University. Views expressed are not necessarily those of USAID or the United States government. www.measureevaluation.org
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