CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Health (ILO/ WHO) HEALTH IS a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Main occupational safety and health disciplines INJURIES
MATERIAL CONDITIONS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS WORK CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE OCCUPATIONAL
PSYCHOSOCIOLOGY DISEASES HEALTH HARM OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE TLV WELL-BEING ERGONOMICS HAZARDS 1. Chemical hazards, arising from liquids, solids, fumes, and gases. 2. Physical hazards, such as noise, vibration, unsatisfactory lighting, radiation and extreme temperatures;
3.- Biological hazards, such as bacteria, viruses, infectious waste etc. 4. Safety hazards associated with gravity (falls of people and objects); manual handling; hand tools; moving parts of plant/machinery and/or their loads, vehicles; electricity, fires; 5. Psychological hazards resulting from stress and strain; 6. Hazards associated with the non-application of ergonomic principles. ACCEPTABLE RISK LEVEL Tolerance with the risk Unacceptable LEVEL
Tolerable LEVEL No significant risk Factors Affecting Risk Perception (I) Risks perceived to be natural are more accepted than risks perceived to be man-made. Risks perceived to be voluntary are more acceptable than risks perceived to be imposed.
Risks perceived to be under an individual's control are more accepted than risks perceived to be controlled by others. Risks perceived to have clear benefits are more accepted than risks perceived to have little or no benefit. Factors Affecting Risk Perception (II) Risks perceived to be generated by a trusted source
are more accepted than risks perceived to be generated by an entrusted source. Risks perceived to be fairly distributed are more accepted than risks perceived to be unfairly distributed. Risks perceived to be familiar are more accepted than risks perceived to exotic. Risks perceived to affect adults are more accepted
than risks perceived to affect children. HUMAN FACTOR Reason model Accidents Protection Dangerous acts Conditions of work Application Decisions PREVENTION
Prevention Central concept of occupational safety and health (OSH). All the steps or measures taken or planned at all stages of work in the enterprise to prevent or reduce occupational risks (Directive 89/391/EEC) An attitude of individuals and organizations
in the way to deal with the OSH problems. Prevention The principle of prevention. It asserts that avoiding harm is much better than trying to remediate that harm. The principle of precaution. When an activity raises threats of harm to the environment or human health, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically.
Although the compensation, cure and rehabilitation of sick and injured workers are and will remain very important issues, the main focus and efforts of OSH should be concentrated on prevention Prevention is preferred to protection. Un-Healthy Environment Healthy Worker Exposur e
Health Hazards Recognition & Evaluation Illness Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & control (engineering) Healthy Environment
Healthy Worker Example Underlying causes Damage and harm effects direct causes (corrosion, erosion,...) situation
LODs must be managed Lines Of Defence Initiating events (fault trees) Potentially harmful situation Consequences (event tree)
OSH MANAGEMENT Most hazardous conditions at work are preventable. Occupational accidents and diseases can be managed. Proactive approaches are preferred to reactive approaches.
Progressive development Systems approach The scope and coverage of OSH has evolved from: Focus on industrial safety to one on workplace safety and health. Protection to prevention and assessment of risks.
Systems approach provides for collective responsibilities with respective roles, rights and cooperation between workers and employers Progressive Development Systems approach Prescription of protective measures to deal with specific hazards Prevention of occupational accidents diseases based on a management systems approach
New requirements on occupational safety and health & risk management New requirements 1. Resources & organization 2. Workers participation mechanisms - OSH workers representatives - OSH Committees
3. Prevention activities 4. Prevention principles 5. Safety culture & integration 1.- General duty of care of employers The 'duty of care' is a single essential duty of employers to take reasonable
care for the safety (and health) of his/ her employees in all circumstances. The employer determines the conditions under which the employees work, accordingly, the employer must take care of the safety and health of the employees. 2.- Workers participation mechanisms SAFETY OSH REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE
3.- Main prevention activities 1. Risk assessment 2. Control of working conditions 3. Training and information for workers 4. Surveillance of workers health 5. Environment monitoring 6. Emergency planning 7. Recording, documentation and notification of OSH information 8. Investigation of occupational accidents 4.- General prevention principles (I) (a) avoiding risks; (b) evaluating the risks which cannot be avoided; (c) combating the risks at source; (d) adapting the work to the individual, especially as regards the design of work places, the
choice of work equipment and the choice of working and production methods, with a view, in particular, to alleviating monotonous work and work at a predetermined work-rate and to reduce their effect on health. (e) adapting to technical progress; 4.- General prevention principles (II) (f) replacing the dangerous with the nondangerous or the less dangerous; (g) developing a coherent overall prevention policy which covers technology, organization of work, working conditions, social relationships and the influence of factors related to the working environment; (h) giving collective protective measures priority over individual protective measures; (i) giving appropriate instructions to the workers.
5.- Establishing a safety culture 1. Establish a clear company safety policy. 2. Set up an effective safety organization. 3. Set company safety rules and regulations. 4. Lay down safe working procedures. 5. Provide safety training for all employees 6. Continuously supervise and monitor 5.- Establishing a safety culture DUTIES OF SAFETY OFFICER DUTIES - Supervisors DUTIES - Workers The ILO Guidelines on OSH Management Systems
Main elements OSH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM New approach to labour inspection and OSH It involves inspectors making a judgement about the competence of the enterprises management to manage OSH on a day-to-day basis It means forming an opinion about how well managers assess risks and take action to control them, managing and maintaining necessary preventive measures
Assemble an assessment team Plan the risk assessment - Who will do what - Classify the work activities Collect information on the possible hazards Classify Work Activity By Work area or Process HEG: Homogeneous Exposure Group SEG: Similar Exposure Group Process Flow Chart Raw materials Cutting
Bending Welding Pressing transport Packing Packing Painting Drilling Waste
Cr plating Abrasion loading HAZARD IDENTIFICATION Process of finding and identifying: - hazardous agents (situations, products etc) that could contribute to provoking an occupational accident or/and disease - the groups of workers potentially exposed to these hazards. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: Steps 1.- Identification of possible agents at the workplace. the
task, the equipment and substances, the work environment and the work organization. 2.- Knowledge about health risks of these agents, 3.- Awareness of possible exposure situations. - worker or workers exposed to the hazard (who may be harmed). the routes and patterns of exposure (how they may be harmed). HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: Sources
OSH legislation, codes of practices, guidance documents provided by national and international institutions and organizations. Information from national, sectoral or enterprises statistics on the prevalent occupational accident or/and diseases and the hazards involved. Information or safety data sheets provided by manufacturers and suppliers of machinery, equipment, tools, products and substances. Information from the workers, workers representatives and joint OSH committee through consultations, observations, complaints, etc. Workplace and job inspections and analysis.
Review of history of accidents (including incidents and near misses) and occupational illnesses, accident/disease investigations and data from workers' health surveillance, undertaken in the enterprise or in other enterprises. Advice, opinions and judgment of competent internal and external OSH professionals. RISKS ASSESSMENT 2.1.- Estimate the probability of occurrence. 2.2.- Estimate the severity of each hazard according to its potential of the harm. Hazard probability Value
Hazard severity Value Almost certain 5 Disaster 5 Likely 4 Major
4 Possible 3 Moderate 3 Unlikely 2 Minor
2 Not likely 1 Trivial 1 2.3.- Set ratings. Once the probability and the severity is determined, by multiplying these two factors, a range of risk ratings will be obtained. RISK ASSESSMENT GRID SEVERITY PROBABILITY
Remote 1 Unlikely 2 Possible 3 Likely 4 Almost Certain 5
Trivial 1 Minor 2 VL 2 VL 3 L 4 M 5 M
6 VL 3 L 4 M 5 M 6 M 7
L 4 M 5 M 6 M 7 H 8 M 5
M 6 M 7 H 8 VH 9 M 6 M
7 H 8 VH 9 VH 10 Moderate 3 Major 4
Disaster 5 17 2.4.- Compare the rating with a criterion Very Low : acceptable, but warn work team, monitor task, and review recommended control measures for possible change. Low: Low tolerable, but warn team of dangers, and improve recommended control measures as soon as possible. Medium: unacceptable; issue strict warning and strengthen recommended control measures soon. High: totally unacceptable; only allow work with stronger recommended control measures and safer System of Work. Very High: STOP WORK immediately; resume only with new, safer
system of work. 2.5 Assign priorities After the comparison with the criterion for action, the risks are assigned a priority for risk control through the use of a risk rating. - Hazardous fumes (8) - Noise (6) - Vibrations (4) 3. RISKS CONTROL FACTOR TO CONSIDER Effectiveness of the controls Ease of use by the employee
Cost of the controls Acceptable level of exposure Frequency of exposure Adequacy of warning properties Route(s) of exposure Regulatory requirements for specific controls Hierarchy for risk control 1.- ELIMINATE HAZARD 2.- SUSTITUTION OF HAZARD 3.- COLLECTIVE PROTECTION 4.- TECHNICAL OR ENGENEERING CONTROLS
5.- ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS 6.- PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT I.- ELIMINATE HAZARD Whenever possible, the best way to eliminate the risk is to completely remove the hazardous item or substance or work practice. II.- SUSTITUTION OF HAZARD If it is not possible to get rid of a hazard completely, the most effective control option to minimize the risk is to substitute the
hazardous processes or substance or work practice with a safer, harmless alternative. III.- COLLECTIVE PROTECTION Where the elimination or substitution of hazardous substances is not practicable, technical measures should be applied to control the hazard or risk by enclosing it completely to prevent the hazard from reaching the worker. IV.- TECHNICAL OR ENGENEERING CONTROLS Protect the area or the way in which hazard could reach and harm the worker. V.- ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS Developing and enforcing safe work methods and practices
to minimize exposure to a hazard and hence to reduce the risk of injury or harm Administrative controls Administrative controls include: how long workers work in an area where exposures occur. changes in work practices such as improvements in body positioning to reduce exposures. Administrative controls can add to the effectiveness of an intervention but have several drawbacks:
Rotation may reduce overall average exposure for the workday but it provides periods of high short-term exposure for a larger number of workers Require a significant enforcement and monitoring challenge VI.- PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT covering and protecting a worker's body from hazards. When none of the above approaches is feasible, or when the degree of safety achieved is considered inadequate Think about PPEs
Fasten your Seat Belt does not reduce the chance of traffic accident itselfit is only reduce the severity of injury in case of accident. Inherent limitation of PPEs Information, Monitor and Review Information ( to the workforce of the following)
Information on any new control measures implemented and how to use them Any emergency procedures developed The employees duties. Monitoring (Ensures that measures are being implemented) Review (Ensures that the assessment is still effective in reducing risk). RISK MANAGEMENT (I) 1. Assemble assessment team 2. Visit site, and identify
hazards 3. Evaluate severity of hazard (1 - 5) 4. Evaluate likelihood of occurrence (1 - 5) 5. Combine severity + likelihood values to express RISK (2 - 10) 16 RISK MANAGEMENT (II) 6. Compare rating with a criterion 7. Assign
priorities 8. Implement Controls. Control Hierarchy. 9. Information to the workers 10. Monitoring and review 16 Tool: Risk Assessment & Improvement Planning Risk Assessment & Improvement Planning Significant Risk Issues Consequences
Likelihood Risk Rating Priority Remedial Measure Required Whom By When
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