Integumentary System Unit 12 Introduction to Medical Terminology, Ehrlich Components of the Skin Functions of Skin Protection Barrier to sun & invasion of pathogens, holds moisture in & prevents body tissues from drying out Sensory Perception Nerves in the skin help body respond to pain, pressure,
temperature & touch sensations Body Temperature Blood vessels in skin help body retain or lose heat. Sudoriferous glands help cool body through evaporation of perspiration Functions of Skin
Storage - Tissues for temporary storage of fat, glucose(sugar), water, vitamins,& salts Absorption Substances can be absorbed through skin, ex. Medications (creams, patches) called transdermal medications Excretion Eliminate salt, a minute amount of waste, and excess water and heat through perspiration Production Helps in the production of vitamin d by using ultraviolet rays from sun to form an initial molecule of vitamin D that matures in the liver
Related Structures Sebaceous Glands secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on skin Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat), help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat. Small amount of metabolic waste also secreted. Hair Helps control loss of body heat Nails Protect the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe & finger Layers of Skin
Covers the external surfaces of the body. Average adult has two square yards of skin, making it the largest bodily organ Cutaneous means relating to skin Skin is a complex system of specialized tissues & is made up of three basic layers: Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous layer The Epidermis
Epidermis - outermost layer of skin, made up of several specialized epithelial tissues Epithelial Tissues form protective covering for all internal & external surfaces of body Squamous Epithelial Tissues Forms upper layer of epidermis, consists of flat, scaly cells that are continuously shed Does not contain blood vessels or connective tissue, is dependent on lower layers for nourishment The Epidermis
Epidermis Basal Layer Lowest layer of epidermis. Here cells are produced and then pushed upward. When these cells reach the surface, they die & become filled with keratin. Keratin fibrous, water-repellent protein. Soft keratin is primary component of the epidermis. Hard keratin found in hair & nails The Epidermis Epidermis
Melanocytes Special cells found in the basal layer. Produce & contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin. Type & amount of melanin pigment determines color of skin. Melanin has important function of protecting the skin against some of the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. The Dermis
Known as the corium & the true skin, thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis. Contains connective tissue, blood & lymph vessels, and nerve fibers. Contains the associated structures of the skin, which are the hair follicles plus the sebaceous & sudoriferous glands Sensory nerve endings in dermis are the sensory receptors stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain and pressure
Tissues Within the Dermis Collagen Means glue, is a tough flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, Cartilage, tendons & ligament Mast Cells Found in the connective tissues of the dermis, respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances, including heparin & histamine Tissues Within the Dermis
Heparin is released in response to an injury, is an anticoagulant. An anticoagulant prevents blood clotting Histamine Which is released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic response, including itching and increased mucus secretion The Subcutaneous Layer Subcutaneous Layer Located just below the skin, connects the skin to the surface muscles Layer is made up of loose connective tissue
and adipose tissue. Adipose means fat Cellulite Term sometimes used to describe deposits of dimpled fat, is really just simply ordinary fat. Lipocytes (fat cells) are predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat The Sebaceous Glands Sebaceous Glands Located in the dermis
layer of the skin and are closely associated with hair follicles Secretes sebum which is released through ducts opening into the hair follicles. From here, the sebum moves onto the surface & lubricates the skin Sebum is slightly acidic, discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin Milk-producing mammary glands, which are modified sebaceous glands, are sometimes classified with the integumentary system. They are also part of the reproductive system Sudoriferous Glands
Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat Glands) are tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces. Most numerous in palms or hands, soles of feet, forehead, & armpits Pores are openings on the surface of the skin for the ducts of the sweat glands Perspiration (Sweat) is secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt & metabolic waste products Perspiring (Sweating) one way the body excretes excess. Body odor associated with sweat comes from interaction of perspiration with bacteria on the skins surface Hidrosis Production & excretion of sweat
The Hair Hair - rod-like structures composed of tightly fused dead protein cells filled with hard keratin. Darkness & color of the hair is determined by the amount & type of melanin produced by the melanocytes that surround the core of the hair shaft Hair Follicles sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers. Shape of the follicle determines whether the hair is straight or curly Dead Hair Tissue appears to grow because cells at the
base of the follicle divide rapidly & push old cells upward. As they are pushed upward they harden and undergo pigmentation The Hair Hair Arrector pili tiny muscles fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect. In response to cold or fright, these muscles contract, causing raised areas of skin known as goose bumps. This action reduces heat loss through the skin.
The Nails Unguis Commonly know as a fingernail or toenail, is the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe. Each nail consists of these parts: Nail Body translucent, closely molded to the surface of the underlying tissues. Made up of hard, keratinized plates of epidermal cells Nail Bed joins the nail body to the underlying connective tissue, nourished the nail. The blood
vessels here give he nail its characteristic pink color The Nails Unguis Free Edge Portion of the nail not attached to the nail bed, extends beyond the tip of the finger or toe Lunula Pale half moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in thumb nail. This is the active area of the nail, where new keratin cells form.
Cuticle Narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail in front of the root protecting the new keratin cells as they form. Nail Root Fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin Related Medical Specialties Dermatologist A physician, who specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the skin Cosmetic Surgeon (plastic surgeon) a physician who specializes in the surgical restoration & reconstruction of body
structures Pathology of Integumentary: Sebaceous Glands Acne Vulgaris Commonly known as acne. Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an
overproduction of sebum. Often triggered by a hormones in puberty & adolescence Pathology of Integumentary: Sebaceous Glands Seborrhea over activity of sebaceous glands, results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
Seborrheic Dermatitis Inflammation that causes scaling & itching of the upper layers of skin or scalp. Pathology of Integumentary Surface Lesions Lesion Pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury. Skin lesions are described by their appearance, location, color, and size as measured in centimeters
Pathology of Integumentary: Surface Lesions Crust scab, a collection of dried serum and cellular debris Macule freckle, discolored, flat spot usually <1 cm in diameter Pathology of Integumentary: Surface Lesions
Nodule solid, raised skin lesion > 0.5 cm in diameter & deeper than a papule Papule small, raised red lesion < 0.5 in diameter & does not contain pus, ex. small pimples & insect bites Pathology of Integumentary: Surface Lesions
Plaque scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules, ex. psoriasis lesions Scales flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells, ex. Psoriasis scales Pathology of Integumentary: Surface Lesions
Verrucae warts, small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papilloma virus Wheal welt, small bump that itches, can appear as a symptom of an allergic reaction Pathology of Integumentary: Fluid-Filled Lesions
Abscess closed pocket containing pus, caused by a bacterial infection Cyst abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or semisolid material, most common is sebaceous cyst Pathology of Integumentary: Fluid-Filled Lesions
Pustule pimple, small circumscribed lesion containing pus Vesicle small blister <0.5 cm, contains watery fluid Bulla Large blister >0.5 cm, contains watery fluid Pathology of Integumentary: Lesions Through the Skin Abrasion injury,
superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away Pressure Sore, decubitus ulcer or bed sore. Ulcerated area caused by prolonged pressure that caused tissue death Pathology of Integumentary: Lesions Through the Skin
Fissure groove or crack-like break in skin Laceration torn or jagged wound, or an accidental cut wound Pathology of Integumentary: Lesions Through the Skin Puncture wound deep hole made by sharp object such
as a nail. Increased risk of infection Ulcer Open lesion of skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges Pathology of Integumentary: Dermatitis Dermatitis inflammation of the skin
Contact DermatitisLocalized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant, ex diaper rash, jewelry rash Pathology of Integumentary: Dermatitis Eczema form of persistent or recurring dermatitis characterized by redness, itching, &
dryness Pruitus itching that is associated with most forms of dermatitis Pathology of Integumentary: Erythema Erythema Redness of the skin due to capillary dilation Erythema multiformResults from generalized allergic
reaction to illness, infection or medication. Characterized by rash (nodules, papules, vesicles or bullae) Pathology of Integumentary: Erythema Erythema infectiosum fifth disease, mildly
contagious viral infection common in childhood. Red lace-like rash on face Pathology of Integumentary: Erythema Exfoliative Dermatitis Widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus,
erythroderma & hair loss. May occur in severe cases of many common skin conditions, ex. Eczema, psoriasis, & allergic reactions Pathology of Integumentary: General Skin Conditions Psoriasis Chronic noncontagious,
inherited. Has flare-ups with red plaque covered with silvery scales occur on elbows knees, scalp back or buttocks. Pathology of Integumentary: General Skin Conditions Urticaria (hives), itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction
Xeroderma (xerosis) excessively dry skin Pathology of Integumentary: Bacterial Skin Infections Cellulitis acute, rapidly spreading infection within tissues with
malaise, swelling, warmth & red streaks Pathology of Integumentary: Bacterial Skin Infections Gangrene tissue necrosis, caused by a loss of circulation to tissues. Tissue death is followed by bacterial invasion
that causes putrefaction & if this infection enters bloodstream it can be fatal Pathology of Integumentary: Bacterial Skin Infections Impetigo highly contagious bacterial skin infection that
commonly occurs in children. Isolated pustules become crusted & ruptures Pathology of Integumentary: Bacterial Skin Infections Necrotizing Fasciitis Severe infection caused by group A strep bacteria. (flesh
eating) If bacteria enter the body serious infection can result. If untreated body tissue is destroyed & can be fatal Pathology of Integumentary: Fungal Skin Infections Tinea Fungal infection that can grow on skin, hair, or nails.
(ringworm) Tinea Capitis on the scalps of children Pathology of Integumentary: Fungal Skin Infections Tinea Corporis fungal infection on the body Tinea Cruis (jock itch) found on genital area
Pathology of Integumentary: Fungal Skin Infections Tinea pedis (athletes foot) fungus on foot & between toes Tinea Versicolor fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on skin
Pathology of Integumentary: Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma malignant tumor of basal cell layer of epidermis. Slow growing & rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
Pathology of Integumentary: Skin Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium. Can quickly spread to other body systems
Pathology of Integumentary: Skin Cancer Malignant Melanoma skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes. Most serious type of skin cancer Pathology of Integumentary: Burns
Injury to the body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation. Degree of burn is determined by the layer of skin involved Pathology of Integumentary:
Diagnostic Procedures Biopsy Removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis Incisional Biopsy a piece but not all, of the tumor or lesion is removed Pathology of Integumentary:
Diagnostic Procedures Excisional Biopsy entire tumor or lesion & a margin of surrounding tissue are removed Needle Biopsy a hollow needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination Pathology of Integumentary
Treatment Procedures: Cosmetic Procedures Belpharoplasty (lid lift), surgical reduction of the upper & lower eyelids Botox formulation of botulinum toxin type A, temporarily blocks the nerve signals to injected muscle to reduce frown lines
Pathology of Integumentary Treatment Procedures: Cosmetic Procedures Dermatoplasty (skin graft), replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on patients body
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