Intelligence - Weebly

Intelligence - Weebly

Testing and Individual Differences pt. 2 Intelligence What makes us smart? Or not so smart? Intelligence and Intelligence Testing

Intelligence: aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. Intelligence and Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet and Simon were hired by the French government to identify children who would not

benefit from a traditional school setting and those who would benefit from special education. It was only meant to be used for class placement. Intelligence and Intelligence Testing Binet thought that as we age, we become more sophisticated in the ways we know about the world

and so 6 year old would answer questions differently than 8 year olds. As a result children were assigned a Mental age (what a person of a particular age should know). Hoped they could use test to help children, not label them.

Terman and his IQ Test 'Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale' Used Binets A 8 year old has a research to mental age of 10, construct the what is her IQ? modern day IQ test A 12 year old has called the Stanfordthe mental age of

Binet Test. 9, what is his IQ? IQ=Mental A boy has the age/Chronological mental age of 10 age X 100. and an IQ of 200, how old is he? Wechsler Tests

David Wechsler developed another set of age-based intelligence tests. More common way to give IQ tests.does not use the formula but uses the same scoring system. More helpful for determining the extremes of intelligence.

Mental Retardation vs. Genius Mental Retardation: When test takes fall below the mean score of 70 on IQ test. Weshsler test. WAIS Normal Distribution Genius: when above 130 Charles Spearman and his G factor

Jack Bauer is good at torturing, bomb defusing, shooting, figuring out evil plots and saving the country (and he is good looking). Is there anything he cannot do? Used factor analysis and discovered that what we see as

many different skills is actually one General Intelligence. If you are good at one subject you are usually good at many others. Charles Spearman and his G factor John Horn and Taymond Cattell determined

that Spearmans g should be divided into two factors of intelligences: Fluid Intelligence: cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tend to diminish with adult aging Crystallized intelligence: learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary that tend it increase with age. Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences

Gardner believed that there exists at least 8 different types of intelligences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Body-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal

Naturalist Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence Robert Sternberg and his Triarchic Theory Most commonly accepted theory today. Three types of intelligence 1. Analytical what is tested by IQ test, what we are asked to do in school 2. Creative: adaptive reaction to novel

situations, showing insight, and being able to see more than one way to solve a problem. 3. Practical: street smarts ability to read people, knowing how to put together a bake sale Goleman and his EQ Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence

Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Maybe EQ is a better predictor for future success than IQ. Creativity Creativity: ability to generate ideas and solutions that are original, novel, and useful. Not usually

measured by intelligence tests. Threshold Theory: a certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient for creative work. Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Nature/Nurture controversy: Nature: Downs Syndrome what extent is intelligence hereditary and what is Nurture: learned.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (environmental) Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Studies of Twins: Identical twins have similar scores on intelligence tests. Intelligence scores of adoptees are more like those of their biological parents than their adopted parents. Brain scans of twins reveal similar brain volume and anatomy.

Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Environmental Influences on Intelligence:: Siblings raised together are more similar in IQ than siblings raised apart. Children from deprived homes then moved into middle/upper class foster homes tend to increase iq. School attendance results in increased IQ scores. In fact, scores tend to steadily increase. James Flynn observed that we start doing better on tests called the FLYNN EFFECT

Heredity/Environment and Intelligence Heritability: Results from genetic causes. Hereditability for intelligence estimates range 50 to 75% Reaction Range Model: genetic makeup determines the upper limit for an individuals IQ. Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link? Small +.15

correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size). Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score.

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