Intensive Instruction for Middle School/High School
Intensive Instruction for Middle School/High School Coaches Academy - August 7-11, 2005 Lila Rissman, M.S., Curriculum Specialist Jennifer Page, M.S., Intervention Teacher The Florida Center for Reading Research Florida State University Intensive Instruction Agenda Who needs it?
What instruction is needed? How to structure the reading block. Possible strategies including use of technology for extra practice Intensive Instruction Who needs it? What does a struggling middle/high school reader
look like? Unable to read text fluently Cannot fully comprehend Lack of motivation Unable to decode
Before Reading Good Readers Poor Readers Think about what they already know about a topic Begin to read without thinking about the topic
Know the purpose of their reading Do not have a clear purpose for reading Are motivated to begin Lack interest and motivation to begin
Have a sense of what they will learn Have little sense of what they will learn During Reading Good Readers Poor Readers
Pay attention to words and meaning at the same time Focus too much on individual words and miss the big ideas Read fluently
Read slowly Concentrate while reading Have difficulty concentrating especially during silent reading During Reading
Good Readers Poor Readers Use efficient strategies to figure out new words and confusing parts of the text Are not skilled in applying word
reading strategies and are easily defeated by difficult words or confusing parts Monitor their own comprehension Lack efficient strategies for monitoring their
own comprehension Stop to repair faulty comprehension Seldom stop to repair faulty comprehension After Reading Good Readers
Poor Readers Understand how Have difficulty pieces of seeing information fit connections together Easily identify what is important
Focus on unimportant points Want to read more Find reading unpleasant Four Types of Learners
(Kameenui and Simmons, 2000) Advanced Benchmark Strategic Intensive
Strategic 30th to 49th percentile (on FCAT) Gaps in skills and knowledge 1-2 years behind Can read but not with depth Does not apply him/herself and may appear unmotivated Content area work may be challenging May not complete homework
Intensive Below the 30th percentile (on FCAT) Low performing Limited reading skills Frustrated and unmotivated Behavior and absentee problems Cannot do content area work Does not turn in homework Assessment
Level 1 or 2 on FCAT Who needs intensive instruction? Who needs close monitoring? Who will be placed in intensive reading? Assessment Progress Monitoring ORF, Computer-based or Core program assessments, GMRT, TOSWRF, TOWRE, CBM, GRADE, DRA, Lexia CRT
How are interventions working? Who needs extra support? How should groups be formed? Which skills need to be emphasized? Assessment Diagnostic CTOPP, DAR, GMRT, GORT-IV, TOWK, GRADE, Lexia CRT, EVT, SDRT, WDRB, WRMT, TOWRE, PPVT-III
What are a students strengths? What are a students weaknesses? Are other students exhibiting similar profiles? Assessment Outcomes FCAT/NRT
Have we accomplished our goals for a student? A class? A district? What are things to change next year? To continue? Level 1 or 2 on FCAT Progress Monitoring Diagnostic
Assessments Who Needs Intensive Reading Instruction? Any middle or high school student at Level 1 or Level 2 on the FCAT Any student in grades 11-12 who has not passed the FCAT What instruction is needed?
Strategic Learners Regular core program (usually 2 periods in middle school) with added support class Targeted intervention Separate reading intervention of 1-2 periods Progress monitoring every 3-5 weeks What instruction is needed?
Intensive Learners Separate intensive intervention of at least 2 hours Frequent progress monitoring Explicit, systematic and direct instruction Effective Intensive Reading Programs Motivation Decoding skills Fluency
Vocabulary Comprehension Effective Reading Instruction Reading instruction effectiveness lies not with a single program or method but, rather, with a teacher who thoughtfully and analytically integrates various program, materials, and methods as the situation demands.
(Duffy & Hoffman) Effective Intensive Reading Programs Explicit Systematic Instructional routines which include explicit instruction, modeling, guided practice, student practice and application with feedback, and generalization
Initial instruction in group areas of weakness Differentiated instruction and small group instruction Ongoing progress monitoring and flexible grouping Effective Intensive Reading Programs Taught by a highly qualified instructor Uses Scientifically-Based
Reading Programs, Materials, and Strategies No less than 90 minutes of uninterrupted time daily Reduced student to teacher ratio www.fcrr.org Key: Summary Table for FCRR Reports
Type of Program 1 = Core Reading Program 2 = Supplemental or Intervention Program 3 = Technology-Based Program 4 = Program that may be implemented by a tutor or mentor 5 = Intervention or Remedial Program for students above third grade Reading Component (PA = Phonemic Awareness, P = Phonics, F = Fluency, V = Vocabulary, C = Comprehension) + = some aspects of this component taught and/or practiced
++ = most aspects of this component taught and/or practiced +++ = all aspects of this component taught and/or practiced n/a = Not Addressed in this program. In other words, this element of reading is not a goal of this program. Special Considerations a. explicit b. systematic c. student materials aligned d. ample practice opportunities provided e. practice only
f. oral language only g. phonemic awareness and phonics program h. phonics program i. fluency program j. vocabulary program k. comprehension program l. extensive professional development required m. expertise required to make informed curriculum decisions n. extensive organization of materials required o. school-wide implementation required Effective Intensive
Reading Fluency Part of daily lesson Focus on accuracy, rate, and prosody Routines that include goal setting to measure and increase word-level fluency instruction and practice, reading accuracy and passage rate, teacher or peer feedback, and timed readings Fluency assessed regularly/daily Research-based strategies including repeated readings, peer reading, tapeassisted reading, choral reading, studentadult reading
Effective Intensive Reading Vocabulary Systematic and explicit instruction in morphemic analysis High level terminology used in the classroom Ample activities to provide practice Opportunities for wide independent reading Repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts Limited number of words selected for robust,
explicit vocabulary instruction Important, useful, and difficult words taught Student friendly explanations as well as dictionary definitions used Direct and indirect vocabulary instruction Computer technology Effective Intensive Reading Comprehension Monitoring/metacognition Multiple strategies Cooperative learning groups
Opportunities to answer and generate questions Graphic and semantic organizers, including story maps Ample opportunities to engage in discussions relating to the meanings of text Narrative and expository text on independent and instructional levels Prior knowledge activation Before, during, and after reading comprehension strategies emphasized
Effective Intensive Reading Comprehension Strategies applied for authentic purposes using appropriate text Strategy instruction cumulative Frequent opportunities to discuss story elements and compare stories Elements of story grammar used Summarization strategies taught Main idea strategies taught Opportunities to interpret information from charts, graphs,
tables, and diagrams and connect them to text Effective Intensive Reading Phonics Explicit instruction in the use and weaknesses of context clues to determine word identity Explicit instruction in the meanings of roots and affixes to analyze the relationship of spelling to meaning of complex words
Opportunities to read multisyllabic words daily. Effective Intensive Reading Phonemic Awareness Multisensory articulation Mirrors-visual Kinesthetic-feeling throat Phonemic rehearsal-letter formation rehearsal-matching sound to print Chunking-phonemic rehearsalmatching sound to printphonics support
Effective Intensive Reading Motivation Student selection of books Clear content goals Group activities
Personal learning goals Immediate feedback on reading progress How to structure a 90 minute Intensive Reading Block Whole Class Instruction Supplemental Reading program Explicit and scaffolded modeling of differentiated strategies
Focus on comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency 25 minutes Small Group Teacher-Led Instruction Word Work Literacy Stations
Computer 60 minutes Reading Practice Fluency Small Group Teacher-Led Instruction Differentiated instruction
Reading strategy instruction, application, and feedback Focus on 5 elements of reading Word Work Morphemic Analysis: roots and affixes Vocabulary Decoding Making words
Fluency Timed reading of word lists, sentences, passages Paired Reading Reading Practice Books on Tape Independent Reading Buddy Reading Literature Circles Computer
Supplemental technology programs Using word processor to write summary of text Cool Down/Wrap Up Read Aloud Homework assignment Quick review of strategy or previously introduced vocabulary 5 minutes
120 minute Intensive Reading Block can be structured in a similar way-be flexible 30 minute whole class instruction 3 30 minute literacy stations 4 20 minute literacy stations Questions Who needs it?
What instruction is needed? How to structure the reading block. Possible strategies including use of technology for extra practice
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