Inter-Lakes School District

Inter-Lakes School District

Inter-Lakes School District Meredith, New Hampshire DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION: Beginning the Journey Sara N. Lampe Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Faculty 1703 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311-1714 1-800-933-2723 Sara Lampes thirty-one years in public schools includes teaching, administration, and advocacy for children. As an elementary school teacher, she worked in heterogeneous classes as well as special classes for students identified as gifted learners. As an administrator, she coordinated K-12 programs for gifted students and was a K-8 building principal at Phelps Center for the Gifted in Springfield, Missouri. She was the president of the Gifted Association of Missouri (GAM) and was the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) Outstanding Educator of the Year in 1991. Since 1979, Sara has been an adjunct professor in the College of Education at Drury University in Springfield, Missouri. Her career in education continues as she works with teachers and administrators who want to develop responsive classrooms and schools. She is an experienced educational consultant specializing in curriculum and instruction, program design and development for gifted learners, creating community support, and lobbying for legislative action. Sara works throughout the United States and Canada as faculty for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) on the Differentiation of Instruction Cadre. Most recently, Sara was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives representing the citizens of the 138th District in Springfield, Missouri.

Pre Assessment What do you know? What do you do in your classroom? Self Reflection on your skills? Choose one of the following assessments: In Your Own Teaching Experience Describe one or two students who have unique learning needs. What would those learners need in their classes to make it a great year? Continued How do you currently address the needs of students with diverse learning profiles? What factors make it difficult to modify curriculum and instruction for diverse learners? What do you do? a little----------------------------a lot

Do you pre-assess students to find out what they know and are able to do? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you let students in on what they are learning and why it is important? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you give students choices on how they will learn something? 1 2 3

4 5 Do you give students choices on who they will work with? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you give students choices on where they will work? 1 2 3 4 5

Do you give students choices on how they will demonstrate their learning? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you ask students about their interests? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you intentionally gather data about how your students learn best? 1

2 3 4 5 Do you know what matters in the subjects you teach? 1 2 3 4 5 What do you do? Do you explain to students how what they are doing helps them make sense of the learning? 1 2 3

4 5 Do you assign students tasks that respect who they are and what they need to learn? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you group students in a; variety of different configurations and for a variety of purposes? 5 1 2 3 4

Do you speed up or slow down for different learners? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you emphasize growth and progress? 1 2 4 5 Do you deliberately teach a lesson or make an assignment that responds to different stude nts needs? 1 2

3 4 5 Do you give students different ways to access the content? 1 2 3 4 5 Do you give a wide range of product alternatives? 1 2 3 4

5 Do you have a healthy classroom? 1 2 3 4 5 3 Teacher Talk What do YOU say?

Do your work. Are you done? Hurry up. If you dont __it will hurt your grade. If that is the assignment for everyone else, it is only fair that you have to do it. If you dont I will__. This is easy. You can do it if you will just try. You are a smart kid. You can figure it out on your own. Weve worked all week long now it is time to have some fun. I cant believe you dont have better manners. Work! Get out your __book. Today we are going I have to move on. If I dont, I wont cover all the material. If I assign it, I grade it. I give grades to motivate my students and so they will see how they compare to others in the class. I am the one to always tell students what they need to do. I make the decisions about the classroom how it will run and how things are done. This classroom is where I teach each day. Student need to be respectful of that. They need to act with respect and follow the rules just like visiting someones home. Check the statements that are like what you would say or do say.

Welcome! Good morning, friends! What do you know about__? Today we are going to learn__. Lets talk about where we are going with this learning or idea. Learning feels good. Learning is fun. Learning never stops. It goes on and on. Did you give your best effort? Lets see how much youve grown.

Fair means, everyone getting what they need. How are we doing? Is this making sense? Please and thank you. Lets talk about what is not working for you. Is there someone else who can help you? Students, how could we__. Well find a way. Lets talk about what is not working for you. I do not grade everything I assign, but I do look at all assignments as a way to determine what students have mastered and what they need to continue to study. I think it is important for students to focus on their personal growth in a subject. We identify what it looks like to give our best effort. Then we take a personal reflective look at how we are doing, Students ask themselves, Did I give my best effort today? Did I go above and beyond what was expected of me? Did I help someone else? I try to always answer a question with a question. I have students help me in running the classroom and making the decisions on classroom procedures. I consider the classroom our classroom. Teacher Self-Reflection on Differentiation (Staff Development Planning) This survey has two scales. The column on the left (the letters) reflects your assessment of your knowledge and skill regarding various aspects of differentiation. The column on the right (the numbers) deals with frequency of use in your classroom. Please circle your responses for both columns. THE LEFT COLUMN: (A) (B) (A)

(B) I dont really understand what this means and dont know how to do it. I feel somewhat comfortable doing this, but I need more information and/or practice. I understand what this means and feel comfortable/competent doing it. I thoroughly understand what this means and feel adept at doing it GENERAL A A A A A A A B B B B B B B C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D The Right Column: 1 Pre-assess students to determine level of understand (readiness). 1 Assess student interest. 1 Assess students learning profile. 1 Use flexible grouping. 1 Vary the pace of learning for varying learner needs 1 Students grades reflect individual growth and progress Pro-actively (deliberately) plan differentiation when designing curriculum.1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 (1) Hardly ever (2) Someti mes less than half the time (3) Freque ntly -more than half the time (4) Almost always

or always Teacher Self-Reflection, contd CONTENT A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D Design curriculum based on major concepts and generalizations. 1 2 Use those major concepts and generalizations as basis for planning differentiated 1 2 lessons/activities. Clearly articulate to the students what you want them to know, understand, and1be2 able to do. Use a variety of materials other than the standard text. 1 2 1 2 Provide varying levels of resources and materials. Provide various support mechanisms (e.g., reading buddies, organizers, study 1 2 guides). PROCESS A B C D A B C D A B C D A A

A A A B B B B B C C C C C D D D D D 1 2 Design each activity to be squarely focused on one (or a very few) key concepts, essential questions and/or generalizations. 1 2 Design activities that require students to do something with their knowledge (apply and extend major concepts and generalizations as opposed to just repeating them back). 1 2 Use higher level tasks for all learners (e.g., application, elaboration, provide evidence, synthesis, etc.). 1 2

Use tiered lessons/activities of varying levels of challenge. 1 2 Use activities that involve all learners in both critical and creative thinking. 1 2 Vary tasks along the continua of Dr. Tomlinsons equalizer. 1 2 Vary tasks by student interest. 1 2 Vary tasks by learner profile. 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 Teacher Self-Reflection, contd

PRODUCT A B C D A A A A A B B B B B C C C C C D D D D D A B C D A A A A A

A A B B B B B B B C C C C C C C D D D D D D D Allow for a wide range of product alternatives (e.g., oral, visual, kinesthetic, 1 2 musical, written, spatial, creative, practical, etc.). 1 2 Give product assignments that differ based on individual (or group) 1 2 Use differentiated quality rubrics for assessment of products.

1 2 Teacher supports students in using a wide range of varied resources. 1 2 Give product assignments that balance structure and choice. (Student choice1is 2 maximized within teacher-generated parameters.) 2 Provide opportunities for student product to be based upon the solving of real 1and relevant problems. 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 INSTRUCTIONAL / MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Use curriculum compacting for advanced learners. Use student learning contracts., Use independent study. Use interest centers / groups. Use learning centers / groups. Use differentiated questions in discussions, homework and/or tests. 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Adapted from Carol Tomlinson by Chapel Hill Carrboro City Schools, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 919.967.8211 x 236 [email protected] chccs,k12.nc.us

Reflect on what you are doing right now in your classroom that is working for kids. What are you doing that addresses their academic differences? Write the things that are working for students in the top bubble. 3 min. Share one of your student success with your neighbor. Now, think about what has not been working as well as it should. Write those things in the bottom bubble. Perhaps the things youve listed here would be a good place to begin your journey. What do you know about Differentiated Instruction? The number one question I want answered today is First think alonethen discuss with your neighbor.

The Contentof this session What do I want participants to knowunderstandand be able to do at the end of this session? Todays Learning Goals At the end of this session, I want you to: KNOW Vocabulary: differentiated instruction, readiness, interest, learning profile, content, process, product, assessment. Assessments and Inventories to determine readiness, interest and learning profile. Learning profile factors. Ways to differentiate content, process, product. Principles of a differentiated classroom. Todays Learning Goals UNDERSTAND

Humans are both alike and different in many ways. Human differences affect learning. Humans learn best when the circumstances of learning are a good match for the individuals needs. Learning is affected by a persons learning style, intelligence preference, gender, and/or culture. Working in a preferred learning mode enhances achievement. Effective teaching results in effective learning for each child. Differences in students require different responses. Content, process and product can be differentiated in response to student differences. Assessment drives instruction. Individuals learn when they work in their zones of proximal development. Interest is a great motivator. Human learning requires thinking. Reflection is essential to effectiveness. Expert teachers teach students the most important things in the most effective ways. Differentiation is a movement toward expertise. Todays Learning Goals AND BE ABLE TO DO

Think critically about teaching and learning. Identify personal belief systems. Reflect on present teaching practice and classroom environment. Ask questions of clarification. Define differentiated instruction. Recognize principles of a differentiated classroom in practice. Plan for gathering data on student readiness, interest, learning profile. Evaluate a tierd lesson. Identify ways to differentiate content, process, product. Identify instructional strategies that support differentiation. Recognize behaviors of effective/expert teachers. Make a commitment to becoming an expert teacher. Decide an entry point or first step to start the journey toward expertise. Create a plan for improvement. Identify a colleague as a support for the journey. add to this list what you would like to learn today. Differentiated Instruction IS a way of thinking about effective teaching and how people best learn.

Differentiated Instruction IS expert teachers teaching students the most important things in the most effective ways. Differentiated Instruction IS a teachers response to learners needs. a way to meet children where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners. Differentiated Instruction IS a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather then marching students through the curriculum in lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to get at and express learning. One More Way of Thinking About Differentiation Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do

whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. What is differentiation? Differentiation is classroom practice that looks eyeball to eyeball with the reality that kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning. -Tomlinson (2001) Differentiated Instruction is a journey toward expertise. Professional Reflection What worked today? What didnt work? alannss l P oonn P s s e s LLes

How do I know? 5 min. daily Do you believe . . . . students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances? Do you believe . . . . the differences in students are significant enough to make major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers, and others to learn it well? Do you believe . . . . students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond where they can work without assistance? Do you believe . . . . students will learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum and their interests and life experiences? I Believe All children can learn. Think about what you believe about students Summary Summary Statements Statements About About Learning Learning 1.

1. People Peoplelearn learnwhat what isispersonally personallymeaningful meaningfulto tothem. them. 2. 2. People Peoplelearn learnwhen whenthey theyaccept accept challenging challengingbut but achievable achievablegoals. goals. 3. 3. Learning Learningisisdevelopmental. developmental. 4. 4. Individuals Individualslearn learn differently. differently. 5. 5. People Peopleconstruct construct new

newknowledge knowledgeby bybuilding buildingon ontheir their current currentknowledge. knowledge. 6. 6. Much Muchlearning learningoccurs occursthough thoughsocial socialinteraction. interaction. 7. 7. People Peopleneed needfeedback feedbackto tolearn. learn. 8. 8. Successful Successfullearning learninginvolves involvesuse useof ofstrategies strategieswhich which

themselves themselvesare arelearned. learned. 9. 9. AApositive positiveemotional emotionalclimate climatestrengthens strengthenslearning. learning. 10. 10. Learning Learningisisinfluenced influencedby bythe thetotal totalenvironment. environment. Powerful Learning by Ron Brandt DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Rules of Thumb Be clear on the key concepts and generalizations or principles that give meaning and structure to the topic, chapter, unit, or lesson you are planning. Think of assessment as a road map for your thinking and planning.

Lessons for all students should emphasize critical and creative thinking. Lessons for all students should be engaging. In a differentiated classroom there should be a balance between student-selected and teacher-assigned tasks and working arrangements. High Quality Teaching ach e t e w o h W How we teach Where we t each What we teach Its About Having All the Parts in Place Tomlinson 01

Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum ongoing assessment and adjustment building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials

Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies

Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Student Traits There are four student traits that teachers must often address to ensure effective and efficient learning. Those are readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect. Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum ongoing assessment and adjustment

building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts

Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Student Traits Readiness refers to a students knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student

does learning take place. Tomlinson, 2003 Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum ongoing assessment and adjustment building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences

Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards

4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Student Traits Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. Tomlinson, 2003 Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum

ongoing assessment and adjustment building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons

Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Student Traits Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture and gender. If

classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. Tomlinson, 2003 Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum ongoing assessment and adjustment building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest

through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots

Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Student Traits Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning. Tomlinson, 2003 HIGH QUALITY TEACHING WHO WE TEACH At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means shaking up what goes on in the classroom so that students have

multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. Who I Teach A person of worth with dignity as they are worth of respect worthy of my investment An individual both like and unlike others in important ways with both positives and negatives Someone whom I must know with whim I will connect with whom I will construct a relationship Someone who, in this room, is building a life whose relationship to learning is evolving whose potential is, in large measure, hidden from view A person who will shape who I am becoming as I shape who he/she is becoming Tomlinson 01 Food for Thought Some teachers realize school may be a more comfortable fit for some

students than it is for others but the most effective teachers work to understand and honor both the individuality and commonality represented in their classroom. Tomlinson, 2003, p. 4 Deciding to Teach Them All Do I intend to teach each individual child? Tomlinson, 2003 Deciding to Teach Them All I intend to teach the curriculum in as reasonable a way as I know how, and I hope that most of the students will respond. Tomlinson, 2003 Deciding to Teach Them All Your response must signal a willingness to accept responsibility for the success of each learner. Tomlinson, 2003

Deciding to Teach Them All Effective teachers ask, What are their students particular interests and needs? Rather than asking, What labels do my students have? Tomlinson, 2003 Deciding to Teach Them All Effective teachers ask, What are their students strengths? Rather than asking, What are my students deficits? Tomlinson, 2003 Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals

ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction

Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means shaking up what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information,

making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. Who I Teach Student Readiness Student Interests Student Learning Profile Student Affect Who I Teach A person of worth with dignity as they are worth of respect worthy of my investment An individual both like and unlike others in important ways with both positives and negatives Someone whom I must know with whim I will connect with whom I will construct a relationship Someone who, in this room, is building a life whose relationship to learning is evolving whose potential is, in large measure, hidden from view A person who will shape who I am becoming as I shape who he/she is becoming Tomlinson 01

When a teacher tries to teach something to the entire class at the same time, chances are, onethird of the kids already know it; one-third will get it; and the remaining third wont. So twothirds of the children are wasting their time. --- Lilian Katz Struggling Learners / Advanced Learners In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners. C. A. Tomlinson Unless Unlessthe the highly highlyable ablemust mustalso alsostruggle strugglein in order orderto togrow, grow,education educationhas hasnot notappropriately

appropriately defined definedor oroperationalized operationalizedexcellence excellencein inschools. schools. when whenstudents studentsstand standfor forextended extended time timein inspaces spaces with withceilings ceilingsof of expectation expectation that that are aretoo toolow, low, the the students students capacity capacityis is bent, bent,misshapen misshapenand

and malformed, malformed, exactly exactlyas astheir their bodies bodieswould wouldbe beifif encased encasedin inspaces spaceswith with ceilings ceilingstoo toolow low for for their theirstature. stature. The Thetwin twinthreats threatsof of perfectionism perfectionism and andlethargy lethargyare arespawned spawnedwhen when aachild child comes

comes to tobelieve believethat thatthat that which whichis iseasy easyis is exemplary. exemplary. ----Carol CarolTomblinson, Tomblinson,Roeper RoeperReview, Review,June June1994 1994 What Keeps Us Going As Learners? success effort effort success success effort

Parallel Approaches To Differentiation For Advanced Learners More Lurch & Halt High Bloom Acceleration Enrichment Key Concepts, Principles & Skills at a Greater Degree Of Difficulty For Struggling Learners Less Exposure/Get what you can Low Bloom Deceleration Basics/Pare Down Key Concepts, Principles & Skills at a Lesser Degree of Difficulty Tomlinson 98 UVa BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System RAS = Toggle Switch

Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time: HIGH MIDDLE LOW Hot (EEG) Mild (EEG) Cold (EEG sleeplike) Limbic aroused Cortical arousal Sleep (depression) Flight / Fight Problem Solving Relaxation Out of Control In Control Off Duty Carbohydrates

Proteins Carbohydrates/Dairy Burnout Achievement Depression Extreme Challenge Moderate Challenge No Challenge Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little. Howard Gardner Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position The Game 1. Everyone wants to play the game. 2. In order for me to play it, the game has to start where I am. 3. In order to continue playing it, the game has to grow as fast as I do. 4. If that doesnt happen, I wont play the game. ASSESSMENT Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic.

Its goal is to provide teachers day-to-day data on students readiness for particular ideas and skills, their interests, and their learning profiles. Assessment is todays means of understanding how to modify tomorrows instruction. Assessment Assessment provides us with evidence to help answer important questions: Did the student learn it? To what extent does the student understand? How might I adjust my teaching to be more effective for learners with varying needs? An expert teacher thinks like an assessor! Assessments Different Functions and Critical to Teaching and Learning Diagnostic assessments Formative assessments Summative assessments Assess Before Teaching

Teaching in the dark in questionable practice. Taba -Hilda Diagnostic Assessments Pre-assessments Precede instruction Check students prior knowledge and skill levels and identify misconceptions, interests, or learning style preferences Provides information to assist teacher planning Guides differentiated instruction Skill checks, knowledge surveys, nongraded pre-tests, interest or learning preference checks, checks for misconceptions. Pre - Assessment Pre-assessment data allow a teacher to know how much content students know at the outset of a unit so that the teacher can make appropriate lesson plan adjustments.

Little useful learning occurs when a teacher teaches something to a student that the student already knows. Likewise, a student generally cannot learn what a teacher teaches if that student has significant gaps in background knowledge, understanding, and/or skill. Hilda Taba pointed out Diagnosis, of course, is never completed. Every contact with students reveals something that the teacher did not know before, something important for intelligent planning of instruction. Formative Assessment Occurs throughout a unit of study. Data from this kind of assessment helps teachers know who is mastering ideas and skills and who may need additional assistance to achieve competency with the content goals. FormativeOn-Going Assessment 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. STUDENT DATA SOURCES Journal entry Short answer test Open response test Home learning Notebook Oral response Portfolio entry Exhibition Culminating product Question writing Problem solving Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description of Description Is like Steps in Developing How I might use Tomlinson - 02 FormativeOn-going Assessment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS Anecdotal records Observation by checklist Skills checklist Class discussion Small group interaction Teacher student conference Assessment stations Exit cards Problem posing Performance tasks and rubrics Exit Cards Exit Cards Have students answer one or two key questions on an index card as a class period ends and turn the card in to the teacher at the end of the class period. Such exit cards are not graded A snapshot that allows more targeted instructional planning for the days ahead

EXIT CARDS We have been learning about The Greenhouse Effect. Explain or depict your understanding of this important environmental issue. What questions do you have about this topic? EXIT CARDS We have begun a study of authors craft. List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girl by Michael Dorris. EXIT CARDS On your Exit Card--Explain the difference between prime and composite numbers. You may wish to give some examples of each as part of your explanation. EXIT CARDS

On your exit card--Explain the difference between simile and metaphor. Give some examples of each Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description of the Description Steps in Developing It Strategy Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02 Squaring Off Whole Group Assessment 1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the following words or phrases that are effective ways to group according to learner knowledge.

Rarely ever Dirt road Sometimes Paved road Often Highway I have it! Yellow brick road 2. Tell the students to go to the corner of the room that matches their place in the learning journey. 3. Participants go to the corner that most closely matches their own learning status and discuss what they know about the topic and why they chose to go there. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. Yes/No Cards YES NO Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other. When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. 1. Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean.

2. Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer. 3. Remind them that if they dont know the words it is OK because they will be learning them. 4. You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. Thumb It! Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied. Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Up Sideways I know a lot I know some Down I know very little Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. Fist of Five Show the number of fingers on a scale,

with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest. Ask, How well do you feel you know this information? 5. I know it so well I could explain it to anyone. 6. I can do it alone. 7. I need some help. 8. I could use more practice. 1. I am only beginning. Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press. Assessment Strategies to Support Success 1. Whip Around: Assessment) Teacher poses question Students write response Students read written responses rapidly, in specified order. Teacher takes notes Develop closure / clarification / summary 2. Status checks: (Assessment)

Thumbs up/thumbs down/ wiggle palm Colored cards (red, green, yellow) Windshield Formative Assessments Along the way information to guide instruction in response to the nature and needs of the diverse learners. Waiting until the end of teaching to find out how well students have learned is simply too late. Expert Teachers are like successful coaches and sponsors of extracurricular activities such as yearbook, orchestra, theater, and athletics recognize the importance of ongoing assessments and continuous adjustments as the means to achieve maximum performance.

Recent research has confirmed the benefits of regular use of diagnostic and formative assessments as feedback for learning (Black and William, 1998). In a differentiated classroom, a teacher continuously examines ongoing assessment data for individuals as a means of adapting up-front teaching plans so that they address particular learner needs. Judy Rex often says There is a world of assessment data around us at any given moment in a classroom, we just have to pay attention and think of it as assessment data. Everything a kid says, does, or hands in to you tells you something about what she knows, understands and is able to do. Provide Feedback Early and Often Feedback is the breakfast of champions. -Vince Lombardi All types of learning, whether on the practice field or in the

classroom, require feedback. Grant Wiggins, author of Understanding by Design observed If I had to summarize what I have seen over the past decade in all kinds of schools, I would have to report that many educators seem to believe that feedback means giving lots of approval, and some disapproval and advice. In classrooms, the most common piece of so-called feedback is Good job! or some equivalent phrase. It is, of course, important to praise students because it often satisfies and encourages them, but it cannot help them to improve their performance. Praise keeps you in the game; real feedback helps you get better. Feedback tells you what you did or did not do and enables you to self adjust. Indeed, the more self-evident feedback, the more autonomy the performer develops, and viceversa. -Grant Wiggins (1998) 4 Qualities of Good Feedback Feedback must be timely

be specific be understandable to the receiver allow for adjustment Educators who provide regular opportunities for learners to self-assess and reflect often report a change in the culture of the classroom. My students have shifted from asking, What did I get? or What are you going to give me? to becoming increasingly capable of knowing how they are doing and what they need to do to improve. Responsive Teaching Use clear rubrics that coach for quality Rubrics that resemble bean counters do little to provide specific guidance or support metacognition about quality work and work habits. Rubrics that clearly explain the traits of good work and move up from there can coach far more students in progressing from good to exemplary. Rubrics can provide space for students to add

personal goals for success Classroom assessment practices that honor student differences and promote learning Assess before teaching Offer appropriate choices Provide feedback early and often Encourage self-assessment and reflection Questions About Assessment? Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment

appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals

Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. TIERING Tiered activities, tiered tasks or experiences, tiered products. In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth. Student groups use varied approaches to exploration of essential ideas. C.A. Tomlinson Strategy: Tiering

The Equalizer Transformational 1. Foundational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications 2. Concrete Abstract Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials 3. Simple Complex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals 4. Single Facet Multiple Facets Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections 5. Small Leap Great Leap Application, Insight, Transfer 6. More Structured 8. Less Independence 9. Slow

Solutions, Decisions, Approaches Planning, Designing, Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought More Open Greater Independence Quick 1. Foundational Transformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications -close to text or experience -expert idea and skill to similar or familiar setting -use key idea or skill alone -fundamental skills and knowledge emphasized -fewer permutations of skills and ideas -removed from text or experience -export idea or skill to unexpected or unfamiliar setting -use key idea or skill with unrelated idea or skill -use but move beyond fundamental skills

and knowledge -more permutations of skills and ideas Foundational to Transformational. When an idea is new to some students, or if its not in one of their stronger areas, they often need supporting information about the idea that is clear and plainly worded. Then they usually need time to practice applying the idea in a straightforward way. In these instances, the materials they use and the tasks they do should be foundational that is, basic and presented in ways that help them build a solid foundation of understanding. At other times, when something is already clear to them or is in a strength area, they need to move along quickly. They need information that shows them intricacies about the idea. They need to stretch and bend the idea and see how it interacts with other ideas to create a new thought. Such conditions require materials and tasks that are more transformational. For example, one child may benefit from a more basic task of classifying animals by body covering, which another may need the more transformational task of predicting how changes in environment would likely affect the body covering of several animals. In a math class, one young learner may be ready for a basic application of the concept of fractions by cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given fraction. An appropriate challenge for another student may be the more transformational task of writing measures of music that represent certain fractions. 2. Concrete Abstract Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials -hold in hand or hands on -tangible -literal -physical manipulation -event based -event to principle -demonstrated and explained -hold in mind or minds on

-intangible -symbolic or metaphorical -mental manipulation -idea based -principle without event -not demonstrated or explained Concrete to Abstract. Students usually need to become familiar with the key information or material about an area of study before they can successfully look at its implications, meanings, or interrelationships. However, once they have grasped the information in a concrete way, its important that they move on to meanings and implications. Working with concrete information should open a door for meaningful abstraction later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot (more concrete) typically has to precede investigations of theme (more abstract). But ultimately, all students need to delve into the meanings of stories, not just the events. The issue here is readiness or timing. 3. Simple Complex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals -use idea or skill being taught -work with no one, or few abstractions -emphasizes appropriateness -requires relatively less originality -more common vocabulary -more accessible readability -combine idea or skill being taught with those previous taught -work with multiple abstractions -emphasizes elegance

-requires relatively more originality -more advanced vocabulary - more advanced readability Simple to Complex. Sometimes students need to see only the big picture of a topic or area of study, just its skeleton, without many details. Even adults often find it helpful to read a childrens book on black holes, for example, before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking. When the big picture is needed, your students need resources, research, issues, problems, skills, and goals that help them achieve a framework of understanding with clarity. On the other hand, when the skeleton is clear to them, theyll find it more stimulating to add muscle, bone, and nerves, moving from simple to complex. Some students may need to work more simply with one abstraction at a time; others may be able to handle the complexity of multiple abstractions. For example, some students may be ready to work with the theme in a story (a single abstraction), while other students look at inter-relationships between themes and symbols (multiple abstractions, or complexity). 4. Single Facet Multiple Facets Disciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of Development -fewer parts -more parts -fewer steps -more steps -fewer stages -more stages Single Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes students are at peak performance when working on problems, projects, or dilemmas that involve only a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be all that some students can handle to make a connection between what they studied in science today and what they studied last week. Those with greater understanding and facility in an area of study are ready for and more challenged by following complicated directions. They are more challenged by solving problems that are multifaceted or require great flexibility of approach, or by being asked to make connections between subjects that scarcely seemed related before.

5. Small Leap -few unknowns -relative comfort with most elements -less need to change familiar elements -requires less flexible thought -few gaps in required knowledge -more evolutionary Great Leap Application, Insight, Transfer -many unknowns -relative unfamiliarity with many elements -more need to change familiar elements -requires more flexible thought -significant gaps in required knowledge -more revolutionary Small Leap to Great Leap. Note that this continuum does not provide the option of no leap. Students should always have to run ideas through their minds and figure out how to use them. Activities that call only for absorption and regurgitation are generally of little long-term use. But for some students, learning about how to measure area and then applying that learning by estimating and verifying the area of the hamster house compared to the teachers desk may be enough of a leap of application and transfer at least in the beginning. Other students may be able to more from estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed to a building project and proportional cost implications of increasing the building area. In both cases, students make mental leaps from reading information on a page to using that information. The latter task calls for relatively greater leaps of application, insight, and transfer.. 6. More Structured More Open Solutions, Decisions, Approaches

-more directions or more precise directions -more modeling -relatively less student choice -fewer directions -less modeling -relatively more student choice Structured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid out for them, where they dont have too many decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or delineated routes. Being new to a computer or word processor often requires completing programmed and closed lessons that involve right answers to become knowledgeable -- and comfortable with basic operation and keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of graphics to illustrate ideas in a formal presentation. Following a predetermined format for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab often makes more sense than improvisation. At other times, however, students are ready to explore the computer, craft their own essays designed to address a communication need, or create a chemistry lab that demonstrates principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most of us become confident enough to eventually wing it. But when modeling has served its purpose, its time to branch out and get creative. 7. Clearly Defined Fuzzy Problems In process, In Research, In Products -few unknowns -more algorithmic -narrower range of acceptable responses or approaches -only relevant data provided -problem specified -more unknowns

-more heuristic -wider range of acceptable responses or approaches -extraneous data provided -problem unspecified or ambiguous 8. Less Independence More Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring -more teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on: problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation -more teacher scaffolding -learning the skills of independence -less teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation

-less teacher scaffolding -demonstrating the skills of independence Dependent to Independent. A goal for all learners is independent study, thought, and production. But just as some students gain height more quickly than others, some will be ready for greater independence earlier than others. Their needs in developing independence generally fall into one of these four stages: 1. Skill building, when students need to develop the ability to make simple choices, follow through with shortterm tasks, and use directions appropriately. 2. Structured independence, when students make choices from teacher-generated options, follow prescribed time lines, and engage in self-evaluation according to preset criteria to complete longer-term and more complex tasks. 3. Shared independence, when students generate problems to be solved, design tasks, set time lines, and establish criteria for evaluation. The teacher helps tighten or focus the plans and monitors the production process. 4. Self-guided independence, when students plan, execute, and seek help or feedback only when needed. By guiding students across this continuum at individually appropriate speeds, you and your students are less likely to become frustrated by tasks that require greater independence. 9. Slower Quicker Pace of Study, Pace of Thought -more time to work -more practice -more teaching and re-teaching -process more systematically -probe breadth and depth -less time to work -less practice -less teaching and re-teaching -process more rapidly -hit the high points

Slow to Fast. Of all the continuums, this one is the most likely to require some jumping around. There are times when students with great ability in a subject need to move quickly through familiar or minimally challenging material. But at other times, some of those same students will need more time than others to study a topic in depth. You can adjust the speed of learning experiences for students who are struggling with key ideas by allowing them to work more slowly at first, but then letting them move quickly through tangential areas of study, thus freeing up some time for further work with the key ideas. Matching pacing to your students needs is a critical differentiation strategy. Analyzing a Readiness-Based Task Pioneer Group (work alone or in groups of 2, 3, or 4) 1. Use books, pictures, and the CD-Rom to: a. Figure out what a trading post was for. b. Make a list of things found in a trading post and how much they may have cost. Be dont have in our stores today. c. Figure out who used trading posts. d. Find out where goods for a trading post came from. 2. 3. 4. sure to include some things we Build or draw a trading post and a modern convenience store. Compare and contrast the trading post and convenience store on at least the four categories identified in questions 1a 1d. Be ready to share with the class what a trading post and convenience store tell us about how we are like and different from the pioneers. Trailblazer Group

(work alone or in groups of 2, or3) 1. Read Going West (stop at the bookmark). Also use the encyclopedia, CD-Rom, and books in the exploration center to: a. Learn about the size of a covered wagon and figure out how many people and supplies it would hold. b. Find out how covered wagons were built and how they work. c. Find out the positives and negatives of going west in a covered wagon. d. Figure out how much a covered wagon might cost and why it cost so much for example, costs for materials, labor, and horses. 2. 3. 4. Build or draw a model of a covered wagon used in pioneer days and a station wagon or van used today. Compare and contrast the two vehicles on at least the five categories listed in questions 1a 1e. Be ready to share with the class what a covered wagon and a station wagon (or van) tell us about how we are like and different from the pioneers. Analyzing a Readiness-Based Task Wagoneer Group (work alone or in groups of 2, or 3) Use books and records in the exploration center, plus encyclopedias and the CD-ROM to learn about leisure and recreation during pioneer times. Select at least four categories from this list or add categories of your own (with teacher approval): songs, games, dances, literature, gatherings, contests, crafts. In each category you select, be ready to fully illustrate an example of then and a contrasting example from now to show the class how we are like and different from the pioneers in what we do for recreation (and why). Adventure Group (work alone or in pairs) Use books in the exploration center, the article in the Medicine West folder, encyclopedias, and the

CD-ROM to find out what the medical problems were during the westward movement and what the practice of medicine was like. Figure out important questions to ask and answer in order to compare and contrast health problems and the practice of medicine then and now. Get your categories and questions approved by the teacher. Figure out a way to help the class see how we are like and different from the pioneers in health issues and the practice of medicine. USING A DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL e the d i s s s i On th t writes (a ) g n stude & thinkin ng readi (Basic Version) Content

Key phrases Important words Main Ideas Puzzling passages Summaries of passages Passages that seem powerful Key parts of idea, chapter, approach Etc. Tomlinson 99 On t stud his sid e ent writ the es

Response How to use ideas / information Why an idea is important What a puzzling passage seems to mean Questions the student has What a key word means Why something seems puzzling A prediction based on current information A reaction to a passage A personal experience that connects with a passage A comment on the authors view, style, etc. Etc. Using a Double Entry Journal (ADVANCED VERSION) CONTENT the Here rites nt W Stude Key passages Organizing concept Key principles Key patterns STUDENT RESPONSE

the Here rites nt W Stude Why ideas are important How the author developed his/her argument, line of thought, etc. How parts and whole relate Assumptions of the author Key questions including those that probe for deeper understanding) ANOTHER VOICE es hesiz t o p y h y udent n would sa t S e o th Here other pers

stion. e u q ts an what the studen sion, etc. u about nse, concl o Resp the teacher the author an expert in the field a character someone with different perspectives a satirist a political cartoonist etc. Character Map Character Name_____________________ What the character says or does ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

________________ _______ What the character really means to says or do ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ _______ What the character would mostly want us to know about him or her _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Tomlinson 00 Character Map Character Name_____________________ How the character looks ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

________________ ________________ _______ How the character thinks or acts ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ _______ Most important thing to know about him or her _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Tomlinson 00 Character Map Character Name_____________________ Clues the author give us about the character Because the author wants us to understand

Example: Lisbeth has five brothers Example: Why Lisbeth knows how to stick up for her ideas 1______________2 ______________3_ _____________4__ ____________5___ ___________ 1______________2 ______________3_ _____________4__ ____________5___ ___________6____ __________ The authors bottom line about this character is __________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Tomlinson 00 Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density and Buoyancy

Introduction: All Students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy Determine density Conduct an experiment Write a lab report Work at a high level of thinking Share findings with the class The Soda Group Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy. The Brine and Egg Group Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution, and observing. They answered questions about their procedures

and observations as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy. The Boat Group Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. They used cylinders of aluminum, brass and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. They built and tested the boat and its projected load. They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo. Secondary Tiered Assignment Concept: Responsibility Generalizations: We are responsible for ourselves. We write our own lives. We have responsibility for those we tame. Our actions have a ripple effect. Responsibility may require sacrifice and may result in fulfillment. Our work bears our hallmark. Skills:

Argument and support Effective use of figurative language Editing skills Literary analysis Key Vocabulary: Elements of literature Genre traits Voice Sample Literature: The Little Prince Anne Frank by Miep Gies Bloodstain I Will Create To Be Soliloquy News Articles Samples of Differentiation Both teacher assigned and student selected reading. Both teacher assigned and student selected journal prompts. Use of literature circles to discuss

books/readings assigned by readiness. Use of small group, teacher-led focus groups on student-choice readings/ Optional review groups on key vocabulary and skills. In-common and negotiated criteria for key writing. Product options. Use of tape recordings, shared reading on complex pieces. Varied work groups. Tiered lesson. Secondary Tiered Assignment Task Students will analyze parallel pieces of writing to explore the premise that we are responsible for those we tame. Students will frame an argument to support their position. Group 1 Read pages from The Little Prince Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the foxs feelings about responsibility toward those we tame and why he believes what he does. Read Bloodstain Complete an analysis matrix on the beliefs of the main character on the same topic. Select a newspaper article from the folder.

Write a paragraph or two that compares beliefs of people in the article with the two characters. What advice would you give children about responsibility toward people we tame? Brainstorm on paper and then either: Write a letter to a child giving your advice. Write guidelines for adults who affect childrens lives. Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a responsible person. Peer revise and then peer edit your work. Group 2 Read pages from The Little Prince Find at least one piece of writing that shares the foxs view on responsibility for those we tame. Find at least 2 contrasting pieces. Your selections must include at least 2 genre. Develop notes on 2 views of responsibility with reasons and illustrations from your selections.

Be sure you are thoughtful about each view. Then either: Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches for our school. Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed. Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple effect of such decisions in history, science, and our community. Developed by Tomlinson, 98 A High School Tiered Lesson PHYSICS As a result of the Lab, students should: Know Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing edge, leading edge) Understand Bernoullis PrincipleAs the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.) Newtons Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction) Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is moving. Be Able to Do Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key principles.

Great opportunity to make teams of theoretician/scholars and designer/builders In the lab students make Paper Airplanes that fly for easiest Maximum Distance Maximum Hang Time Hardest Tricks Kites Diamondeasiest Pinwheels Box Forward Motion easiest hardest Triangle-Layered Backward Motion Upward Motion hardest New NewWorld WorldExplorers Explorers Know: Names of New World Explorers Key Events of contribution

Principle / Generalization Understand: Exploration involves risk Exploration involves costs and benefits Exploration involves success and failure Group A: Using a teacher provided list or resources and a list of product options, show how two key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide proof/evidence. Group B: Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how the New World explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the units principles. Know: Use of past tense verbs (regular) Do: Sentence construction Group A: Given English sentences, supply the correct German pronoun and regular past tense verb, as well as other missing world. Group B: Given an English scenario, write a German dialogue that uses correct nouns, pronouns, present and past tense verbs, and other vocabulary as necessary. Group C: Develop a conversation that shows your fluency with German verbs, word pronouns, and other vocabulary. Use blip sparingly, but when essential. Be sure to incorporate idioms. Tiered Lesson -- ART Skill: Contour Drawing 1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination

Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your draw. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing. 2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand. That means you can look at your hand and the paper but Cannot draw any time you look at the paper. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing a half-blind contour drawing. 3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination Do a blind contour drawing of your hand. Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your sketchbook. Novel Think Tac-Toe Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate. Create a pair of collages that compares you and a character in the book. Compare and contrast physical and personality traits. Label your collages so viewers understand your thinking.

Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the most important traits in each poem. Write a recipe or set of directions for how you would solve a problem and another for how a main character in the book would solve a problem. Your list should help us know you and the character. Draw/paint and write a greeting card that invites us into the scenery and mood of an important part of the book. Be sure the verse helps us understand what is important in the scene and why. Make a model or a map of a key place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters. Make 2 timelines. The first should illustrate and describe a least 6-8 shifts in settings in the book. The second should explain and illustrate

how the mood changes with the change in setting. Using books of proverbs and/on quotations, find at least 6-8 that you feel reflect whats important about the novels theme. Find at least 6-8 that do the same for your life. Display them and explain your choices. Interview a key character from the book to find out what lessons he/she thinks we should learn from events in the book. Use a Parade magazine for material. Be sure the interview is thorough. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you think these songs express the books meaning. Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________ Novel Think Tac-Toe Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate.

Write a bio-poem about yourself and another about a main character in the book so your readers see how you and the character are alike and different. Be sure to include the mm ost import traits in each poem. A character in the book is being written up in the paper 20 years after the novel ends. Write the piece. Where has life taken him/her? Why? Now, do the same for yourself 20 years from now. Make sure both pieces are interesting feature articles. Youre a profiler. Write and illustrate a full and useful profile of an interesting character from the book with emphasis on personality traits and mode of operating. While youre at it, profile yourself, too. Research a town/place you feel is equivalent to the one in which the novel is set. Use maps, sketches, population and other demographic data to help you make comparisons and contrasts. Make a model or a map of a key

place in your life, and an important one in the novel. Find a way to help viewers understand both what the places are like and why they are important in your life and the characters. The time and place in which people find themselves and when events happen shape those people and events in important ways. Find a way to convincingly prove that idea using this book. Find out about famous people in history or current events whose experiences and lives reflect the essential themes of this novel. Show us what youve learned. Create a multi-media presentation that fully explores a key theme from the novel. Use at least 3 media (for example, painting, music, poetry, photography, drama, sculpture, calligraphy, etc.) in your exploration. Find several songs you think reflect an important message from the book. Prepare an audio collage. Write an exhibit card that helps your listener understand how you

think these songs express the books meaning. Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________ Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____ Student: ______________________ Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about tiering an assignment or task Write as much as you can. Description of the Description Steps in Developing It Strategy Tiered assignments or tasks Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02 Developing a Tiered Activity 1 Select the activity organizer concept Essential to building generalization a framework of

2 readiness range interests learning profile talents understanding 3 Create an activity that is interesting high level causes students to use key skill(s) to understand a key idea Think about your students/use assessments 4 Chart the complexity of the activity skills reading thinking information High skill/ Complexity Low skill/

complexity 5 Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, in materials basic to advanced form of expression from familiar to unfamiliar from personal experience to removed from personal experience equalizer 6 Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements Learning Centers by READINESS In Mrs. Walkers first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two choice-boards in the classrooms, one called Teacher Choice and one called Student Choice. Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of the 8-12 pockets on the student choice board. Those offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not the blue row). Often she also Staggers center work so that some students work at

centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language. Questioning In class discussion and on tests, teachers vary the sorts of questions posed to learners based on their readiness, interests, and learning styles. For more ideas on asking great questions, look in the Appendix of this handout. Strategy: Questioning As a result of this session: 3 important things Ive learned 2 ideas or insights I would like to share with colleagues in my building 1 action I will take immediately Who I Teach Student Readiness Student Interests Student Learning Profile Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles

of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials

Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc.

2 ways to think about student interest Teachers care about their students as individuals and try to identify student interests they bring to class Dynamic teachers try to create new interests in their students. Teachers passion may spark new interest in learners. Using Interest to Differentiate (The Hook) Content Reading & Writing Nonfiction Process Key understanding for all

Jigsaw Select reading materials and topics they care about Product Varied ways of expressing what they learn All products have elements of understanding & skill with student choice of product All explore board topic Students select a topic of interest Divide in teams to specialize on one facet Question to ponder On what basis would we decide to differentiate a lesson by interest? Differentiated 7th Grade Social Studies Lesson by INTEREST Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc. As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related to culture, conflict, change and interdependence. She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were:

Music Sports/recreation People Families reading transportation heroes/villians medicine food travel humor clothing books mysteries cartoons teenagers She then asked each student or pair of students to select a topic of real interest to them and explore it throughout the unit as a guided independent study. Their job was to see what their topic showed them about life in the Civil War in general and about culture, conflict, change and interdependence during that time. Students had as supports for their work: A planning calendar and check in dates criteria for quality Options for expressing what they learned Data gathering matrix (optional)

Class discussions on findings, progress, snags Mini lessons on research (optional) Independent Projects Process through which student and teacher identify problems or topics of interest to the student. Both student and teacher plan a method of investigating the problem or topic and identifying the type of project the student will develop. This project should address the problem and demonstrate the students ability to apply skills and knowledge to the problem or topic. Strategy: Independent Projects Some ways I can respond to students interests Who I Teach Student Readiness Student Interests Student Learning Profile Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks

flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc.

Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Learning Profile Factors Group Orientation

independent/self orientation group/peer orientation adult orientation combination Gender & Culture Cognitive Style Creative/conforming Essence/facts Expressive/controlled Nonlinear/linear Inductive/deductive People-oriented/task or Object oriented Concrete/abstract Collaboration/competition Interpersonal/introspective Easily distracted/long Attention span Group achievement/personal achievement Oral/visual/kinesthetic Reflective/action-oriented Learning Environment quiet/noise warm/cool still/mobile flexible/fixed busy/spare Intelligence Preference analytic

practical creative verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical spatial/visual bodily/kinesthetic musical/rhythmic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist existential Intelligence Preference Human brains are wired differently in different individuals. Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains, each of us is wired to be better in some areas than in others (Gardner, Sternberg). Differentiation based on a students intelligence preference generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode and helping the student to develop that capacity further. Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred modes of working, or they opt to use a students preferred areas to support growth in less comfortable areas. TYPE EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING LINGUISTIC LEARNER The Word

Player LOGICAL/ Mathematical Learner The Questioner SPATIAL LEARNER The Visualizer MUSICAL LEARNER The Music Lover CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talking Read Write

Tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing and seeing words Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner. Do experiments Figure things out Work with numbers Ask questions Explore patterns and relationships Math Reasoning Logic Problem solving Categorizing Classifying Working with abstract patterns/relationships Learns through pictures,

charts, graphs, diagrams, and art. Draw, build, design and create things Daydream Look at pictures/slides Watch movies Play with machines Imagining things Sensing changes Mazes/puzzles Reading maps, charts Visualizing Dreaming Using the minds eye Working with colors/pictures Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythm Sing, hum tunes Listen to music Play an instrument Respond to music Picking up sounds

Remembering melodies Noticing pitches/ rhythms Keeping time Rhythm Melody Music EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Contd TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY BODILY/ Kinesthetic Learner Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesnt read directions but just starts on a project Move around Touch and talk Use body

language Physical activities (Sports/dance/ acting) crafts Touching Moving Interacting with space Processing knowledge through bodily sensations Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community. Have lots of friends Talk to people Join groups Understanding people Leading others Organizing Communicating Manipulating Mediating conflicts Sharing Comparing

Relating Cooperating interviewing Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group. Work alone Pursue own interests Understanding self Focusing inward on feelings/dreams Pursuing interests/ goals Being original Working along Individualized projects Self-paced instruction Having own space Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature. Physically

experience nature Do observations Responds to patterning nature Exploring natural phenomenon Seeing connections Seeing patterns Reflective Thinking Doing observations Recording events in Nature Working in pairs Doing long term projects The Mover INTERpersonal Learner The Socializer INTRApersonal Learner The Individual NATURALIST The Nature Lover Sternbergs Three Intelligences Creative

Analytical Practical We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students but also recognize where students strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas. STERNBERGS INTELLIGENCES ANALYTICAL Linear (Schoolhouse Smart) - Sequential PRACTICAL Street Smart Contextual Focus on Use CREATIVE Innovator Outside the Box What If Thinker An idea for assessing students according to Sternbergs intelligences would be to five the following scenario: Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know? Do you want to know all the little details that go into it? Do you want to know how it is being used?

Do you want to know only enough information to think of other things to do? Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question are the creative learners. For ANALYTICAL Thinkers Analytical = Linear Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential Show the parts of _____________ and how they work. Explain why _____________ works the way it does. Diagram how _________ affects ________. Identify the key parts of _______________. Present a step-by-step approach to _____. I Like Analyzing characters when Im reading or listening to a story Comparing & contrasting points of view Criticizing my own & others work Thinking clearly & analytically Evaluating my & others points of view Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

Appealing to logic Judging my & others behavior Explaining difficult problems to others Solving logical problems Making inferences & deriving conclusions Sorting & classifying Thinking about things ANALYTICAL For PRACTICAL Thinkers Practical = Street Smart Contextual Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply ______ to solve this real life problem: _________________. Based on your own experience, explain how _________________ can be used. Heres a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of __________, develop a plan to address the problem I Like

Taking things apart and fixing them Learning through hands on activities Making and maintaining friends Understanding and respecting others Putting into practice things I learned Resolving conflicts Advising my friends on their problems Convincing someone to do something Learning by interacting with others Applying my knowledge Working and being with others Adapting to new situations PRACTICAL Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000 I Like

Designing new things Coming up with ideas Using my imagination Playing make-believe and pretend games Thinking of alternative solutions Noticing things people usually tend to ignore Thinking in pictures and images Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000 Inventing (new recipes, words, games) Supposing that things were different Thinking about what would have happened if certain aspects of the world were different Composing (new songs, melodies) Acting and role playing CREATIVE For CREATIVE Thinkers Creative = Innovator Outside the Box

What if? Improver Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ___________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ______. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a _____________ and use your new perspective to help us think about __________. Differentiation Using MI 1. Skills Standards: Identify how the theme of a work represents a view or comment on life. Express understanding of theme through a variety of products 2. Concept: Heroism 3. Generalizations: Individual values and community values are often in conflict Heroes often reflect the values of a community Heroes are born in conflict Hertberg 03

Lesson Sequence: MI All students read The Lottery and A&P All students engage in Socratic Seminar: Students investigate the lesson generalizations through the stories: Do these generalizations hold up? Differentiated Activities according to intelligence preference (learning profile) Hertberg 03 Differentiation With MI Verbal: Intrapersonal: Think about your definition of heroism. Create a short story in which the main character is forced into a heroic role for which he or she is not naturally suited. Create a grid with your characteristics of a hero in one column. Then write your qualities in the corresponding rows. Are you, by your own definition, a hero? Explore your heroic qualities. In what

facets of life might you be a hero? Create a verbal means of expressing your heroism, creating a plan for how you might apply your heroic qualities to help others. Hertberg 0 Differentiated Activities: MI Visual: Create a visual representation of your concept of a hero. Make sure to consider all of the generalizations we have discussed. In a page, discuss what you created and how it reflects your definition of heroism. Musical: Relate the concept of heroism to the principles of harmony in music theory. Express the relationship in either the lyrics of a song, the music of a song, or both. In a page, discuss what you created and how it reflects your definition of heroism. Hertberg 03 The goal is to help individual learners understand modes of learning that work best for them, and to offer those options so that each learner finds a good learning fit.

Learning Profiles William Blake English poet & artist The Four Zoas Urizen Urthona (head and reasoning) (spirit and creative imagination) Tharmas Luvah (body and senses) (heart and love) Students taught in their preferred learning styles demonstrated higher levels of achievement, showed more interest in the subject matter, approved of instructional methods, and wanted other subject to be taught similarly. Bell, L. (1986). Learning styles in the middle school classroom: Why and how. Middle School Journal, 18(1), 18-19 Student Traits

Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning. Tomlinson, 2003 Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process

Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies

RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. High quality ideas Leading toward expertise Necessitate thought and reflection Essential information Necessary for cultural literacy Necessary to be conversant about the discipline Critical skills

For production, transfer, expertise To develop as a learner (self-awareness, attitude, habit, mind, choice) Discipline-rich organization For construction of meaning For retention, retrieval, transfer Purposeful Purposes are made explicit Unambiguously leads to specified goals Student gets the purpose Attaches to students life and the larger world Invitational Important, illuminating, intriguing and challenging to the individual Shared meaning-making through writing/talking/doing/ producing Student to self

Student to student Teacher to student Student to teacher Teacher scaffolding growth In knowledge, understanding, skill For continual growth form individual starting point For earned efficacy Confidence through power of knowledge, understanding, skill Confidence through successful struggle CONTENT Contentis about WHAT we want students to learn High Highquality qualitycurriculum curriculumand andinstruction: instruction: Is clearly focused on the essential understandings and skills of the discipline Is clearly focused on the essential understandings and skills of the discipline that thataaprofessional professionalwould wouldvalue. value. Is mentally and affectively engaging to the learner. Is mentally and affectively engaging to the learner. Is joyful or at least satisfying.

Is joyful or at least satisfying. Provides choices. Provides choices. Is clear in expectations. Is clear in expectations. Allows meaningful collaboration. Allows meaningful collaboration. Is focused on products (something students make or do) that matters to Is focused on products (something students make or do) that matters to students students Connects with students lives and world. Connects with students lives and world. Is fresh and surprising., Is fresh and surprising., Seems real (is real) to the student. Seems real (is real) to the student. Is coherent (organized, unified, sensible) to the student. Is coherent (organized, unified, sensible) to the student. Is rich, deals with profound ideas. Is rich, deals with profound ideas. Stretches the student. Stretches the student. Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting and important ways. Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting and important ways. Involves the student in setting goals for their learning and assessing Involves the student in setting goals for their learning and assessing progress progresstoward towardthose thosegoals. goals. Tomlinson 00

PLANNING A FOCUSED CURRICULUM Means Clarity About What Students Should: Know Understand Be able to do As a Result of a Lesson, Lesson Sequence, Unit and year s dy a a e t s held rs in a e r a e ese ll learn m* h t , l a o nera nearly classro e

g In for ted Core ferentia Dif Facts (Columbus came to the New World in 1492 Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy) Concepts (Exploration, change) Principles/Generalizations (change can be both positive and negative. Exploration results in change. Peoples perspectives affect how they respond to change) Skills: Basic (literacy, numeracy) Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning) Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies) Planning (goal setting; use of time) Social Production * Exception ---linear skills and Information which can be Assessed for mastery in the Sequence (e.g., spelling} These are the facts, vocabulary, dates, places, names, and examples you want students to give you. The know is massively forgettable. Teaching facts in isolation is like trying to pump water

uphill. Carol Tomlinson Major Concepts and Subconcepts These are the written statements of truth, the core to the meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what connect the parts of a subject to the students life and to other subjects. It is through the understanding component of instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the point of the lesson or the experience. Understandings are purposeful. They focus on the key ideas that require students to understand information and make connections while evaluating the relationships that exit within the understandings. Skills These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method. The skill portion encourages the students to think like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to be like a doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist. Examples of the Levels of Learning Levels of Learning Facts

Science Literature History Music Water boils at 212 degrees C Humans are mammals Katherine Paterson wrote Bridge to Terbithia Definition of plot and definition of character The Boston Tea Party helped to provoke the American Revolution. The fist 10 amendments to the U.S Constitution are called the Bill of Rights Strauss was the Waltz King Definition of clef

Math Definition of numerator and denominator Art Reading Monet was an Impressionist Definition of primary colors Definition of vowel and consonant Definition of prime numbers Concepts Inter-dependence Classification Voice Heroes and antiheroes Revolution Power, authority and governance

Tempo Jazz Part and whole Number systems Perspective Negative space Main idea Context Principles All life forms are part of a food chain. Scientists classify animals according to patterns. Authors use voices of characters as a way of sharing their own voices Heroes are born of danger or uncertainty Revolutions are first evolutions. Liberty is constrained in all societies.

The tempo of a piece of music helps to set the mood. Jazz is both structured and improvisational Wholes are made up of parts The parts of a number system are interdependent Objects can be viewed and represented from a variety of perspectives Negative space helps spotlight essential elements in a composition Effective paragraphs generally present and support a main idea Pictures and sentences often help us figure out words we dont know.

Attitudes Conservation benefits our ecosystem I am part of an important natural network Reading poetry is boring Stories help me understand myself Its important to study history so we write the next chapters more wisely Sometimes I am willing to give up some freedom to protect the welfare of others Music helps me to express emotion I dont care for jazz Math is too hard Math is a way of talking about lots of things in my world

I prefer Realism to Impressionism Art helps me to see the world better aI am a good reader. Its hard to read between the lines Skills Creating a plan for an energy efficient school Interpreting data about costs and benefits of recycling Using metaphorical language to establish personal voice Linking heroes and anti-heroes in literature with those of history and current life Constructing and supporting a position on an issue

Drawing conclusions based on analyses of sound resources Selecting apiece of music that conveys a particular emotion Writing an original jazz composition Expressing parts and wholes in music and the stock market, with fractions and decimals Showing relationships among elements Responding to a painting with both affective and cognitive awareness Presenting realistic and impressionistic views of an object Locating main idea and supporting details in news articles

Interpreting themes in stories Creating Hypothesizing Analysis Synthesis Analysis Synthesis SKILLS Knowledge Comprehension THEORY THEORY Principle Generalization Principle Generalization CONCEPTS CONCEPTS CONCEPTS

CONCEPTS TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC TOPIC F F F F A A A A C C C C T T T T S S S S F F F F A A A A C C C C T T T T S S S S F F F F A A A A C C C C T T T T S S S S F F F F A A A A C C C C T T T T S S S S

Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction by Lynn Erickson Mortimer Adlers List of the Most Important Concepts in Western Civilization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Angel Animal Aristocracy Art Astronomy Beauty Being Cause Chance Change Citizen Constitution Courage Custom and convention Definition Democracy Desire Dialectic Duty Education Element Emotion Eternity Evolution Experience

Family Fate Form God Good and Evil Government Habit Happiness History Honor hypothesis 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57.

58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. Idea Immortality Induction Infinity Judgment Justice Labor Language Law Liberty Life and death Logic Love Man Mathematics Matter Mechanics

Medicine Memory/Imagination Metaphysics Mind Monarchy Nature Necessity Oligarchy One and Many Opinion Opposition Philosophy Physics Pleasure and Pain Poetry Principle Progress Prophecy Prudence 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.

86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. Punishment Quality Quantity Reasoning Relation Religion Revolution Rhetoric Same/Other Science Sense Sign/Symbol Sin Slavery Soul Space

State Temperance Theology Time Truth Tyranny Universe Virtue/Vice War & Peace Wealth Will Wisdom World KNOW: Part / Whole Elements of a story plot setting characters conflict . . . UNDERSTAND: Authors use tools to develop images and ideas. Careful use of seemingly unimportant details add up to big ideas DO: Analyze a story to see how parts unite to make greater wholes Tomlinson * 02 Differentiated Sequence Grade 2: Science/Matter

Students should - - - Know: Definitions & properties of matter (color, shape, size): matter takes up space and mass 3 states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) 2 kinds of changes in matter (physical, chemical) Understand: States of matter can be alike and different Atoms and molecules are basic building blocks of matter As the atoms and molecules change, the state of matter changes Be able to Do: Conduct a simple experiment to demonstrate changes Compare Plan Make a clear presentation of scientific findings Evaluate success KNOW KNOW(facts, (facts,vocabulary, vocabulary,dates, dates,rules, rules,people, people,etc.) etc.) ecosystem ecosystem elements elementsof ofculture culture(housing/shelter, (housing/shelter,customs, customs,values,

values, geography) geography) UNDERSTAND UNDERSTAND(complete (completesentence, sentence,statement statementofoftruth truthor orinsight insightwant wantstudents students totounderstand understandthat that. .. .. .) ) All Allparts partsofofan anecosystem ecosystemaffect affectall allothers othersparts. parts.Culture Culture shapes shapespeople peopleand andpeople peopleshape shapeculture.

culture. DO DO(Basic (Basicskills, skills,thinking thinkingskills, skills,social socialskills, skills,skills skillsofofthe thediscipline, discipline,planning planningskills skills----verbs) verbs) Write Writeaaunified unifiedparagraph paragraph Compare Compareand andcontrast contrast Draw Drawconclusions conclusions Examine Examinevaried variedperspectives perspectives Work

Workcollaboratively collaboratively Develop Developaatimeline timeline Use Usemaps mapsas asdata data Tomlinson * 02 Lesson Plan Know Understand Be Able to Do A CONCEPT MAY FOR EARTH SCIENCE What Are the Effects Of Change? CHANGE How does the earth change?

Why does the earth change? When Does the earth change? GEOLOG Y Our World OCEANOGRAPH What changes the earth? ME TE EC OL Y OG PALENTOLOGY FUNNELS

Where do an ch ges on earth occur? OR OL OG Y 3 Grade Unit on Apples rd For two weeks every fall, all the 3rd grade classes participate in a unit on apples. The students engage in a variety of activities related to the topic. In language arts, they read Johnny Appleseed and view an illustrated filmstrip of the story. They write a creative story involving an apple and then illustrate their stories using tempra paints. In art, students collect leaves from nearby crab apple trees and make a giant leaf print collage on the hallway bulletin board adjacent to the 3rd grade classrooms. The music teacher teaches the children songs about apples. In science, they use their senses to carefully observe and describe the characteristics of different types of apples. During mathematics, the teacher demonstrates how to scale up an applesauce recipe to make a quantity sufficient for all the 3rd graders. A highlight of the unit is the field trip to a local apple orchard, where students watch cider being made and go on a hayride. The culminating unit activity is the 3rd grade apple fest, a celebration for which parent volunteers dress as apples and the children rotate through various activities at stations making applesauce, competing in an apple word search contest, bobbing for apples, completing a math skill sheet containing word problems involving apples, and so on. The fest concludes with

selected students reading stories while the entire group enjoys candy apples Wiggins & McTighe, 1998, pp. 1-2 prepared by the cafeteria staff. Four Steps to MUCH better Curriculum Step One: Hook How am I going to make the task appealing, inviting, and intriguing to my students? Step Two: Focus Does the task absolutely and with no ambiguity call on students to grapple with one or more of the key understandings and skills of the unit? Step Three: Ratchet Is the task crafted at very high levels of thought and production for the students who perform it? Are you confident it will stretch them in use of information, critical and creative

thinking, reflection on their thinking, skill and accuracy,research, insight, or other areas valuable in this effort? Step Four: Tighten Are the directions written in such a way that the students cannot take the low road or the easy way out with their work? Are they written to direct students to the high road of the quest for quality in work and thought? What You Teach Curriculum gives students legs: the knowledge, understanding and skills theyll use to move powerfully through life. Effective teachers learn how to plan to work backward (to pick up key pieces) and forward (to challenge and engage). Think About Differentiating Content In Two Ways . . .

adapt what we teach adapt or modify how we give students access to what we want them to learn to Differentiate Content Reading Partners / Reading Buddies Read/Summarize Read/Question/Answer Visual Organizer/Summarizer Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt

Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading Flip Books Split Journals (Double Entry Triple Entry) Books on Tape Highlights on Tape Digests/ Cliff Notes Notetaking Organizers Varied Texts Varied Supplementary Materials Highlighted Texts Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview Tomlinson 00 Differentiating Content based on Readiness Interest Learning Profile Questions? Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate

goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products

Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Process Process is about HOW HOW a student makes sense of the learning.

To Differentiate PROCESS Or HOW a Student Makes Sense of the Learning Cubing, Think Dots RAFTs Choices (Intelligences) Centers Tiered lessons Contracts Games Cubing Activities Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________________ Write as much as you can. Description of the Description Steps in Developing It Strategy Useful For Place to Use It in the Curriculum Tomlinson - 02 Cubing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Describe It Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind). Compare It What is it similar to? What is it different from? Associate It What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for the subject. Analyze It Tell how it is made. If you cant really know, use your imagination. Apply It Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used? Argue for It or Against It Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want logical, silly, anywhere in between. Example Creating a Cubing Exercise

Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or topics? First Step: (use one of the cubes) Write 6 questions that ask for information on the selected unit. Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels, or any of the cubing statements to design questions. Make questions that use these levels that probe the specifics of your unit. Keep one question opinion based-no right or wrong. Second Step: (use other cubes) Use the first cube as your average cube, create 2 more using one as a lower level and one as a higher level. Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of questions, just geared to the level, dont water down or make too busy! Label your cubes so you know which level of readiness you are addressing. Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can tell high, medium, or low. If they cant tell, adjust slightly.

Compare one of the story characters to yourself. How are you alike and how are you different? Third Step: Always remember to have an easy problem on each cube and a hard one regardless the levels. Color code the cubes for easy identification and also if students change cubes for questions. Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3 cubes? Places to get questions: Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study problems, students generated. Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________ Make a body sculpture to show__________________ Create a dance to show_______________________ Do a mime to help us understand_________________ Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement that________________________

Build/construct a representation of________________ Make a living mobile that shows and balances the elements of __________________ Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of ________________ Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm pattern you create. Explain to us how that works. Ideas for Cubing in Math Describe how you would solve_____________ Analyze how this problem helps us use mathematical thinking and problem solving. Compare this problem to one on p._____ Contrast it too. Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular person) could apply this kind of problem to their work or life. Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in the problem. Give a rule for what that change does. Create an interesting and challenging word problem from the number problem. (Show us how to solve it too) Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem. Interpret the visual so we understand. Cubing Fractions ach student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1 st dice/cube

tells students what to do with a fraction. Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest. Add 2 rolled fractions together. Subtract 2 rolled fractions. Divide 2 rolled fractions. Multiply 2 rolled fractions. Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper. The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student umber readiness. Lynne Beauprey, Illinois USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research: Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude. Lecturing is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and overwhelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presented Hands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement. Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who outperform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics. Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world. Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation Strategy for

Differentiation Primarily Used to Differentiate Positives Cautions Tiered Assignments Readiness Meat & Potatoes differentiation Must use as only part of a flexible grouping pattern Tiered Products Readiness, Interest, Learning Profile Can be passion-producing Must provide coaching for quality Learning Contracts Readiness

Encourage student autonomy Be sure to blend skill and content Drill-Focused Cooperative Tasks Low End Readiness Deals with coverage and mastery issues May aggravate have/have not status Thought/ Production Focused Cooperative Tasks Interest, Learning Profile Involves all students with high level tasks Be sure tasks call for varied intellectual skills Alternative

Assessments Readiness, Learning Profile More of a real-world way of measuring student learning Be sure assessment focus on essential understandings and skills Graduated Rubrics Readiness Clear coaching for quality and success Take care to stress ideas and process more than mechanics Choice Boards Readiness, Interest Balances teacher choice and student choice Teacher choice should target readiness Learning Centers

Readiness Can target varied skills levels in a class Dont send all students to all centers Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation, contd Strategy for Differentiation Primarily Used to Differentiate Positives Cautions Interest Centers Interest Can link classroom topics to areas of student talent and interest Be sure centers provide depth or breadth (vs cute) Enrichment clusters Interest, Learning

profiles Stresses student choice and students as producers of useful products Lose their punch without teachers skilled in the cluster domain Compacting High End Readiness Can reduce unnecessary redundancy for advanced or eager learners Loses its punch unless Column 3 is rich and challenging Peer Tutoring Low End Readiness Gives struggling learners additional explanation opportunities Can over-use high end learner in teacher role and may short change struggling learner if tutor is weak

Multi Ability Options (MI, Triarchic Theory) Interest, Learning Profile Encourages teachers to be flexible in planning routes to learning Can easily become just a learning style vs. intelligence approach 4-MAT Learning Profile Helps teachers be more conscious of student learning style/mode Can become formula-like does not address readiness Independent Study Interest Encourages student autonomy in planning and problem-solving Students need an amount of independence suited to their readiness

for it Small Group Direct Instruction Readiness Cuts down size of class and increases student participation Students not being taught must be well anchored An Activity Is: 1. Something students will make or do. 2. Using an essential skill(s) and essential information. 3. In order to understand an essential principle(s) or answer an essential question(s). A Differentiated Activity Is: 1. Something students will make or do in a range of modes at varied degrees of sophistication with varied amounts of scaffolding in varying time spans. 2. Using an essential skill(s) and essential information. 3. In order to understand an essential principle(s) or answer an essential question(s).

RESPECTFUL TASKS Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike. A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently As they develop their understanding and skill. A Respectful task is . . . Engaging Engages students in current topics and thoughtful activities Worthwhile models good instruction Rigorous challenges students to show their best work Authentic addresses real and important issues and curricular elements Accessible taps a range of thinking strategies and allows students to communicate in a variety of ways Scorable has proposed rubrics and can be reliably scored Clear states expectations clearly student and teacher instructions are easy to understand Tomlinson/Wiggins Partial Lesson Sequence Grade 2: Matter Whole Class Differentiated Explore concept of matter

Talk about experiment procedures and Rock Slide experiment Do Rock Slide science story to describe properties of matter in small groups Read Trip to Matterdome and discuss states of matter Review experiment procedures and comparison chart Conduct experiment on states of matter in small groups Share ideas and generate questions about states of matter Review experiment procedures and change in matter Observe teacher-led experiment on changes in matter Share ideas/generate questions about properties of matter Students apply key ideas by selecting one activity from each row of Tic-Tac-Toe Introduce skills needed to make presentations Students chose an interest area to apply to extend understandings about matter Listen to one anothers plans Teacher Checklist for Group Work Students understand the task goals. Students understand whats expected of individuals to make the group work well. The task matches the goals (leads students to what they should know, understand, and be able to do) Most kids should find the task interacting. The task requires in important contribution from each group member based on his/her skills and/or interests. The task is likely to be demanding of the group and its members. The task requires genuine collaboration to achieve shared understanding. Timelines are brisk (but not rigid). Individuals are accountable for their own understanding of all facets of the task. Theres a way out for students who are not succeeding with the group.

There is opportunity for teacher or peer coaching and in-process quality checks. Students understand what to do next after they complete their work at a high level of quality. Working Conditions for Alternate Activities If you are working on alternate activities while others in the class are busy with more teacherdirected activities, you are expected to follow these guidelines: 1. Stay on task at all times with the alternate activities you have chosen. 2. Dont talk to the teacher while he or she is teaching. 3. When you need help, and the teacher is busy, ask someone else who is also working on the alternative activities. 4. If no one else can help you, continue to try the activity until the teacher is available, or move on to another activity until the teacher is free. 5. Use 6-inch voices when talking to each other about the alternative activities. (These are voices that can be heard no more than 6 inches away.) 6. Never brag about your opportunities to work on the alternative activities. 7. If you must go in and out of the room, do so soundlessly. 8. If you are going to work in another location, stay on task there, and follow the directions of the adult in charge. 9. Dont bother anyone else. 10. Dont call attention to yourself. I agree to the conditions described above, and know that if I dont follow them, I may lose the opportunity to continue with the alternate activities and may have to rejoin the class for teacher-directed instruction. ___________________ __________________ Teachers signature Students signature ( Winebrenner 97) Some Options for Responsive Teaching: HOW We Might Teach Work Walls Think Alouds

Word Maps Think-Pair-Share Three Minute Pause Highlighted Texts Mini Workshops Reading Buddies Tiered Homework Learning Contacts Graphic Organizer Learning Menus Learning Tickets Personal Agendas Tiered Activities Multiple Texts Oral Tests Echo Reading Recorded Text Digests Concept Maps Interest Groups Personalized Rubrics Cubing Think Tac Toe Think Dots Timelines Story Boards Group Investigation I-Search Design-A-Day Book Boxes Modeling Think Tanks Thinking Around the Block

Some Options for Responsive Teaching: HOW We Might Teach, contd Multiple Modes of Presentation Complex Instruction Whole to Part / Part to Whole Small Group Instruction Solo / Collaborate Options Intelligence options Teacher Choice / Student Choice New American Lecture Student Specific Illustrations Flexible Use of Materials Negotiated Criteria Alternate Assessments Group investigation Personalized Spelling Independent Study Mode of Expression Options Reciprocal Teaching Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles

of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts

Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction

Etc. Product What a student makes or does that shows the teacher he/she has the knowledge, understanding and skills that were taught. A student who UNDERSTANDS something can Explain it clearly, giving examples. Use it. Compare and contrast it with other concepts. Relate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and personal life experiences. Transfer it to unfamiliar settings. Discover the concept embedded within a novel problem. Combine it appropriately with other understandings. Pose new problems that exemplify or embody the concept.

Create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the concept. Pose and answer what-if questions that alter variables in a problematic situation. Generate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge and further inquiries. Generalize from specifics to form a concept. Use the knowledge to appropriate assess his or her performance, or that of someone else. Adapted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for Thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies to Enhance Intellectual Development Differentiating Products based on Readiness Interest Learning Profile Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum ongoing assessment and adjustment

building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts

Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. Differentiated Products Tiered products Student choice of mode of demonstrating learning Interest-based investigations Independent study Varied rubrics Criteria for success generated by or for

individuals Mentorships Creating a Powerful Product Assignment 1. Identify the essentials of the unit/study What students must: 2. As a result of the unit/study Identify one of more format or packaging options for the product: 3. Know (facts) Understand (concepts, generalizations) Be able to do (skills) Required (e.g. poetry, an experiment, graphing, charting) Hook Exploratory Talent/passion driven Determine expectations for quality in:

Content (information, ideas, concepts, research materials) Process (planning, goal-setting, defense of viewpoint, research, editing) Product (size, construction, durability, expert-level expectations, part Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, contd 4. Decide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote success: 5. Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student : 6.

You should show you understand and can do these things Proceeding through these steps/stages In this format At this level of quality Differentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on : 7. Brainstorming for ideas Developing rubrics/criteria for success Timelines Planning/goal-setting Storyboarding Critiquing Revising-editing Student readiness Student interest Students learning profile Coach for success! It is your job, as teacher, to make explicit That which you thought was implicit Sample Criteria for Developing Project Rigor From the Teacher Your Project Must Show:

1. An in-depth understanding of information and ideas involved in your topic. 2. Use of at least ____ primary resources. 3. Use of at least ____ secondary resources. 4. Your ability to blend or synthesize information from several sources. 5. Answer or illuminate at least 2 key questions which are important to your topic (and which are spelled out in your project introduction) 6. A concept map (or web) in the introduction which gives an accurate framework of your topic/field. 7. Your ability to apply relevant information appropriately in solving/addressing a problem. 8. Your use of information. 9. Your skill in elaboration as you use a broad array of ideas, insights, and information to add breadth to your topic. 10. That you understand and apply professional-like skills in your chosen mode of expression (photographer, videographer, artist, playright, journalist, essayist, etc. From the Child: I want my project also to be assessed based on: 1. 2. 3. 4. My use of figurative language. My depth of knowledge about ____.

My use of art skill in drawing my political cartoons. My organizational and planning skills in executing the project. 5. The breadth of reading Ive done. 6. The quality of the solution I propose to the problem my project addresses 7. The originality of the idea for my project 8. The way I blend together ideas from English and history in my project. 9. The way Ive used art materials to make my point. 10. The quality of the interview I conducted and the way I used its information in my project. Challenging Our Assumptions About Assessment Is assessment about sorting students into those who can and those who cant? - - - or is it about diagnosing where each student is so that teacher and student can together set goals and identify learning experiences to lead to those goals? Is assessment a series of marks that, even though not equivalent in size and scope, get averaged into a final grade? - - - or is it the development of a rich and full picture of the learners growth over time, with a cumulative sense of what she can do with what she knows? A differentiated classroom Should support, and is Supported by, an evolving Community of learners What that means is . . . The teacher leads his students in developing the sorts of

attitudes, beliefs, and practices that would characterize a really good neighborhood. Two Views of Assessment -Assessment is for: Gatekeeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to others Use with single activities Assessment is for: Nurturing Guiding Self-Reflection Information Comparison to task Use over multiple activities WHAT IS A GRADE? . . . a grade (is) . . . An inadequate report of an imprecise judgment of a biased and variable judge of the extent to which a student has attained an undefined level of mastery of an unknown proportion of an indefinite amount

of materials Paul Dressell, Michigan State University Grading Practices The following questions help ensure that grading practices are productive for all students. How do learners benefit from a grading system that reminds everyone that students who speak English as a second language do not perform as well as students without disabilities or for whom English is not their native tongue? Grading Practices What do we gain by telling our most able learners that they are excellent on the basis of a standard that requires modest effort, calls for no intellectual risk, necessitates no persistence, and demands that they develop few academic coping skills? In what ways do our current grading practices motivate struggling or advanced learners to persist in the face of difficulty? Grading Practices Is there an opportunity for struggling learners to encounter excellence in our current grading practices? Is there an opportunity for advanced learners to encounter struggle in our current grading practices?

-- Carol Ann Tomlinson WHAT are grades for? Administration purposes? Feedback about student achievement? Guidance? Instructional Planning? Motivation? A = Excellent Growth B = Very Good Growth C = Some Growth D = Little Growth F No observable growth 1 = Above grade level 2 = At grade level 3 = Below grade level A = Excellent B = Very Good C = Average D = Poor F Unsatisfactory 1 = Above grade level 2 = At grade level 3 = Below grade level A-1 = Excellent performance; working above grade level A-2 = Excellent performance; working at grade level A-3 = Excellent performance; working below grade level Personal grade & Traditional grade: B = Personal grade

D = Traditional grade C = Personal grade A = Traditional grade Grades are supposed to: 1. Motivate students 2. Report accurately to parents At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means shaking up up what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. The Business of Schools Is to produce work that engages students, that is so compelling that students persist when they experience difficulties, and that is so challenging that students have a sense of accomplishment, of satisfactionindeed, of delightwhen they successfully accomplish the tasks assigned. Inventing Better Schools * Schlechty Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs

guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers

Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts

Complex instruction Etc. Where You Teach Effective teachers understand that the learning environment they create in their classrooms may be the single most important make-or-break element in helping students become the best they can be. This is a matter of the heart. Tomlinson, 2003, p. 5 The Classroom Environment Where You Teach It is not likely that diverse learners will each find the classroom inviting if there is only one set of benchmarks for success, an inflexible curriculum, or a single timeline for growth. Tomlinson, 2003, p. 6 Painting a Portrait of the Differentiated Classroom A A Differentiated Differentiated Classroom Classroom in in Balance Balance

F L E X I B L E Shared Vision Shared goals Inviting Conceptbased Focused Product Oriented Sense Of Community Resource Time Groups Approaches to teaching

and learning Shared responsibility Self Respect for individual On-going assessment to determine need Concern For Group Feedback and grading ZPD Target Tomlinson-oo FLEXIBLE GROUPING Students are part of many different groups and also work alone based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills-based or interest-based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random. 1

3 Teacher and whole class begin exploration of a topic or concept Students and teacher come together to share information and pose questions 5 7 9 The whole class reviews key ideas and extends their study through sharing The whole class is introduced to a skill needed later to make a presentation The whole class listens to individual study plans and establishes baseline criteria for success

Students engage in further study using varied materials based on readiness and learning style Students work on varied assigned tasks designed to help them make sense of key ideas at varied levels of complexity and varied pacing In small groups selected by students, they apply key principles to solve teachergenerated problems related to their study Students self-select interest areas through which they will apply and extend their understandings 2 4 6 8 A differentiated classroom is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class preparation, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small-group exploration, sense-making, extension, and production Principles of Differentiated Instruction

Analyze the scenario youve read or the lesson samples in the video segment to identify specific examples of how these principles were applied. List them in the Evidence of Use column next to the appropriate principle. Then write any suggestions for improving the practice or action from the scenario or video in the Suggestions for Use and Improvement column. Principle 1. Learning experiences are based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. 2. Assessment of student needs is ongoing, and tasks are adjusted based on assessment data. 3. All students participate in respectful work. 4. The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than primarily a provider of information. 5. Students work in a variety of group configurations. Flexible grouping is evident. 6. Time use is flexible in response to student needs. 7. The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to help target instruction to student needs. 8. Clearly established criteria are used to help support student success. 9. Student strengths are emphasized. Evidence of Use Suggestions for use and improvement Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #1

For several days in Mrs. Jacobsens sixth grade science class, students have been investigating the impact of simple machines on modern technology and our current lifestyles. The study is part of an on-going attempt to help students make connections between science and daily life. Students have been assigned to one of two task force groups by Mrs. Jacobsen based on her on-going assessment of their readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles. Task Force #1 will work in smaller groups of three or four students (self-selected). They are looking at simple machines at work in more complex ways in the school. They will complete a photo safari (using a Polaroid) of places in which they hypothesize one or more simple machines are disguised as part of something more complex, complete photo layouts naming their found objects and stated hypotheses of which simple machines are involved and why they think so, and search out evidence which supports or refutes their hypotheses (including classroom & library reference books and designated school staff). Students must then add a tested hypothesis statement in which they note whether their original hypotheses was accurate and why or why not. Students in Task Force #2 must understand it in some detail, and develop a device for addressing the problem. The device must contain at least three simple machines working in concert with one another (and other elements). They must make a written or graphic design of their device, carefully delineating its parts and how they work together as a whole. They may then make a working model, non-working but accurate and proportional model, model in which humans take on the roles of the parts of the device and demonstrate how it works, or another student-proposed demonstration Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #2 In Mrs. Walkers first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for a period of time each morning. There are two choice boards in the classroom one called Teacher Choice and one called Student Choice. Each student has at least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two of teacher choice selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred may select from any of 8-12 pockets on the student choice board. These offer a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing to modelmaking. All of the options encourage students to use language in ways which they find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student

choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from red and yellow rows (but not blue row). Often she also staggers center work so that some students work at centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language. Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #3 In eighth grade math, Miss Harrington has a wide range of students in her class even though all are in Algebra 1. Sometimes, she does board demonstrations for the class on new concepts or topics which students seem to have difficulty grasping. She makes an effort to use no more than 15-20 minutes for the demonstrations. She then has students work in a variety of groups. Sometimes she assigns students to mixed-readiness pairs or quads for peer tutoring. Sometimes she does direct instruction with a number of students, while others work independently on assigned problems or their longterm independent study projects throughout much of the year. They vary in complexity, duration and the amount of structure provided by the teacher, but all of the projects require that students grapple with math at work in the world, and expand their skills of independence. All allow a range of options through which students can study and express their understandings. For students advanced in a particular segment of algebra, independent projects often serve as a sort of compacting, allowing these students to work on their personal investigations in lieu of homework and/or classwork on which they have already shown mastery. Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #4 Mr. Greene has a music class in which fifth and sixth graders learn to play the recorder and ultimately play for a variety of school and community events. Some of his students have no experience with music, some played with the recorder group last year but have no other musical experience, and some are quite talented with musical instruments beyond the recorder. He often arranges

music so that the score contains some basic parts which allow students to play while they explore key concepts related to rhythm, melody, etc. on a foundation level. He takes care to have other parts which require more complex fingering, reading and rhythm. In addition, he adds brief solo parts which can be taken on by individuals especially talented in music. He says he can begin a class with all students reading a piece together, break up the whole group so that he works first with the more basic group, the intermediate group, and the advanced group separately, and finally bring everyone back together again. He likes the fact that everyone plays real music, everyone makes a contribution, and everyone is challenged at an appropriate level of readiness. In addition, he likes the fact that often a student who begins at a novice level will demonstrate considerable facility with reading and playing music fairly quickly and can move to more complex music easily and quickly enough to keep them interested. Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #5 Miss Justin works with her English 7 students in a variety of ways to tap into their interests, readiness levels and learning profiles. Based on pretesting, she assigns students to different vocabulary studies, super sentences and spelling lists. In writing, students often select topics of interest to them for particular writing assignments. For each writing form (e.g. essay, letter to the editor, etc.) there are certain criteria for success required of all students. In addition, students learn to pinpoint personal goals and base student-generated criteria upon those goals and Miss Justin generally adds a couple of criteria to each students general and personal list for major assignments. In literature, students often select novels, dramas or short stories of interest to them to accompany whole-class pieces thus enabling common focus with personalized side explorations. Further, products can often be produced alone or in studentselected groups of specified size and offer options for expression of student learning, as well as guidance for how to ensure top quality production. Miss Justin finds Group Investigation appropriate for high level study of studentgenerated topics, and Teams, Games & Tournaments to be useful for study of vocabulary, basic literature information, grammar constructs and other straightforward data requiring student mastery.

Differentiated Instruction in Action Scenario #6 Mr. Phillips has three strategies which he is particularly comfortable using in high school biology to address the academic diversity in his mixed-ability classroom. He routinely uses the New American Lecture format (incorporating focused review, discussion, and graphic organizers) to ensure that all students are prompted in regard to the key content of his lectures. He also routinely uses a set of five different graphic organizers to guide students in their analysis of required reading. All require analysis of key information, but some require greater leaps of inference from the students than do others. In product design, he likes offering three options to students one more analytical in nature, one more practical and one more creative. He finds that students come to understand their own strengths better through the year and find science a more relevant endeavor because they can put to work what they learn in a way which fits their own learning strengths. In labs, he sometimes offers two options based on assessment of student understanding of key concepts one designed to give students concrete, hands-on experience watching key principles in action, and a second designed to necessitate that students develop labs on their own to demonstrate key principles. Finally, he often uses varying tests based on student readiness and learning profile. In all test situations, students must demonstrate the ability to use key principles, but some students do so at a more basic level and some at a level which adds variables, introduces fuzzy problems, or requires considerable abstraction. Prepared by Carol Tomlinson, UVa Scenario of a Differentiated Classroom Background Ms Largent has taught in a differentiated classroom for most of her 15 years as a teacher. Differentiation has become a natural and relatively automatic way for her to think about teaching and learning. She and her U.S. History students have spent much of this school year exploring the concepts of stability, change, and revolution. They have related these key concepts to the ebb and flow of history, making parallels to the time period they are studying, current events, students

own lives, and other subjects such as literature and science. This helps students make connections between what they study in history, other areas they study, and their own lives. More recently, students have been looking at the idea of revolution in the past by looking at current trends in technology. Students are investigating two parallel generalizations: (1) revolution affects individuals as nations, and (2) people affect revolution. Key skills for the unit are appropriate use and interpretations of research materials, and support of ideas with appropriate evidence. Scenario Getting Started To ensure that all students have the necessary background, students have worked on several tasks this week. First, Ms Largent gave a pre-test on the chapter. Students who had considerable background knowledge began working with tasks designed to come after acquisition of background knowledge. Other students completed a K-W-L activity and then read the text chapter on the Industrial Revolution. By their own choice, some read with reading buddies and some alone. During the course of two days, the teacher met with small reading and discussion groups of 6 8 students. With struggling learners, she read key passages to them, had them read key passages aloud, and ensured their understanding of essential ideas and events. She also helped them think about their experiences and how those experiences might link with those of early adolescents during the Industrial Revolution. With two other small groups, she probed their comprehension of the chapter and then posed questions about how changes in technology affected society then and now, for better and for worse. With one group of advanced learners, she had students propose and discuss social, economic, and political costs and benefits of the Industrial Revolution. Later, in a whole class discussion, she raised all the these ideas again.

Scenario To prepare for a chapter test, Ms Largent assigned mixed readiness review teams and gave them a teacher-prepared review protocol clarifying what students needed to know and understand for the test. Students took part in a Teams-Games-Tournament review, studying in mixed readiness teams, and participating in the games portion of the review at similar readiness tables. This allowed the teacher to adjust questions to an appropriate challenge level for individual students, but still enabled all students were required to answer. One set of students, however, had an essay question closely related to their own experience and to the class discussions. Another set of students had a question requiring them to venture further into unexplored applications. Expanding the Study To move from specifics about the Industrial Revolution to a broader application of key understandings, students selected one of ten modern revolutionary figures to investigate as a way of seeing how people affect revolution. The students worked independently for a day and then formed a cluster with other students who selected the same revolutionary figure. They decided how their cluster should show what a revolutionary figure does. The cluster groups could decide to make a caricature, create a blueprint for a revolutionary, draft a reference book entry on what a revolutionary is and does, or act out their response. In most classes, there were six or seven cluster groups. After preparing the product, each cluster group gave one presentation to 2-3 other cluster groups. Finally, Ms Largent led the class in making a list of generalizations about how revolutionaries affect change. Scenario Next, some students used excerpts from either Katherine Patersons novel, Liddie or Harriette Arnows novel The Dollmaker (both set in the Industrial Revolution the former written at a relatively basic reading level, the latter at a more advanced reading level) to investigate how revolution affects individuals and how individuals affect revolution. Ms Largent assigned students to one of four groups based largely on her assessment of student readiness in reading, abstractness of thinking, and independence in research. In some instances,

however, she placed students in groups based on learning style needs (e.g. students who might need to hear rather than read passages). One group listened to a tape of key passages from Lyddie, distilling how and why the main character became first a factory worker, then an organizer for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time line of data and events demonstrating how the character was initially affected by events in a revolution and then came to affect events in that revolution. A second group read specified portions of Lyddie and a folder of articles on current factory conditions in developing countries. Their task was to work in groups of three to produce an authentic conversation between Lyddie and two fact-based fictional characters from contemporary sweat shops in which the three shared problems, dreams and a plan of action. Scenario A third groups listened to excerpts from The Dollmaker. They then selected a partner from their groups and investigated benefits to contemporary society that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution. Working with their partners, they created a written or made-for-TV Editorial on the proposition that the cost of the industrial Revolution was (or was not) worth its benefits. A fourth group read designated excerpts from both Lyddie and The Dollmaker. They then researched the current computer revolution and used what they learned to create on of three products: (1) a series of comparative editorial cartoons based on the Industrial Revolution and the Computer revolution, (2) a computer revolution version of version of an episode paralleling Lyddie or The Dollmaker, or (3) a TV newsmagazine style segment on how the computer revolution is affecting people and how people are affecting the computer revolution. Students in the TV newsmagazine group will need more time to complete their work, but will periodically work on their task rather than

doing homework and class work that focus on skills and information they have already mastered. Scenario Applying What Has Been Learned At the end of the Industrial Revolution study, all students will select someone who revolutionized a field of interest to them (e.g. womens rights, sports, medicine, aviation, civil rights, physics, music, their own community). Each student will complete a product called Dangerous Minds: Understanding People Who Revolutionize the World. There are two versions of the product assignment. One is more transformational, abstract, open-ended and complex than the other in content, process production, and rubrics. Ms Largents goal in assigning a given version of the product to a particular student is to push that student a bit further than he is comfortable going in knowledge, insight, thinking, planning, research, use of skills, and production. All students must demonstrate an understanding of the key concepts and generalizations for the unit, and appropriate application of the units key skills. A Comparison of Non-Differentiated and Differentiated Classrooms Non-Differentiated Classroom 1. Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic. 2. __________________________________ __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 4. Whole class instruction dominates.

5. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 6. A single form of assessment is often used. 7. __________________________________ __________________________________ 8. The teacher solves problems. 9. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 10. __________________________________ __________________________________ Differentiated Classroom 1. Student differences are studied as a basis for planning. 2. Assessment is on-going and diagnostic to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner need. 3. Student readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instruction. 4. __________________________________ ________________________________ 5. Many learning profile options are provided for. 6. __________________________________ ________________________________ 7. Multiple materials are provided. 8. __________________________________ ________________________________ 9. Students work with the teacher to establish both whole class and individual learning goals.

10. The teacher facilitates students skills at becoming self-reliant learners. Differentiating Learning Experiences In a differentiated classroom, a number of things are going on in any given class period. Over time, all students complete assignments individually and in small groups, and wholegroup instruction also occurs. Sometimes students select their group size and tasks, sometimes they are assigned. Sometimes the teacher establishes criteria for success, sometimes students do. And setting standards for success is often a collaborative process. (Continued) Because there are many different things happening, no one assignment defines normal, and no one sticks out. The teacher thinks and plans in terms of multiple avenues to learning for varied needs, rather than in terms of normal and different. -Carol Ann Tomlinson The TONE of any classroom greatly affects those who inhabit it and the learning that takes place there.

These ideas square with my beliefs. These are the ideas that are going around in my head. Three points I want to remember. Some of the ideas I am leaving here with today are.. This made me wiggle in my seat. Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping quality curriculum

ongoing assessment and adjustment building community Teachers can differentiate Content Process Readiness Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Affect/ Environment Product Tiered lessons

Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. A differentiated classroom Should support, and is Supported by, an evolving Community of learners What that means is . . .

The teacher leads his students in developing the sorts of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that would characterize a really good neighborhood. In a differentiated classroom, the teacher proactively plans and carries out varied approaches to content, process, and product in anticipation of a response to student differences in readiness, interest, and learning needs. Differentiated Instruction Is a teachers response to learners needs guided by the general principles of differentiation, such as respectful tasks flexible grouping appropriate goals ongoing assessment and adjustment appropriate goals Teachers can differentiate

Content Process Readiness Product Interest through a range of instructional Multiple intelligences Jigsaw Taped materials Anchor activities Varying organizers Varied texts Varied supplementary materials Literature circles Etc. Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products Learning contracts Small group instruction Group investigation Orbitals Independent study Etc. Environment

Learning Profile strategies RAFT Cubing Think Dots Tiered Reading Entry and Exot Cards 4-MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest centers Interest groups Varied homework Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex instruction Etc. BALANCING THE EQUATION TO MAKE DIFFERENTIATION WORK The Why Motivation to learn Access to learning Efficiency of learning The What The teacher modifying: Content (what students learn and the materials that represent that.) Process (activities through which students make sense of key ideas using essential skills.) Product (how students

demonstrate and extend what they know, understand and can do.) Learning Environment (the classroom conditions that set the tone and expectations of learning.) The How The teacher differentiates in response to: Readiness Interest Learning Profile Differentiated Instruction is Where will I begin? IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . . 1. Organize time to work with individuals and small groups? 2. Make sure more students have opportunities to learn the ways they learn best? 3. Make classroom materials a better match for more learners? 4. Make sure teacher presentations work better for more learners? IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . .contd 5. Make pacing work better for more students? 6. Match classrooms tasks to learner

needs? 7. Make homework more useful for each learner? 8. Maximize the likelihood that assessments let each learner show what he/she really knows, understands, can do? IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . .contd Find a colleague to support me on this journey Begin Slowly Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Lets Make a Deal projects Computer mentors

Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation

Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats What can I do? Where will I start? a little----------------------------a lot Pre-assess students to find out what they know and are able to do. _____________ Let students in on what they are learning and why it is important. _____________ Give students choices on how they will learn something. _____________

Give students choices on who they will work with. ______________ Give students choices on where they will work. ______________ Give students choices on how they will demonstrate their learning. ______________ Ask students about their interests. ______________ Intentionally gather data about how your students learn best. ______________ Know what matters in the subjects you teach. ______________

What do you do? Where will I start? Explain to students how what they are doing which helps them make sense of the learning. _______________ Assign students tasks that respect who they are and what they need to learn. _______________ Group students in a variety of different configurations and for a variety of purposes. _______________ Speed up or slow down for different learners. _______________ Emphasize growth and progress through my words and actions. _______________

Deliberately teach a lesson or make an assignment that responds to different students needs? _______________ Give students different ways to access the content. _______________ Give a wide range of product alternatives. _______________ I will create a healthy classroom? _______________ Summarize and Reflect Please take a few minutes to reflect on todays work. Decide the following. What are three things you may have learned today, were reminded of today, or that you thought were helpful? What are two things you would like more information about? What one thing are you going to do when you return to your work site? EXPERT

OR DISTINGUISHED TEACHING. Focuses on the understandings and skills of a discipline. Causes students to wrestle with profound ideas. Calls on students to use what they learn in important ways. EXPERT OR DISTINGUISHED TEACHING. Helps students organize and make sense of ideas and information. Aids students in connecting the classroom with a wider world. Brandt, Danielson, Schlechty, Wiggins, & McTighe Appendix of Examples Beliefs A. Human beings share common feelings and needs, and schools should help us understand and respect those needs. B. Individuals also differ significantly as learners; these differences matter in the classroom, and schools should help us understand and respect the differences. C. Intelligence is dynamic rather than static, plural rather than singular.

Beliefs D. We probably underestimate the capacity of every child as a learner. E. Students should be at the enter of the learning process, actively involved in making sense of the world around them through the lenses we call the disciplines. Beliefs F. All learners require respectful, powerful, and engaging schoolwork to develop their individual capacities so that they become fulfilled and productive members of society. Beliefs G. Students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances. H. The differences in students are significant enough to make major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers and others to learn it well. I. A major emphasis in learner development is competition against oneself for growth and progress. Beliefs J. Teachers and other adults need to help learners accept responsibility for their own

growth and progress. K. Individuals and society benefit when schools and classrooms are genuine communities of respect and learning. Beliefs L. Students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond where they can work without assistance. M. Students will learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum and their interests and life experiences. Beliefs N. A major emphasis in learner development is competition against oneself for growth and progress. O. Teachers and other adults need to help learners accept responsibility for their own growth and progress. P. Individuals and society benefit when schools and classrooms are genuine communities of respect and learning. Beliefs Q. Effective heterogeneous classrooms are essential to building community in our schools. R. Effective heterogeneous classrooms are powerful venues because most students spend most of their school time in such classrooms.

Beliefs S. All effective heterogeneous classrooms recognize the similarities and differences in learners and robustly attend to them. T. Excellent differentiated classrooms are excellent first and differentiated second. Summary Summary Statements Statements About About Learning Learning 1. 1. People Peoplelearn learnwhat what isispersonally personallymeaningful meaningfulto tothem. them. 2. 2. People Peoplelearn learnwhen whenthey theyaccept accept challenging challengingbut but achievable achievablegoals.

goals. 3. 3. Learning Learningisisdevelopmental. developmental. 4. 4. Individuals Individualslearn learn differently. differently. 5. 5. People Peopleconstruct construct new newknowledge knowledgeby bybuilding buildingon ontheir their current currentknowledge. knowledge. 6. 6. Much Muchlearning learningoccurs occursthough thoughsocial socialinteraction. interaction. 7. 7. People

Peopleneed needfeedback feedbackto tolearn. learn. 8. 8. Successful Successfullearning learninginvolves involvesuse useof ofstrategies strategieswhich which themselves themselvesare arelearned. learned. 9. 9. AApositive positiveemotional emotionalclimate climatestrengthens strengthenslearning. learning. 10. 10. Learning Learningisisinfluenced influencedby bythe thetotal totalenvironment. environment.

Powerful Learning by Ron Brandt TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Students differ significantly in learning readiness as well as in interest and learning profile. Even in homogeneous classes, there is considerable heterogeneity of readiness, interest, and learning profile. Most students in most classes would benefit from effectively differentiated instruction. TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Currently, research clearly indicates that teachers do little to modify instruction based on learner variance. Research also suggests the system does little to encourage differentiation of instruction. As a nation, we have much to gain if we can develop and sustain effective heterogeneous communities of learning. Heterogeneity (and, in fact, public education) cannot flourish unless it can offer to maximize growth in its individual learners. TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Struggling and advanced learners can fare

well in heterogeneous rather than homogeneous classes, to the degree that those classes provide the sorts of meaningful services the students would otherwise receive outside those classes. When effective services are not or cannot be provided in heterogeneous settings, specialized services are necessary. Tomlinson, U.Va 97 TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION Generalists cannot typically provide effective specialized services without consistent and effective partnerships with specialists. Differentiated instruction is likely to be illconceived and unsuccessful unless it is predicated upon best-practice instruction for all learners. Differentiated Instruction is an evolutionary change process for teachers and schools, requiring time, sustained effort and support, and flexible use of resources. Tomlinson, U.Va 97 Examples of Tiered Lessons Capsules of Tiered Activities CAPSULE ! Mr. Morgan uses math learning centers as one way of differentiating math instruction for his 1st graders. During the day today, all his students will go to the math center to work on addition. Students know whether to work from the tiger, giraffe, zebra, or kangaroo folders by looking at a chart with each name under one of the four animal pictures. Students may get

directions for their work by reading task cards in their folders or listening to a cassette tape, also marked with the animal picture. One folder contains a counting task. Another, directions to work with manipulatives, and then complete number sentences calling for one-digit addition. Another directs students to complete one-digit addition number sentences without manipulatives and then some two-digit number sentences with mjanipulatives. A final folder has students complete two-digit number sentences without manipulatives. All students check their answers with cassette tapes or a designated expert of the day who is on duty while they are at the center. In a few days, Mr. Morgan will reassess student placement in groups based on current skill levels and he will also scramble the readiness level of the groups working with each animal folder. Capsules of Tiered Activities, contd CAPSULE 2 In German 1, Mrs. Phillips students are working with past-tense verbs this week. For a part of today, they will work in one of three groups to practice using the verbs. Students in one group will complete an oral round-robin exercise by reading German sentences and questions from a flipchart, and selecting which of two verb forms beneath a sentence group take turns reading sentences with present-tense verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense questions. A third group works in pairs to ad lib a conversation in which they ask questions and give answers about what happened to home and school yesterday and today. Tomorrow, students will work in mixed readiness triads to prepare for a skill drill. Capsules of Tiered Activities, contd CAPSULE 3 Students in Mrs. Schlims 6th grade class are working with elections in current events. Students in one group work in pairs, using an elementarylevel current events magazine to complete a list of background questions. They will also use Time and Newsweek to get information

from a cartoon and a graph. Pairs of students in the other group will use Time and Newsweek to answer a second set of background questions (dealing with the same concepts, but at a more abstract and complex level). They will also use the elementary-level magazine to get information necessary for one question on their background sheet. Tomorrow, students will participate in cooperative tag-team debates. In tag-team debates, students prepare as a group for one side of a debate, and they may call on or tag others on the same side when they feel the need for assistance as they present. They will select pro or con, then the teacher will assign groups of six (some similar readiness, some mixed readiness) for the tag-team debates. Capsules of Tiered Activities, contd CAPSULE 4 Mrs. Vreeland sometimes uses differentiated learning-log prompts when her students are reading novels. Students began reading The Winter Room by Gary Paulsen, and Mrs. Vreeland wanted them all to focus on how Paulsen uses sensory words as a tool and art form. Students received one of three learning-log pages. One group of students was asked to list words that relate to smells, to sounds, and to ears as they read the first few pages of the book. They also needed to write a sentence or two about anything in their experiences the sensory words reminded them of. A second group was asked to respond to how a reader draws from personal experiences to relate to the smells, sounds, and visual descriptions in the first few pages. A third group of students selected a setting of their own that freezes a moment in time, wrote a descriptive entry about their setting (modeling after Paulsens writing), and added a statement about why sense words make a passage seem to come alive. Capsules of Tiered Activities, contd CAPSULE 5

Ms. Thomason and her students explored the ethics of communication. On one day, students worked in one of three groups, exploring the concept of plagiarism, as follows: Working in pairs or threes, Group 1 students wrote their best guess of a definition of plagiarism, looked up a definition in at least one print and one computer source, wrote a definition appropriate for the class (including defending the definition), and illustrated by hand or with a computer a definition that would be suitable for a young child. Students in Group 2 worked with partners or alone to present examples of person accused of plagiarism and outcomes of the accusation, and to illustrate by hand or with the computer how the definition of plagiarism has changed over time. Students in Group 3 worked in pairs or triads to create a poster (on the computer or by hand), ranking the seriousness of plagiarism with other crimes, including a defense of the ranking. They also had to examine four quotes about plagiarism (given them by the teacher), explain similarities between the authors definition and a dictionary definition, and be ready to discuss inferences the students could draw from the quotes (e.g., French artist Paul Gauguin suggested that art is either plagiarism or revolution). On another day, there were only two working groups. Students in one group worked in twos or threes to research current laws on plagiarism, stating them in easily understood language and placing them in logical order. They also had to sue the list to create guidelines that would help students avoid plagiarism, and do a 30-60 second public service announcement helping the public understand one of the guidelines and why they should follow it. The second group worked alone or in pairs to either predict what might constitute plagiarism in 100 years, defend their predictions, or pick a person (currently alive, or famous in the past), write that persons definition of plagiarism, and defend the definition on historical and biographical data. HIGH SCHOOL TIERD LESSON: PHYSICS UNDERSTAND: Key principles of Aerodynamics KNOW: Basic Vocabulary DO: Construct objects that project themselves through space in the different directions as a demonstration of the key principles Paper Airplanes

Easier That fly for distance That fly for hang time That fly for tricks Kites Harder Easier Box Diamonds Triangle Layered Harder Pin Wheel: Tilt propellers different ways to create: Forward motion Easier Backward Motion Upward Motion Harder Great Opportunity to make teams of theoreticians, scholars, designers and builders. New NewWorld

WorldExplorers Explorers Know: Names of New World Explorers Key Events of contribution Principle / Generalization Understand: Exploration involves risk Exploration involves costs and benefits Exploration involves success and failure Group A: Using a teacher provided list or resources and a list of product options, show how two key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide proof/evidence. Group B: Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how the New World explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the units principles. Know: Use of past tense verbs (regular) Do: Sentence construction Group A: Given English sentences, supply the correct German pronoun and regular past tense verb, as well as other missing world. Group B: Given an English scenario, write a German dialogue that uses correct nouns, pronouns, present and past tense verbs, and other vocabulary as necessary. Group C: Develop a conversation that shows your fluency with German verbs, word pronouns, and other vocabulary. Use blip sparingly, but when essential. Be sure to incorporate idioms.

Tiered Lesson -- ART Skill: Contour Drawing 1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your draw. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing. 2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand. That means you can look at your hand and the paper but Cannot draw any time you look at the paper. Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing a half-blind contour drawing. 3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination Do a blind contour drawing of your hand. Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your sketchbook. Elementary Physical Education SKILL: Dribbling and basketball 1 Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand

Switch to the other hand and repeat. Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight line) 2 ZIGZAG One hand Other hand Increased speed 3 In and out of pylons as fast as possible Change hand Increase speed 4 Dribble with one hand and a partner playing defense. Increase speed and use other hand Trade roles 5 Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense Increase speed Trade roles Change pattern to simulate going around opponents Grade K Counting (Skill) Grade K Key Concept: Patterns Counting/Math Center Task 1 Find a way to count and show how many people are in our class today. Generalization: Scientists Classify

by Patterns Use carpenters aprons to collect data through a nature walk. How did you get your answer? Task 2 Find a way to show how many people are in our class. How many absent today? How many are here today? How do you know? Task 3 Find a way to show how many boys are in our class today. How many boys are absent today? How many girls are here today? How many girls are absent today? Prove you are right. Tomlinson 97 At Science Center: Pre-made grid with categories on it Task 1 Classify Leaves by size by color Sample grid students create own grid Task 2 Classify Leaves by shape

create a category Students decide how to show categories and contents Task 3 Find 3 ways each leaf could be classified other than color Examples of Independent Study TOPIC BROWSING PLANNER Students name: ___Jason______________________________ Date: October 30, 1999 GENERAL TOPIC OF INTEREST: ________Antarctica__________________________ SUBTOPICS I WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT: ___Antarctic wildlife__________________ _____Human survival in Antarctica______ __Fast melting of polar ice caps________ _____Female Antarctic explorers_______ HOW I MIGHT COLLECT INFORMATION ABOUT THIS TOPIC: INFORMATION SOURCES CALL NUMBER, AUTHOR OR DATE TITLE WHERE I FOUND IT

Books Hackwell, W.J. Seth, Roland Byrd, Richard DESERT OF ICE ANTARCTICA ANTARCTICA; Accounts School Library School Library School Library Periodicals; (magazines, newspapers, etc.) February 1992, Shapiro, D. October 1989, Madson, M SAILING Letter from Antarctica WOMENS SPORTS The Last Continent Other Sources (TV, radio, etc) How to Use the Topic Browsing Planner 1. Help the student select a topic to investigate. Topics dont have to be related to the curriculum. Utilize the services of library personnel, both school and public.

2. Provide a place for the student to store accumulated resource materials. Suggestions: Space on a bookshelf; an empty desk. 3. Explain to the student how to fill out the Planner. During the exploration phase (510 days), students should fill in all sections except How I Can Share What Ive Learned. Remind them to take no formal notes during browsing time. 4. Meet with the student after the browsing is completed. Help the student to select a subtopic to research and present to the class. Encourage students to choose subtopics of genuine interest to them. If they dont wish to pursue any subtopic, allow them to move on to another topic. When they do choose a subtopic, help them to complete a Resident Expert Planner (page 59 or 60). 5. Make sure the student understands that he or she must choose one subtopic to study in depth for every three browsing experiences. If students resist, try to find out why. Perhaps they are reluctant to get up in front of the class for any reason; working together, you should be able to develop a mutually acceptable way for them to share their information. Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom Topic Browsing Planner, contd PROFESSIONALS WITH WHOM I MIGHT CONDUCT INTERVIEWS: Name Profession Workplace

__Dr. L. K. Olsen_______________Antarctic scholar__________________Shedd Aquarium, Chicago _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ EXPERIMENTS OR SURVEYS I MIGHT CONDUCT; __How the changing speed of melting ice affects stationary objects and land forms_______________ _________________________________________________________________________________ HOW I CAN SHARE WHAT IVE LEARNED ABOUT ONE SUBTOPIC; __Biographies of 2 female explorers____________________________________________________ __Mock interviews__________________________________________________________________ How to Use the Primary Grades Resident Expert Planner 1. Help the student find a topic he or she might be interested in exploring. If students have trouble finding a topic, use the Interest Survey on page 62. Or simply ask students what theyd like to learn about. Take them to browse library nonfiction shelves, and help them collect a variety of books and other information sources. 2. Provide a place for the students to store accumulated resource materials. Suggestions: Space on a bookshelf; an empty desk. 3. Encourage the student to look through the materials during any free time he or she has available. Or they may use any time they have left over by finishing assigned tasks before the rest of the class. 4.

Show the student how to record ideas of interest on the top portion of the Planner. Reassure students that they will need to do further research on only one of the topics listed. Demonstrate how to list topics in brief form. 5. Meet briefly with the student as he or she looks through the materials. Encourage students to keep an open mind so they can gather many ideas. Instruct them to record only those ideas they understand. 6. Discourage the student from taking any notes during the information-gathering stage. Tell students that the time for note taking will come later. 7. Ask the student to select one subtopic on which to become a resident expert. Try to keep students from making their selection until 5-10 school days have passed. This gives them ample time to browse their topic and identify several possible subtopics. 8. Help the student plan how to share with the class what he or she learns about the subtopic. Discourage formal written reports. For either ideas, see Acceptable Student Projects on page 41 of Chapter 4. Use some method to control the time students take to share their information with the class. Schedule a private meeting with them afterward if they need to share more than the class needs to know. PRIMARY GRADES RESIDENT EXPERT PLANNER Subject ____________________________________________ Date ________________ What I Might Want to Learn About: ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ How I can Share One Topic with the Class: ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom How to Use the Upper Grades Resident Expert Planner 1. Help the student select one subtopic from the Topic Browsing Planner. A subtopic should be something the student really wants to learn more about. Ask the student to make sure that there is sufficient information about his or her subtopic. 2. List the subtopic on the line, The Subtopic I Will Study from the Topic Browsing Planner. 3. Direct the student to list specific things he or she wants to learn about the subtopic. Encourage students to choose items that reflect higher levels of thinking. (See Chapter 6, pages 67-69, for information on Blooms Taxonomy.) 4. Direct the student to gather infomration from a variety of sources. Encourage students to use both

school and public library facilities. Ask the librarians to help students explore technological sources. 5. Set a time limit for the students report to the class, and direct the student to share only the sections he or she thinks other students will find most interesting. Dont limit the amount of data students gather just the amount they present.; Provide time and opportunities for students to share the balance of their data with other audiences including yourself, professionals in the field, librarians, etc. 6. Help the student choose a method for sharing the information. For ideas, see Acceptable Student Projects on page 41 of Chapter 4. UPPER GRADES RESIDENT EXPERT PLANNER Students name ____________________________________ Date ________________ The Subtopic I Will Study from the Topic Browsing Planner: _______________________________________________________________________ What I Want to Learn About: ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Sources of Information Used in My Study:______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ The Most Interesting Information I Discovered__________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ How I Will Share What Ive Learned with an Audience:____________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Date I Will Be Ready to Share Some Information: _______________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom I Can Learn on My Own I have some questions about: ___ Something weve studied in school ___ Something Ive read or heard about at home ___ Other The topic I have questions about is: Questions I have are: To find out about these questions I will: I plan to find my answers by: _________________ (date) The way Im going to share my information is: _____________________________________ (Presentation method) My Research Project My topic _______________________________________ What I Already Know: 1._____________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________ What I Want to Find Out: 1._____________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________

5. _____________________________________________ Activities How Can I Find Our?(Resources) 1.____________________ 1._______________________ 2.____________________ 2._______________________ 3.____________________ 3._______________________ 4.____________________ 4. _______________________ 5.____________________ 5. _______________________ How I Will Share My Project ___ Oral Report ___Written Report ___ Posters ___Other Date Began_____________ Date Completed___________ Researcher(s) ___________________________________ ____________________________________ My Contract on __________________ I will draw: Independent Study Synopsis 1. Student(s) completing the project:__________________ 2.Topic:________________________________________ I will read: I will look at and listen to: 3. What do you hope to accomplish by doing the project? 4. Who will your audience be? 5. What suggestions do you have for evaluating the success of your work? I will write: I will need:

6.When is the latest calendar date that your project will be in? 7. How do you plan to document the amount of time you spend working on your project and the stages you worked Toward completion of it? 8. What resources, materials, or help will you need other than Your own ability and effort? I will finish by:_____________________________ My Signature:_____________________________ 9. How will your work be shared with our class? Request for Additional Time On A Project Working Conditions for Alternate Activities Submitted by ______________________________ If you are working on alternative activities while others in the class are busy with more teacherdirected activities, you are expected to follow these guidelines: 1. Stay on task at all times with the alternate Activities you have chosen. 2. Dont talk to the teacher while he or she is teaching. 3. When you need help, and the teacher is busy, ask someone else who is also working on the alternate activities. 4. If no one else can help you, continue to try the activity yourself until the teacher is available, or move on to another activity until the teacher is free. 5. Use 6-inch voices when talking to each other

about the alternate activities. (These are voices that can be heard no more than 6 inches away). 6. Never brag about your opportunities to work on the alternate activities. 7. If you must go in and out of the room, do so soundlessly. 8. Dont bother anyone else. 9. Dont call attention to yourself. I agree to the conditions described above, and know that if I dont follow them, I may lose the opportunity to continue with the alternate activities and may have to rejoin the class for teacher-directed Instruction. _____________________ ______________________ Teacher Student. Date Submitted ____________________________ Name of Project____________________________ Original Due Date__________________________ Reason For Request Why I feel the Request is Justified Proposed Due Date ___________ Date_________ Teacher Response: ( ) Request Approved ( ) Request Denied Reasons/Comments Group Proposal for a Project The topic we choose is:___________________________________________________________________ What we think we know about our topic: _______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________ Some questions we want to answer 1 _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2 _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3 _____________________________________________________________________________________ Some sources of information we might use ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ What we found out Our source ____________________________________________ ________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ________________________________________ Some ideas we have about how to present our information ________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ The presentation we decided on is:___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Presentation Plan What we plan to do: ______________________________________________________ Steps we will take: ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ Materials we need: Jobs we will do Person: _______________________________________ Job: _____________________________________ ______________________________________________ _____________________________________ Examples of Questions Using Questions to Differentiate Questions can be used as the core for developing curricular activities. Note the level of difficulty and thinking required. Using a content area, will in the missing parts of each question to formulate a curricular experience.

LEVELS FOCUS APPLICATION KNOWLEDGE What How or Where When or How . Is ? ..is used? .did happen? COMPREHENSION What How Which Which How .can you say about .? .can you discuss in (quantity) of words? .is the best answer to this question about it? .comes first .. or ..? .can you arrange .. In the right order? APPLICATION Why or How

How .is related to .? .can you solve the problem .? ANALYLSIS What How .are the parts or features of ..? .is related to ..? SYNTHESIS What How .could be added or combined with . To make a new ..? .could you compare . to .? EVALUATION How When .can you prove .. to ..? .could . be used suitably? Types of Questions Used in the Socratic Method Questions of Clarification What do you mean by . . .? What is your main point? Could you give me an example? Could you

explain that further? Would you say more about that? What do you think is the main issue here? Let me see if I understand you, do you mean . . . Or . . .? Is your basic point or ? Could you put that another way? Questions that Probe Assumptions You seem to be assuming Do I understand you correctly? All of your reasoning is dependent on the idea that Why have you based your reasoning on . rather than ..? You seem to be assuming How would you justify taking this for granted? Is it always the case? What is Karen assuming? What could we assume instead? Questions that Probe Implications and Consequences What are you implying by that? When you say ... are you implying ? But if that happened, what else would also happen as a result? Why? What effect would that have? Would that necessarily happen or only probably happen? What is an alternative? If this and that are the case, then what else must also be true? Questions that Probe Reasons and Evidence How do you know? Why did you say that? What would be an example? How could we go about finding out whether that is true? What other information do we need to know? By what reasoning did you come to that conclusion? Could you explain your reasons to us? But is that good evidence to believe? What are your reasons for saying that? Why do you think that is true?

Do you have any evidence for that? Are those reasons adequate? Is there reason to doubt that evidence? Who is in a position to know if that is the case? What difference does it make? Can someone else give evidence to support that response? How does that apply to this case? Questions about Viewpoints and Perspectives You seem to be approaching this issue from perspective Why have you chosen this rather than . . . perspective? How would other groups/types of people respond? Why? What would influence them? How could you answer the objection that would make? Can/did anyone see this another way? What is an alternative? How are Kens and Roses ideas alike? Different? Questions about the Questions Im not sure I understand how you are interpreting the main question at issue. How can we find out? How could someone settle this question? To answer this question, what questions would we have to answer first? Is the question clear? Do we understand it? Is this the same issue as ? Can we break this question down at all? Do we all agree that this is the question? Would put the question differently? How would .put the question? Why is this question important? Is this question easy or hard to answer? Does this question ask us to evaluate something? Why? What does this question assume?

Questions to Use in Your Classroom Quantity Questions List all of the .. List as many . As you can think of How many ways can you come up with .? Reorganization Questions What would happen if . were true? Suppose . (happened), what would be the consequence? What would happen if there were no ? Supposition Questions Suppose you could have anything you wanted in working on this. What ideas could you produce if this were true? You can have all of the . In the world. How could you use it to.? You have been given the power to . How will you use it? Viewpoint Questions How would this look to a .? What would a . Mean from the viewpoint of a .? How would . view this? Involvement Questions How would you feel if you were .? If you were . What would you (see, taste, smell, feel)? You are a . Describe how it feels. Forced Association Questions How is . like .? Get ideas from . to improve . I only know about . Explain . to me.

Sentence Skeletons for Better Questions LEVEL I, KNOWLEDGE What is the definition for .? Trace the pattern. Review the facts. Name the characteristics of . List the steps for . LEVEL II, COMPREHENSION Tell why these ideas are similar. In your own words retell the story of . Classify these concepts. Relate how these ideas are different. What happened after . Tell some examples. Make of model of . Take notes on . Draw a picture to . Give the proper sequence for . If A is related to B, then X is related to . Act out what happened. LEVEL III, APPLICATION Graph the data. Demonstrate the way to . Which one is most like . Practice . Act out the way a person would .. Use whatever means necessary to . Calculate the ..... Complete the solution for .. Use the technique of .. To solve the problem LEVEL IV, ANALYSIS

What are the component parts of .? Which steps are important in the process of .? If .., then ...... What other conclusions can you reach about that have not been mentioned? The difference between the fact and the hypothesis is . The solution would be to . What is the relationship between .. and ..? What is the pattern of ..? How would you make a ..? Which material is the most valuable in enabling to ? LEVEL V. SYNTHESIS Create a model that shows your new ideas. Devise an original plan or experiment for . Finish the incomplete . Make a hypothesis about . Change . so that it will . Propose a method to . Prescribe a new way to . Give the book a new title. Speculate on questions that experts in the field need to answer to solve the problem of .. LEVEL VI, EVALUATION In your opinion .. Appraise the chances for . Grade or rank the . What do you think will be the outcome? What solution do you favor and why? Which systems are the best? Worst? Rate the relative value of these ideas to QUESTION ETIQUETTE

DOs accept all answers, even repeated ones make sure students understand what open-ended means ask questions when you are really interested in a students thoughts ask questions after students have the knowledge base needed to handle the material place students in partnering or small group situations offer verbal and non-verbal reinforcement reward the responding not the response practice what you preach by modeling good questioning in your own life ask questions that motivate and stimulate emotion ask questions that call for guessing LISTEN TO THE ANSWERS! vary the technique of asking; take volunteers sometimes, call on students at other times allow sufficient wait time after asking questions most teachers wait less than 5 seconds believe in your own abilities and those of your students

QUESTION ETIQUETTE DONTS Ask questions that fill time because you are not prepared for the lesson or activity Follow the questions in the textbook word for word be strong use your own ideas Isolate questioning skills and teach them as a separate curriculum Ask only short-answer questions that result in one right answer Ask questions just to find out what students DONT know Ridicule a student for an unusual, creative response Limit your responses to yes, no, great, good Give up good questioning takes practice Be so serious lighten up have some fun Ever say, Wrong! Who knows the answer? ANSWER YOUR OWN QUESTIONS! Be judgmental Examples of WHERE I teach Classroom Instructional Arrangements Whole Class Activities Pre-assessment Readiness/interest Planning Introduction Sharing Wrap-up of Explorations Small Group Activities (pairs, triads; quads) Whole Class Activities

Sense-Making Investigation Directed Reading Teaching Skills Planning Individualized Activities Compacting Practice & Apply Skills Sense-Making Interest Centers Homework Products Independent Study Testing Student Teacher Conferences Guidance Assessment Tailoring & Planning

Evaluation IDEA: Stories Have a Structure Built with Tools and a Purpose DAY WHO M O N THE ACES THEJETS WHAT Continue identifying elements of Jack Londons stories in Peer Pairs Continue developing interview questions for your biographical short story THE PIT BULLS Continue reading To Kill a Mockingbird TU ES SAME AS MONDAY W E D Janna, Earlene, Fred, Bill, Jay PIT BULLS

JETS OTHERS TH UR F R I JETS OTHERS JETS OTHERS SAME AS MONDAY Quiz on elements of a short story 20 minute team study first co-op groups Complete blueprint for Mockingbird Begin Interview Brainstorming for story conflicts Pre-writing individual activity Continue interview Class discussion on what a story is/isnt what makes a story a winner? Analysis of information gathered mapping out your next step in the interview process The Siskel & Ebert Show: A Simulation in triads. Prepare to videotape. WORLD GEOGRAPHY WESTERN EUROPE* DAY WHO M

O N INVESTIGATION GROUP 1 East/West Simulation INVESTIGATION GROUP 2 Create a visual which clearly answers the question Why does a small country like Switzerland speak four languages? Pam, Anna, Jed WHAT Teacher Talk T U E S INVESTIGATION GROUP 1 As Monday INVESTIGATION GROUP 2 As Tuesday Clear visual design with teacher W E

D INVESTIGATION GROUP 1 As Monday INVESTIGATION GROUP 2 As Monday T H U R INVESTIGATION GROUP 1 Rehearsal for class forum on Friday INVESTIGATION GROUP 2 Prepare displays for exhibit and oral presentations for class forum Friday Will, Joe, Fran & Hilde Teacher Talk FRI WHOLE CLASS Class forum

Juan, Leslie, Cleo & Sara Teacher Talk Sam, Lydia, Beth & Tim * Based on guiding question: What unites & what divides people? Compacting A 3-step process that (1) assesses what a student knows about material to be studied and what the student still needs to master, (2) plans for learning what is not known and excuses student from what is known, and (3) plans for freed-up time to be spent in enriched or accelerated study. Compacting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the learning objectives or standards ALL students must learn. Offer a pretest opportunity OR plan an alternate path through the content for those students who can learn the required material in less time than their age peers. Plan and offer meaningful curriculum extensions for kids who qualify. **Depth and Complexity

American Wars instead of Civil War Beverly Cleary books instead of Ramona Differing perspectives, ideas across time **Orbitals and Independent studies. Eliminate all drill, practice, review, or preparation for students who have already mastered such things. Keep accurate records of students compacting activities: document mastery. Strategy: Compacting Examples of Assessments Assessment Strategies to Support Success 4. Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment) Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6 Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a Key understanding question Students read their question to group Scorecard Keeper records # of students for each question who are: Really sure Pretty sure Foggy clueless Students scramble to groups with same question they have/prepare solid answer Go back to original groups, share answers Re-read questions Re-do scoreboard Report before and after scoreboards Fraction Assessment Below you will see the list of topics we covered during our unit on fractions. Choose one method from the list we brainstormed to demonstrate what

you have learned during this unit of study. Remember the following criteria: all work must be your own you must clearly explain or show your knowledge of each concept your work must be neat and legible, use labels when necessary Fraction Concepts/Topics: Vocabulary: fraction, numerator, denominator, equivalent, improper fractions, mixed numbers Fraction of a whole and a set Examples of equivalent fractions and how they are determined Converting improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice-versa Common denominators Reducing fractions to lowest possible terms Estimation with fractions Adding fractions with like and unlike denominators Subtracting fractions with like and unlike denominators Comparing fractions Ordering fractions Choose one of the following ways to demonstrate what you learned:

Create a test and then complete it or trade with someone else that chose this task Make a dictionary or glossary to explain fractions, include examples Create a game that teaches all of the concepts Write a chapter for a math book that will teach fractions Create a story problem for each concept Make an audio tape explaining each concept, back this us with any necessary written work Take the chapter test, choose at least 2 problems to explain in writing or show more than one way to arrive at the solution. I have chosen the following method _____________________________________________________________ I understand the expectations and will turn in my personal best work on ________________________________ Student signature:______________________________ _______________________________Parent signature Mesopotamia Quiz Review People Hunt Find someone who can tell you what Mesopotamia means. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can name the two rivers in Mesopotamia Answer: (1) (2) Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can give the definition of a city-state. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can tell you what Ms. Rs

favorite sport is. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can tell you the name of a Sumerian Temple. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who knows the word that means belief in many gods. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who knows how many children Ms. R has. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can name the two empires of Mesopotamia. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who knows who was responsible for the first written code of laws. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who knows the name of the first writing system. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Find someone who can tell you what professionally trained writers are called. Answer: Signature_______________________________

Find someone who knows what substance they wrote on. Answer: Signature_______________________________ Examples of Data Gathering for Student Interest INTEREST SURVEY Name: ________________________________________________________ 1. What types of TV programs do you like to watch? Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2. What hobbies do you have? How much time to you spend on your hobbies? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. If you could have anything you want, what would you choose? Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. Tell about your favorite games. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. What kinds of movies do you like to see? Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 6. Tell about a vacation you would like to take. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 7. What is your favorite activity or subject at school? Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 8. What is your least favorite activity or subject at school? Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 9. What kinds of things have you collected? What do you do with the things you collect? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 10. What career(s) do you think might be right for you when you are an adult? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ INTEREST SURVEY contd 11. What kinds of books do you like? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 16. Imagine that you could invent something to make the world a better place. Describe your invention _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 12. What are your favorite magazines? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 17. What is something you can do really well? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 18. 13. What parts of the newspaper do you like to look at? How do you learn about the news if you dont read the newspaper? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 14. What is your first choice about what to do when you have free time at home?. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 15. If you could talk to any person alive, who would it be? Why?

Think of 3 questions you would ask the person. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Tell me something else about yourself that you would like me to know. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Interest Survey 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What kinds of books do you like to read? What parts of the newspaper do you look at regularly? How do you get the news? What are your favorite magazines? What types of TV programs do you prefer? Why?

What is your most favorite activity or subject at school? Your least favorite? Why? What is your first choice about what to do when you have free time at home? What kinds of things have you collected? What do you do with the things you collect? If you could talk to any person currently living, who would it be? Why? Think of 3 questions you would ask this person. 9. If you could talk to any person from history, whom would you choose? Why? Think of 3 questions you would ask the person. 10. What hobbies do you have? How much time do you spend on your hobbies? 11. If you could have anything you want, regardless of money or natural ability, what would you choose? Why? 12. What career(s) do you think might be suitable for you when you are an adult? 13. Tell about your favorite vacation. 14. Tell about your favorite games. 15. What kinds of movies do you prefer to see? Why? 16. Imagine that some day you will write a book. What do you think it will be about? 17. Imagine that you could invent something to make the world a better place. Describe your invention. 18. What places would you most like to visit in your own area and in other locations? 19. Imagine that you are going to take a trip to another planet or solar system. You will be gone for 15 years. List 10 things you will take with you for your spare time. 20. What question do you think should be on this survey that isnt already on it? Puzzle This puzzle is about you, your interests and things that you like to do. On each piece write things that you like to do in your free time and things that you would like to study in class. You can divide the areas if you need more pieces. Recipe of me! Youre a one-of-a-kind design made up of a unique blend of ingredients. For example, you may be a mix of strength, eight hours of sleep, and determination combined with your size (long or short legs, etc) your coloring (hair, eyes, etc), and other characteristics to make a complete recipe of you. Think carefully about your personality, values, what makes you happy, what

makes you special, favorite foods, hobbies, or any other characteristics that make up you. Use strong adjectives to describe you. Brainstorm first and write down your ideas. Required materials: Recipe or lined index card(s) (enough for your recipe) One small picture from home (These will be put in a class recipe book for the class, so pictures will not be returned. If you dont want to give away a photo, draw a self-portrait instead.) All of the above mounted on a 9 x 12 piece of construction paper with a border drawn by hand or computer. Due date_____________ Directions: Using food recipe measurements, list the ingredients that make YOU at the top of the index card in recipe format. Then skip some lines and give directions on how to mix the ingredients together. Tell whether there is a cooking time and temperature. Give your recipe a name. Extra points: If the name of your recipe uses alliteration (words beginning with the same letter), you will receive bonus points. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Recipe of ME

Recipe is given a name. Alliteration was used in the name. Recipe was put on colored background paper. A border was added to the background paper. A photo or self-portrait was added. Recipe was written on an index or recipe card(s). Recipe includes measurements and directions for mixing and cooking. _____ Strong adjectives are used to describe the person. _____ Physical characteristics are helpful in identifying the person. _____ The project is neatly constructed with minimal or no errors in conventions. Brown-Bag It! Read the following list of categories. After you get home today, find one item to represent each category. (The item must be small enough to fit into the lunch bag that your teacher will give you.) Try to find items that are 3D and unique. Bring your bag to school tomorrow. Be prepared to share the contents of your bag with your classmates. CATEGORIES

A hobby or free-time activity that you enjoy One of your favorites (food, color, music, book, etc.) Future p;lans or goals Something youd like to do better A place youd like to visit Something special about your family The best part of summer vacation Something that reminds you of a memorable event or time in your life Something that you really dislike A talent or special ability that your have Insert credits here, too small to read on original SIGN THE WALL Build some new friendships. For each brick below, see if you can find a classmate who fits the description. Then ask that person to sign the brick. More than one person may sign a brick. Use the bottom row to write other interesting things you discover about your classmates. I can write my Name backwards I just moved I read at least four Books this summer I can wiggle My ears I have a birthday on A holiday I built a Tree house I can play a

Musical instrument I can whistle Using my fingers II can use Chopsticks. Im a whiz at Nintendo I can Tap-dance I can jump off The high dive. I can do a Cartwheel I can blow huge Bubbles with gum I can ride a Unicycle I can ride A horse. Ive lived in another decade I can say hello in Sign language. Ive tried skiing on Snow or water.

I know Karate. I have a Strange pet. Ive liven in another Country. Ive climbed a Mountain. I like Snakes I dream in color Im a Leap Year baby I lick around ice cream Cones, not up and down I already have my Halloween costume I share a birthday With a famous person Id rather Be fishing I can juggle. Interest Survey 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What types of TV programs do you like to watch? Why? What hobbies do you have? How much time do you spend on your hobbies? If you could have anything you want, what would you choose? Why? Tell about your favorite games. What kind of movies do you like to see? Why? Tell about a vacation you would like to take. What is your favorite activity or subject at school? Why? What is your least favorite activity or subject at school? Why? What kinds of things have you collected? What do you do with the things you collect? What career(s) do you think might be right for you when you are an adult? 11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17. 18. What kind of books do you like? What are your favorite magazines? What parts of the newspaper do you like to look at? How do you learn about the news if you dont read the paper? What is your first choice about what to do when you have free time at home? If you could talk to any person alive, who would it be? Why? Think of 3 questions you would ask the person. Imagine that you could invent something to make the world a better place. Describe your invention. What is something you can do really well? Tell me something else about yourself that you would like me to know. Howdy Do! Goal: Two signatures per square before time is called. Caution: Cant sign more than twice on any persons grid. Keep a Journal Like Planning things

Surf the Net Regularly Like to Teach Others Learn Best by Doing Baby-sit Wear Braces Like to Work in Groups on School Work Dont Like being alone Like to Sketch Good

Athlete Need when I read and study Write Songs or Compose Music Need Quiet Time by myself Like building things Loyal Friend Like to Work Alone on School Work Good at Making Money

Strong Leader Collect Somethin g (What?) Need to Walk Around when I study Have a Strange Pet (What?) Good Speller Listen to Music when I study Learn Best by Listening In-Line

Skater Good Story Teller Like to Sing Learn Best by Reading Hard Worker What Lights You Up? Below is a list of topics. To help us determine your interests, circle the five that interest you the most. Then, prioritize your five topics on the spaces below. Place the one which interests you most on space #1, and so forth through your fifth selection. Make sure to put your name on the space provided. Advertising Animals Archeology Architecture Arts/Artists Astronomy Authors Biology Black History Careers Cartooning Castles/Knights Civil War

Chemistry Communication Computer Programming Conservation Cowboys Crime/Law Dreams Death Ecology Economics Energy Elections/Voting Etymology Experiments Explorers Legends/Myths Famous People Forestry Fossils Future Studies Gender Issues Genealogy Genetics Geology/Rocks/Minerals Geography/Mapping Hobbies Ice Age Indians Inventions Kites/Hot Air Balloon Local History

Magic Medicine Music Nutrition Oceanography Opera Phobias Photography Pirates Plays/Acting Poetry Pollution Presidents Robots Rocketry Senior Citizens Sign Language Stock Market Transportation Puppetry/Mime Weather Name:________________________________ Selection #1_____________________________ Selection #2___________________________ Selection #3_____________________________ Selection #4___________________________ Selection #5_____________________________ Created by Jeanne Purcell Other ways to tap interest Examples of Data Gathering for Student Learning Profile Identifying Sensory Preferences

DIRECTIONS: For each item, circle A if you agree that the statement describes you most of the time. Circle D if you disagree that the statement describes you most of the time. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

32. 33. I prefer reading a story rather than listening to someone tell it I would rather watch television than listen to the radio I remember faces better than names I like classrooms with lots of posters and pictures around the room The appearance of my handwriting is important to me I think more often in pictures Visual disorder or movement distracts me I have difficulty remembering directions that were told to me I would rather watch athletic events than participate in them I tend to organize my thoughts by writing them down My facial expression is a good indicator of my emotions I tent to remember names better than faces I would enjoy taking part in dramatic events like plays I tend to sub-vocalize and think in sounds I am easily distracted by sounds I easily forget what I read unless I talk about it I would rather listen to the radio than watch television My hand-writing is not very good When faced with a problem, I tend to talk it through I express my emotions verbally I would rather be in a group discussion than read about a topic I prefer talking on the telephone rather than writing a letter to someone I would rather participate in athletic events than watch them I prefer going to museums where I can touch the exhibits My handwriting deteriorates when the space becomes smaller Movement usually accompanies my mental picture I like being outdoors and doing things like biking, camping, swimming, hiking, etc I remember best what was done rather than what was seen or talked about When faced with a problem, I often select the solution involving the greatest activity I like to make models or other handcrafted items

I would rather do experiments rather than read about them My body language is a good indicator of my emotions I have difficulty remembering verbal directions if I have not done the activity before A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

A A A A D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

D D D D D Interpreting InterpretingThe TheInstruments InstrumentsScore Score Totals Totalsthe thenumber numberofofA Aresponses responsesininitems items1111: 11: This is your visual score. This is your visual score. Total Totalthe thenumber numberofofA Aresponses responsesininitems items12 1222:

22: This is your auditory score. This is your auditory score. Total Totalthe thenumber numberofofA Aresponses responsesininitems items23 2333: 33: This is your tactile / kinesthetic score. This is your tactile / kinesthetic score. IfIfyou youscored scoredaalot lothigher higherininany anyone onearea: area:This Thisindicates

indicatesthat thatthis thismodality modalityisisvery very probably your preference during a protracted and complex learning situation. probably your preference during a protracted and complex learning situation. IfIfyou youscored scoredaalot lotlower lowerininany anyone onearea: area:This Thisindicates indicatesthat thatthis thismodality modalityisisnot not likely to be

your preference(s) in a learning situation. likely to be your preference(s) in a learning situation. IfIfyou yougot gotsimilar similarscores scoresininall allthree threeareas: areas:This Thisindicates indicatesthat thatyou youcan canlearn learnthings things ininalmost any way they are presented. almost any way they are presented. THE GOOD LIFE . . . MS/HS Health

Making Choices About Tobacco Use Differentiating Product Options By Learning Profile All products must: Use key facts from class and research Make a complete case Provide defensible evidence for the class Weigh varied viewpoints Be appropriate/useful for its target audience Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation Be thought-provoking rather than predictable Visual Story boards for TV ad using few/no words to make the point Comic book parody with smoking super heroes / super heroines Oral Radio spot (public information with music timed lead-in) Nightline (Ted Koppel, Cokie Roberts with teen who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person with emphysema) Written Brochure for pediatricians office patients ages 9-16 as target audience with graphics

Research and write an editorial that compares the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C. submit for publication Kinesthetic Pantomime of struggle of will regarding smoking, including a decision with rationale Act out a printed skit on pressure to smoke and reasons not to smoke Analytic Processors Learn Best With: Quiet Bright Illumination Formal seating Snacking when relaxed Persistent on task behavior Works alone Global Processors Learn Best With: Sound (music or voices) Soft illumination Informal seating Snacking while concentrating Frequent breaks Work with others (when beginning a task) Some Preferred Ways of Knowing According to Hemispheric Specialization LEFT BRAIN SPECIALIZATION: RIGHT BRAIN SPECIALIZATION:

Prefers verbal explanations Prefers visual explanations Uses language to remember Uses images to remember Processes information sequentially Processes information holistically Produces ideas intuitively Produces ideas logically

Prefers abstract thinking tasks Prefers concrete thinking tasks Deals with several tasks at a time Deals with one task at a time Prefers synthesizing activities Prefers analyzing activities Prefers proper working materials Improvises with materials available

Likes structured experiences Likes open, fluid experiences Prefers to learn facts and details Prefers to gain general overview Approaches problems seriously Approaches problems playfully Intelligence Preference Human brains are wired differently in different individuals. Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains, each of us is wired to be better in some areas than in others (Gardner, Sternberg). Differentiation based on a students intelligence preference generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode and helping the student to develop that capacity further.

Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred modes of working, or they opt to use a students preferred areas to support growth in less comfortable areas. TYPE EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING LINGUISTIC LEARNER The Word Player LOGICAL/ Mathematical Learner The Questioner SPATIAL LEARNER The Visualizer MUSICAL LEARNER The Music Lover CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT

LEARNS BEST BY Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talking Read Write Tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing and seeing words Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner. Do experiments Figure things out Work with numbers Ask questions Explore patterns and relationships

Math Reasoning Logic Problem solving Categorizing Classifying Working with abstract patterns/relationships Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art. Draw, build, design and create things Daydream Look at pictures/slides Watch movies Play with machines Imagining things Sensing changes Mazes/puzzles Reading maps, charts Visualizing Dreaming Using the minds eye Working with colors/pictures

Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythm Sing, hum tunes Listen to music Play an instrument Respond to music Picking up sounds Remembering melodies Noticing pitches/ rhythms Keeping time Rhythm Melody Music EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Contd TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY BODILY/

Kinesthetic Learner Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesnt read directions but just starts on a project Move around Touch and talk Use body language Physical activities (Sports/dance/ acting) crafts Touching Moving Interacting with space Processing knowledge through bodily sensations Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community. Have lots of friends Talk to people Join groups

Understanding people Leading others Organizing Communicating Manipulating Mediating conflicts Sharing Comparing Relating Cooperating interviewing Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group. Work alone Pursue own interests Understanding self Focusing inward on feelings/dreams Pursuing interests/ goals Being original

Working along Individualized projects Self-paced instruction Having own space Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature. Physically experience nature Do observations Responds to patterning nature Exploring natural phenomenon Seeing connections Seeing patterns Reflective Thinking Doing observations Recording events in Nature Working in pairs Doing long term projects The Mover INTERpersonal Learner The Socializer

INTRApersonal Learner The Individual NATURALIST The Nature Lover The TheTheory TheoryofofMultiple MultipleIntelligences Intelligences This quiz can help you determine where your true intelligence This quiz can help you determine where your true intelligencelies. lies.Read Readeach eachstatement. statement. IfIfitittruly expresses some characteristics

of yours for the most part, write a T in the blank. truly expresses some characteristics of yours for the most part, write a T in the blank.IfIfititdoesnt doesnt describe you accurately, write down an F. If it is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank. describe you accurately, write down an F. If it is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank. 1.____ Id rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions.

2.____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument. 3.____ I can associate music with my moods. 4.____ I can add or multiply quickly in my head. 5.____ I like to work with calculators and computers. 6.____ I pick up new dance steps quickly. 7.____ Its easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate. 8.____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech, or sermon. 9.____ I always know north from south no matter where I am. 10.____ Life seems empty without music. 11.____ I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances. 12.____ I like to work puzzles and play games. 13.____ Learning to ride a bike or skates was easy. 14.____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical. 15.____ My sense of balance and coordination is good. 16.____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others. 17.____ I enjoy building models or sculpting. 18.____ Im good at finding the fine points of word meanings. 19.____ I can look at an object one way and see it turned sideways or backwards just as easily. 20.____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life. 21.____ I like to work with numbers and figures. 22.____ Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me. 23.____ I like to hum, whistle, and sing in the shower or when Im alone. 24.____ Im good at athletics. 25.____ Id like to study the structure and logic of languages. 26.____ Im usually aware of the expressions on my face. 27.____ Im sensitive to the expressions on other peoples faces. 28.____ I stay in touch with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them. 29.____ I am sensitive to the moods of others. 30.____ I have a good sense of what others think of me. SCORING SCORINGSHEET SHEET

Place Placeaacheck checkmark markby byeach eachitem itemwhich whichyou youmarked markedas astrue. true.Add Addyour yourtotals. totals.AAtotal totalofoffour fourininany any ofofthe categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F through G a

score of one or more the categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F through G a score of one or more means meansyou youhave haveabilities abilitiesininthese theseareas areasas aswell. well. A Linguistic 7._______ 8._______ 14._______ 18._______ 25._______ E Body Kinesthetic 6.______ 13.______ 15.______ 17.______ 24.______ B

Logical Mathematical 4._______ 5._______ 12._______ 16._______ 21._______ C Musical D Spatial 2._______ 3._______ 10._______ 20._______ 23._______ 1._______ 9._______ 11._______ 19._______ 22._______ F Intrapersonal G Interpersonal 26._______

28._______ 27.________ 29.________ 30.________ STERNBERGS INTELLIGENCES ANALYTICAL Linear (Schoolhouse Smart) - Sequential PRACTICAL Street Smart Contextual Focus on Use CREATIVE Innovator Outside the Box What If Thinker An idea for assessing students according to Sternbergs intelligences would be to five the following scenario: Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know? Do you want to know all the little details that go into it? Do you want to know how it is being used? Do you want to know only enough information to think of other things to do? Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question are the creative learners. Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences

ANALYTICAL Linear Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________. PRACTICAL Street smart Contextual Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Heres a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVE Innovator Outside the Box What If - Improver Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ________________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a ____ and use your new perspectives to help us think about ____________. Differentiation According To

Learning Profile Using Sternbergs Intelligences Tall Tales Grade 3 Know: What makes a Tall Tale Definition of fact and exaggeration Understand: Do: An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it. People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier. Johnny Appleseeds Distinguish fact and exaggeration Facts Exaggeration Analytical Task Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete the organizer as you do. Practical Task Heres why Johnny exaggerates.

Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write and draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version. Creative Task RAFT assignment Role Audience Format Someone in our class Our class Diary entry Topic Let me tell you what happened while Johnny A. and I were on the way to school today . . . Tomlinson * 00 Biology A Lesson Using Sternbergs Intelligences to Differentiate by Learning Profile Learning Goals: Know - Names of cell parts, functions of cell parts Understand - A cell is a system with interrelated parts Do Analyze the interrelationships of cell parts/functions Present understandings in a clear, useful, interesting and fresh way. After whole class study of a cell, students choose one of the following sense-making activities. Analytical: Use a cause/effect chain or some other format you develop to show how each part of a cell affects

other parts as well as the whole. Use labels, directional markers, and other symbols as appropriate to ensure that someone who is pretty clueless about how a cell works will be enlightened after they study your work. Practical: Look around you in your world or the broader world for systems that could serve as analogies for the cell. Select your best analogy (best most clearly matched, most explanatory or enlightening). Devise a way to make the analogy clear and visible to an audience of peers, ensuring that they will develop clearer and richer insights about how a cell works by sharing in your work. Be sure to emphasize both the indi9vidual functions of cell parts and the interrelationships among the parts. Creative: Use unlikely stuff to depict the structure and function of the cell, with emphasis on interrelationships among each of the parts. You should select your materials carefully to reveal something important about the cell, its parts, and their interrelationships your ahas should trigger ours. or Tell a story that helps us understand a cell as a system with interdependent actors or characters, a plot to carry out, a setting, and even a potential conflict. Use your own imagination and narrative preferences to help us gain insights into this remarkable system. Students share their work in a 3 format first triads of students who completed the same option, then triads with each of the 3 categories represented. This is then followed by a teacher-led, whole class discussion of cells as systems, then a Teacher Challenge in which the teacher asks students to make analogies or other sorts of comparisons between cells, cell parts, or interrelationships and objects, photos, or examples produced by the teacher. My Way . . . An Expression Style Inventory K. E. Kettle, J.S. Rensull, M. G. Rissa University of Connecticut Products provide students and professionals with a way to express what they have learned to an audience. This survey will help determine the kinds of products YOU are interested in creating. My Name is: _____________________________________________________________ Instructions: Read each statement and circle the number that shows to what extent YOU are interested in creating that type of product. (Do not worry if you are unsure of how to make the product.

1 = Not at all interested; 2 = Of little interest; 3 = Moderately interested; 4 = Interested; 5 = Very interested 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Writing stories Discussing what I have learned Painting a picture Designing a computer software project Filming & editing a video Creating a company Helping in the community Acting in a play Building an invention Playing a musical instrument 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345

12345 12345 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Writing for a newspaper 12345 Discussing ideas 12345 Drawing pictures for a book 12345 Designing an interactive computer project 12345 Filming & editing a television show 12345 Operating a business 12345 Working to help others 12345 Acting out an event 12345 Building a project 12345

My Way . . . An Expression Style Inventory 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Playing in a band 12345 Writing for a magazine 12345 Talking about my project 12345 Making a clay sculpture of a character 12345 Designing information for the computer internet 12345

Filming & editing a movie 12345 Marketing a product 12345 Helping others by supporting a social cause 12345 Acting out a story 12345 Repairing a machine 12345 Composing music 12345 Writing an essay 12345 Discussing my research 12345 Painting a mural 12345 Designing a computer game 12345 Recording & editing a radio show1 2 3 4 5 Marketing an idea 12345 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. Helping others by fundraising 12345 Performing a skit 12345 Constructing a working model 1 2 3 4 5 Performing music 12345 Writing a report 12345 Talking about my experiences 1 2 3 4 5 Making a clay sculpture of a scene 12345 Designing a multi-media computer show 12345 Selecting slides & music for a slide show 12345 Managing investments 12345 Collecting clothing or food to help others 12345 Role-playing a character 12345

Assembling a kit 12345 Playing in an orchestra 12345 My Way . . . A Profile Instructions: Write your score beside each number. Add each ROW to determine YOUR expression style profile. Products TOTAL Written 1.____ 11.____ 21.____ 31.____ 41.____ _____ Oral 2.____ 12.____ 22.____ 32.____ 42.____ _____ Artistic 3.____ 13.____ 23.____ 33.____ 43.____ _____ Computer 4.____ 14.____ 24.____ 34.____ 44.____ _____ Audio/Visual 5.____ 15.____ 25.____ 35.____ 45.____ _____ Commercial 6.____ 16.____ 26.____ 36.____ 46.____ _____ Service 7.____ 17.____ 27.____ 37.____ 47.____ _____ Dramatization 8.____ 18.____ 28.____ 38.____ 48.____

_____ Manipulative 9.____ 19.____ 29.____ 39.____ 49.____ _____ Musical 10.___ 20.____ 30.____ 40.____ 50.____ _____ The Quick Click Profile for MS/HS/Adult Instructions: Below, identify those behaviors which are MOST TO- LEAST characteristic of you in a specific Context. Assign 4 points to the MOST characteristic, 3 to the next most, then 2 and then 1 to the LEAST. See the example below. ONE TWO THREE FOUR Goal-Oriented Enthusiastic Steadfast Analytical Confident Personable Patient

Cautious Directing Optimistic Systematic Conscientious Competitive Spontaneous Easy Going Perfectionist Determined Persuasive Agreeable Curious Daring Impulsive Stable

Precise Restless Emotional Protective Doubting Courageous Charming Accommodating Consistent TOTAL TOTAL GRAND TOTAL = 80 EXAMPLE 4 Sensitive TOTAL Restless 3 Talkative INSTRUCTIONS FOR COUNTING:

1. Total the numbers in each of the four columns. 2. Check your accuracy to totaling all the columns together. This should equal 80. TOTAL 1 Restrained 2 Quick Click Profile for MS/HS/Adult HOW TO RECOGNIZE STYLE Director Influencer Stabilizer Perfectionist Rate of Decision Very fast Quick Indecisive Methodical Emotions

Anger/outburst Excited/Shows emotion Hides Feelings None Information Needed Some general Minimal Some Much detail Openness Direct/to the point Very open and talkative Reserved/limited Closed/selective Conflict Argumentative

Will verbalize Dislikes/avoids Will argue points or facts Hand Gestures Plenty Many Some Minimal Activity w/other students Selective A great deal Some Limited Note Taking Rare

Some Average Much Independence Very Some Little Somewhat Control Angers Easily Up/enthusiastic Supportive Quiet Organization Some Limited Organized

Compulsive Speech Fast Talkative Slow Very Slow STYLE (one) THE DIRECTOR STYLE (two) THE INFLUENCER Goal Oriented Accepts Challenge Excellent at Problem Solving Likes Immediate Results Makes Quick Decisions Likes Leading and Taking Control Direct Takes Risks and is Daring People Oriented Optimistic Enthusiastic Motivational Good Communicator

Good Counselor or Coach Interactive Entertaining Intuitive DESIRES: Prestige and authority Challenges Varied activities Opportunity for individual accomplishments DESIRES: Public recognition Freedom of expression Group activities Opportunities to verbalize STYLE (three) THE STABILIZER STYLE (four) THE PERFECTIONIST Consistent Patient Desire to Help Others Loyal Good Listener Calm Excited People Predictable Task oriented

Cautious Analytical Attention To Details Diplomatic Checks for Accuracy Perfectionist Critical Thinker Uses Systematic Approach DESIRES: Appreciation Harmonious environment Identification with a group Credit for work accomplished DESIRES: Quality and excellence Reserved atmosphere Details Opportunity to demonstrate expertise Four Types of Learners If students want to know: They like They have skills of: using personal experience affective classrooms inquiry meaning / clarity cooperative / group work

active classrooms insight discussion listening processing brainstorming sharing ideas interacting WHAT? information individual work lecture facts, figures, details direct instruction routine, repetition, drill observing analyzing classifying drawing conclusions HOW? getting to the point practical application hands-on activities to be active in learning produce a product tinker

instructor as coach plans, time lines experimenting manipulating following directions problem solving building on givens making things work new things change self discovery learning randomly intuition and inquiry whole picture applying testing creating risking enriching integration WHY? What Can This Become? How Do You Like To Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes

No 2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working. Yes No 3. I like to work at a table or desk. 4. I like to work on the floor. Yes Yes No No 5. I work hard for myself. Yes No 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No 7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes

No 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it. Yes No Yes No Yes No 11. I like to work by myself. Yes No 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No 13. I like to have an unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes

14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment. 15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes Yes No No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it No Observations Names Peter Paul Mary John Ringo Starr A

V K M P C Smith Cards Name Interests Examples of Content Know, Understand, Do Mortimer Adlers List of the Most Important Concepts in Western Civilization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Angel Animal Aristocracy Art Astronomy Beauty Being Cause Chance

Change Citizen Constitution Courage Custom and convention Definition Democracy Desire Dialectic Duty Education Element Emotion Eternity Evolution Experience Family Fate Form God Good and Evil Government Habit Happiness History Honor hypothesis 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. Idea

Immortality Induction Infinity Judgment Justice Labor Language Law Liberty Life and death Logic Love Man Mathematics Matter Mechanics Medicine Memory/Imagination Metaphysics Mind Monarchy Nature Necessity Oligarchy One and Many Opinion Opposition Philosophy Physics Pleasure and Pain Poetry Principle Progress

Prophecy Prudence 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101.

Punishment Quality Quantity Reasoning Relation Religion Revolution Rhetoric Same/Other Science Sense Sign/Symbol Sin Slavery Soul Space State Temperance Theology Time Truth Tyranny Universe Virtue/Vice War & Peace Wealth Will Wisdom World Know Know These are the facts, vocabulary, dates, places, names and examples you want them to give you.

The know is massively forgettable. Keep in mind that the brain does not know the difference between useful and useless information. Teaching facts in isolation is like trying to pump water uphill. Carol Ann Tomlinson Understand (Major Concepts and Subconcepts) These are the written statements of truth, the core to the meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what connect the parts of a subject to the students life and to other subjects. It is through the understanding component of instruction of instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the point of the lesson or the experience. Understandings are purposeful, they focus on the key ideas that require students to understand information and make connections while evaluating the relationship that exist within the understandings. Skills (do / be like) These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria, the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a timeline, using latitude and longitude to locate a city on a map, interpreting a map, or following the steps of the scientific method.

The skill portion encourages the students to think like the professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter of how they do business. This is what it means to be like a doctor, a scientist, a writer, or an artist. Unit Overview Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography Know biography (definitions/ characteristics) autobiography (definition / characteristics descriptive adjectives (definition list) traits theme (definition / examples) Understand Our decisions affect our lives Todays decisions affect now and later Its important to know traits you admire and to try to practice those things Successful people try to be true to what they believe Sometimes live doesnt work like we want it to We can learn from both good times and difficult times Peoples lives affect one another Be Able to Do Define personal goals / traits Describe / illustrate personal goals / traits Uuse description effectively Write in complete sentences Share writing with others Evaluate own writing according to set

criteria Interpret biographical writing Write autobiographically Unit Overview Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography General Unit Sequence Teacher introduces biography / autobiography by reading from several of each Students & teacher generate a list of characteristics of biography and autobiography In pairs, students read a biography and map the traits (d/r) In pairs students read an autobiography and map the traits (d/i) Teacher introduces idea of human traits / personality traits. Class generates list. Students develop a Name the Trait clue for the class based on a person in one of the biographies and autobiographies. Class generates themes from teacher-read selections. Students do a Theme Match in which some students who have quotes on cards that suggest theme words on cards. Students select a biography or autobiography to read (d/i&r). Periodic sharing in varied ways. Unit Overview

Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography General Unit Sequence (contd) Teacher introduces ideas of students as biographers and themes in students own lives. Students complete and share Traits and Themes Class Autobiographies (d/r). Teacher leads whole class discussions on interpreting biography / autobiography. Students do interpretive maps of student choice books and share with peers (d/r). Students and teacher create interpretive timeline of the class as a whole. Students create own interpretive timeline. Students and teacher turn the class timeline into an autobiographical piece and assess their work according to a qauality checklist. They revise for improvement. Students turn own timelines into autobiographical sketches, self and peer assess, revise, and publish for someone special (d/r). Students and teacher add a dedication to the class autobiography to highlight a theme of the piece. Students add dedication to their sketches to highlight a theme in their lives.

Principles, Principles, Generalizations, Generalizations, or or Big Big Ideas Ideas Are Are Core at the heart of the discipline Enduring have lasting value Transferable to other topics, subjects and contexts Connective help students understand facts, skills, other ideas and their lives Scenario of a Differentiated Classroom Background Ms Largent has taught in a differentiated classroom for most of her 15 years as a teacher. Differentiation has become a natural and relatively automatic way for her to think about teaching and learning. She and her U.S. History students have spent much of this school year exploring the concepts of stability, change, and revolution. They have related these key concepts to the ebb and flow of history, making parallels to the time period they are studying, current events, students own lives, and other subjects such as literature and science. This helps students make connections between what they study in history, other areas they study, and their own lives. More recently, students have been looking at the idea of revolution in the past by looking at current trends in technology. Students are investigating two parallel generalizations: (1) revolution affects individuals as nations, and (2) people affect revolution. Key skills for the unit are appropriate use and interpretations of research materials, and

support of ideas with appropriate evidence. Scenario Getting Started To ensure that all students have the necessary background, students have worked on several tasks this week. First, Ms Largent gave a pre-test on the chapter. Students who had considerable background knowledge began working with tasks designed to come after acquisition of background knowledge. Other students completed a K-W-L activity and then read the text chapter on the Industrial Revolution. By their own choice, some read with reading buddies and some alone. During the course of two days, the teacher met with small reading and discussion groups of 6 8 students. With struggling learners, she read key passages to them, had them read key passages aloud, and ensured their understanding of essential ideas and events. She also helped them think about their experiences and how those experiences might link with those of early adolescents during the Industrial Revolution. With two other small groups, she probed their comprehension of the chapter and then posed questions about how changes in technology affected society then and now, for better and for worse. With one group of advanced learners, she had students propose and discuss social, economic, and political costs and benefits of the Industrial Revolution. Later, in a whole class discussion, she raised all the these ideas again. Scenario To prepare for a chapter test, Ms Largent assigned mixed readiness review teams and gave them a teacher-prepared review protocol clarifying what students needed to know and understand for the test. Students took part in a Teams-Games-Tournament review, studying in mixed readiness teams, and participating in the games portion of the review at similar readiness tables. This allowed the teacher to adjust questions to an appropriate challenge level for individual students, but still enabled all students were required to answer.

One set of students, however, had an essay question closely related to their own experience and to the class discussions. Another set of students had a question requiring them to venture further into unexplored applications. Expanding the Study To move from specifics about the Industrial Revolution to a broader application of key understandings, students selected one of ten modern revolutionary figures to investigate as a way of seeing how people affect revolution. The students worked independently for a day and then formed a cluster with other students who selected the same revolutionary figure. They decided how their cluster should show what a revolutionary figure does. The cluster groups could decide to make a caricature, create a blueprint for a revolutionary, draft a reference book entry on what a revolutionary is and does, or act out their response. In most classes, there were six or seven cluster groups. After preparing the product, each cluster group gave one presentation to 2-3 other cluster groups. Finally, Ms Largent led the class in making a list of generalizations about how revolutionaries affect change. Scenario Next, some students used excerpts from either Katherine Patersons novel, Liddie or Harriette Arnows novel The Dollmaker (both set in the Industrial Revolution the former written at a relatively basic reading level, the latter at a more advanced reading level) to investigate how revolution affects individuals and how individuals affect revolution. Ms Largent assigned students to one of four groups based largely on her assessment of student readiness in reading, abstractness of thinking, and independence in research. In some instances, however, she placed students in groups based on learning style needs (e.g. students who might need to hear rather than read passages). One group listened to a tape of key passages from Lyddie, distilling how and why the main character became first a factory worker, then an organizer for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time line of data and events demonstrating how the character was initially affected by events in a revolution and then came to affect events in that

revolution. A second group read specified portions of Lyddie and a folder of articles on current factory conditions in developing countries. Their task was to work in groups of three to produce an authentic conversation between Lyddie and two fact-based fictional characters from contemporary sweat shops in which the three shared problems, dreams and a plan of action. Scenario A third groups listened to excerpts from The Dollmaker. They then selected a partner from their groups and investigated benefits to contemporary society that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution. Working with their partners, they created a written or made-for-TV Editorial on the proposition that the cost of the industrial Revolution was (or was not) worth its benefits. A fourth group read designated excerpts from both Lyddie and The Dollmaker. They then researched the current computer revolution and used what they learned to create on of three products: (1) a series of comparative editorial cartoons based on the Industrial Revolution and the Computer revolution, (2) a computer revolution version of version of an episode paralleling Lyddie or The Dollmaker, or (3) a TV newsmagazine style segment on how the computer revolution is affecting people and how people are affecting the computer revolution. Students in the TV newsmagazine group will need more time to complete their work, but will periodically work on their task rather than doing homework and class work that focus on skills and information they have already mastered. Scenario Applying What Has Been Learned At the end of the Industrial Revolution study, all students will select someone who revolutionized a field of interest to them (e.g.

womens rights, sports, medicine, aviation, civil rights, physics, music, their own community). Each student will complete a product called Dangerous Minds: Understanding People Who Revolutionize the World. There are two versions of the product assignment. One is more transformational, abstract, open-ended and complex than the other in content, process production, and rubrics. Ms Largents goal in assigning a given version of the product to a particular student is to push that student a bit further than he is comfortable going in knowledge, insight, thinking, planning, research, use of skills, and production. All students must demonstrate an understanding of the key concepts and generalizations for the unit, and appropriate application of the units key skills. RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR DIFFERENTIATED LESSON IDEAS AND EXAMPLES www.mcrel.org (Mid Continent Research Education Laboratory) www.nctm.org (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) www.reading.org (International Reading Association) www.ericec.org (Eric Clearinghouse) www.austega.com/gifted (Australian Education 2020 Project) www.bced.gov.bc.ca/bced (British Columbia Ministry of Education) www.ascd.org (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) www.sricboces.org/Goals2000/index.html (New York State project for development of differentiated lessons) www.rogertaylor.com (Roger Taylors site with prepared lessons, some free, some for sale. Membership information included.) http://school.aol.com (Safe links to many learning sites for various levels of students on a multitude of subjects.) Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms Association For Supervision and Curriculum Development. (1994). Challenging gifted learners in the regular classroom. Alexandria, VA: Author. (video staff development set)

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1997). Differentiating instruction. Alexandria, VA: Author. (video staff development set) Archambault, F., Westberg, K., Brown, S., Hallmark, B., Zhang, W., & Emmons, C. (1993). Classroom practices used with giften third and fourth grade students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16. 103-119. Bacharach, N., Hasslen, R., & Anderson, J. (1995) Learning together: A manual for multiage grouping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Bateman, B. (1993) Learning disabilities: The changing landscape. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(1), 29-36. Bingham, A. (1995) Exploring the multiage classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse. Cohen, E., & Benton, J. (1988) Making groupwork work. American Educator, 12(3) 10-17, 4546. Cole, R. (1995). Educating everybodys children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Krumboltz, J., & Yeh, C. (1996, December). Competitive grading sabotages good teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 324-326. Lee, C., & Jackson, R. (1992). Faking it. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers. Maeda, B.l (1994). The multi-age classroom: An inside look at one community of learners. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press. MacCracken, M. (1986). Turnabout children, New York: Signet Books. Ostrow, J., (1995). A room with a different view: First through third graders build community and create curriculum. New York: Stenhouse. Strachota, B. (1996). On their side: Helping children take charge of their learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children. Tomlinson, C. (1995). Deciding to differentiate instruction in middle school: One schools journey. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 77-87. Tomlinson, C. (1995). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating instruction for mixed ability classrooms: A professional inquiry kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C., Moon, T., & Callahan, C. (1998). How well are we addressing academic

diversity in the middle school? Middle School Journal, 29(3), 3-11. Weinbrenner, S. (1992). Teaching gifted kids in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. (Provided By Carol Ann Tomlinson, Ed.D. Room 179 Ruffner Hall, U.Va. 405 Emmet St. Charlottesville, VA 22903 Phone 804 924-7161).

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